A History of Assam: A Chronology

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A History of Assam: A Chronology

By Mofid Tourism Assam February 27, 2008

See also

A History of Assam: An overview A History of Assam: A Chronology A History of Assam: Ancient Assam A History of Assam: Medieval Assam A History of Assam: Colonial Assam A History of Assam: Post-colonial Assam A History of Assam: the Assam Pradesh Congress Committee

A Chronology

A.D. 350-1000

350-380 AD Pushya Varman establishes the Varman dynasty in Kamarupa

636 Xuanzang visits the court of Bhaskarvarman (594-650 AD) in Kamarupa.

650 Bhaskarvarman dies. End of Varman dynasty

655 Salasthamba establishes Mlechchha dynasty in Kamarupa.Among Salastambha dynasty rulers Shri Harshadeva (725-750 AD) acquitted himself as a good king. After the last king of this dynasty, Tyaga Singha (970-990),

c900 Brahmapala establishes Pala dynasty in Kamarupa

12th century

c1100 Jayapala, the last Pala king removed by Ramapala of Gaur Year Medieval Assam Contemporaneous events Date source

1185 Prithu establishes the Khen dynasty and the Kamata kingdom

1187 Birpal establishes Chutiya kingdom 13th century

1189 Chutia king Birpal established his rule at Sadia

13th century

(1206 &1226 AD) The first Muslim invasion of Kamrupa took place during the reign of Prithu who was killed in a battle with Illtutmish's son Nassiruddin in 1228.

1228 Sukaphaa enters Assam

1252 Sukaphaa establishes capital at Charaideo

During the second invasion by Ikhtiyaruddin Yuzbak or Tughril Khan, about 1257 AD, the king of Kamrupa Saindhya (1250-1270AD) transferred the capital 'Kamrup Nagar' to Kamatapur in the west. From then onwards, Kamata's ruler was called Kamateshwar. During the last part of 14th century, Arimatta was the ruler of Gaur (the northern region of former Kamatapur) who had his capital at Vaidyagar. And after the invasion of the Mughals in the 15th century many Muslims settled in this State and can be said to be the first Muslim settlers of this region.

1268 Sukafa dies

1268-1281 - Suseupha's rule

14th/ 15th centuries

1397-1407 - Sudangpha's rule

1497-1539- Suhungmung's reign is counted as one of the most memorable in 600 years of Ahom rule.He assumed the Hindu name Swarganarayan. He was popularly known as Dihingia Raja, because he shifted the Ahom capital to Bokota near Dihing river. He annexed the Chutia and the Kachari territories to the Ahom domains. He created a third class of Ministers: Borgohain, Buragohain and Borpatra Gohain. It was during his reign that the first ever census took place. The economic scenario of the State was also comprehensively surveyed. During his reign, the Mughals invaded thrice but they could not taste victory. This invasion taught Ahoms the use of gunpower, which was a deviation from the traditional system of warfare which comprised of bows, arrows and swords.

1539-1552--Suklengmung like Aurangjeb conspired to kill his father and became king, shifted the capital to Gargoan from Bokota which is why he is called 'Gargainya Raja'. Plenty of battles between Ahoms and the Koch took place during his reign. Under his supervision 'Gargaon Pukhuri', a pond, was dug and a road named 'Naga Ali' was constructed.

1603--Susengpha, a descendant of Suklengmung, ascended the throne in 1603. He took on the name of Pratap Singha. It was during his time that war between Ahoms and Mughals reached its peak and needless to say that Pratap Singha acquitted himself with full honours and was able to extend the boundaries of the state. He created a new post of Barphukan to look after the administration of the areas beyond Kaliabor. The three classes of ministers Buragohain, Borgohain and Borpatra Gohain had their well defined areas to rule and those part of the kingdom which did not fall under their jurisdiction were brought under the control of Barbaruah, a new post created during the rule of Pratap Singha. Momai Tamuli Barbaruah was the first official to hold this post. Pratap Singha tried his level best to upgrade the life of citizens. He also introduced Pyke (common rayat) system. Under this system, people were divided into groups of 1000, 100 and 20, and over groups- officials Hazarika, Saikia and Bora were elected. Creation of other posts like Rohiyal Barua, Jagiyal Gohain, Kajalimukhiya Gohain is also credited to him. For his organizational capability, political acumen and his great wisdom, he is also known as Buddhi Swarganarayan.

Supungmung or Chakradhvaj Singha (1663- 1669) was an independent minded king who prepared himself for another fight against the Mughals. He enlisted the help of Lachit Barphukan, who was the son of Momai Tamuli Barbaruah. In August 1667, under the excellent leadership of Lachit Barphukan, the Ahoms were able to get back Guwahati and Pandu. Hearing the news of this defeat Aurangzeb sent a huge force with Ramsingh to attack the Ahom kingdom once again. A fierce battle took place between the Ahoms and the Mughals in 1671 at Saraighat. As expected, the Mughals suffered an ignominious defeat. Consequently in the west the Manas river became the demarcation line between the Ahom and Mughal territories and remained so until the British occupation in 1826 AD.

Supatpha or Gadapani who assumed the Hindu name Gadadhar Singha (1681-1696), waged a war against the Mughals which is also famously known as Itakhulir Rann (war of Itakhuli) and captured back Guwahati from the Mughals. He was a Shaivite and to help propagate this form of Hindu worship he built 'Umananda Devaloi' at Guwahati. He also built the 'Dhodar Ali', a road near Golaghat . Gadadhar Singha's eldest son Lai succeeded him. He took on the Hindu name of Rudra Singha (1696-1714) and the Ahom name Sukrumpha. In the honour of the memory of his mother Joymoti, he dug the Joysagar tank. Other architectural monuments and structures accredited to him are Kareng Ghar, stone bridge built over the Namdang river, Kharikatia Ali, Metaka Ali. Rudra Singha gave royal patronage to 'Bihu'. He also created Khels or positions like Khaund, Kotoki, Bairagi, Doloi, Kakoti.

In (1714-1744) Sutanpha, son of Rudra Singha took on the Hindu name of Siva Singha. He became a Shakti worshipper, as he was initiated in the tenets of the Shakti cult by Krishnaram Bhattacharya, who was later on installed as head priest of Kamakhya temple which is situated atop the Nilachal Hills. Siva Singha was a weak person who relied heavily on astrologers which explains the fact that when an astrologer told him that he was in danger of being dethroned, he installed his Queen Phuleswari, who assumed the name Pramateswari (one of the name Durga), as Bor Raj, or chief king, thus engineering the beginning of the end of the Ahom Dynasty. Phuleswari was an orthodox Shakti worshiper who persecuted the Moamoria Mahantas by forcibly making them to take prasad of Durga worship and anointing their foreheads with sacrificial blood. This resulted in the famous Moamoria rebellion. After Phuleswari died in 1731, Siva Singha married her sister Drupadi or Deopadi and made her the next Bor Raja, with the name Ambika. She was the one who constructed the Shiva Dol (temple) at Sibsagar, which is the highest Shiva temple in Assam. It was during her reign that 'Dhai Ali' was constructed at Sibsagar. Gauri Sagar tank and Sibsagar tank were dug at the instruction of 'Bor Raja' Phuleswari and Ambika respectively

15th century

1449 Srimanta Sankardev is born

1490 First Ahom-Kachari battle

1498 Hussein Shah of Gaur removes the last Khen ruler of Kamata kingdom

16th century

1515 Vishwa Singha establishes Koch political power and Koch dynasty

1522 Chutiya kingdom annexed to Ahom Kingdom under Suhungmung

1527 Nusrat Shah's invasion, the first Muslim invasion of the Ahom kingdom, ends in failure.

1532 Turbak attacks Ahom Kingdom, the first commander to enjoy some success.

1533 Turbak defeated and killed. Ahoms pursue Gaur army to Karatoya river.

1536 Ahoms destroy Dimapur, the capital of the Kachari kingdom

1540 Nara Narayan succeeds his father to the throne of Kamata kingdom

1563 Chilarai occupies Ahom capital Garhgaon, end with Koch-Ahom treaty.

1568 Srimanta Sankardev dies

1581 Nara Narayana divides Kamata kingdom into Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo (to be governed by Raghudev).

1587 Naranarayana of Koch dynasty dies.

1588 Raghudev, son of Chilarai and ruler of Koch Hajo declares independence.

17th century

1609 Momai Tamuli Borbarua restructures Paik system in Ahom kingdom.

1609 Koch Bihar becomes a Mughal vassal

1613 Koch Hajo is annexed by the Mughal Empire

1615 Ahom-Mughal conflicts begin

1637 Bali Narayan dies of natural causes, and Koch rebellion again Mughals collapse

1639 Treaty of Asurar Ali signed between the Ahom kingdom and Mughal Empire

1662 Mir Jumla occupies Garhgaon, the Ahom capital.

1663 After Treaty of Ghilajharighat Mir Jumla returns to Dhaka, dies on the way.

1671 Ahoms win Battle of Saraighat

1679 Laluk-sola Borphukan deserts Guwahati

1681 Gadadhar Singha becomes Ahom swargadeo

1682 Ahoms win battle at Itakhuli. End of Ahom-Mughal conflicts with Ahom win

18th century

1714 Rudra Singha dies, and with him dies the Kachari, Jaintia etc. grand alliance to remove the Mughals from Bengal

1769 First phase of Moamoria rebellion, Ahom capital falls but recaptured in few months

1783 Ahom capital Rangpur fell the second time t o Moamoria rebellion. Rebel leaders strike coins in their names.

1794 Captain Thomas Welsh restores Rangpur to Ahom king from Moamora rebels.

19th century

1817 The first Burmese invasion of Assam

1826 Treaty of Yandaboo signed

1832: Division of Assam into the districts of Goalpara, Kamrup, Darrang, Nagaon

1832:Kochaari Kingdom consisting of current districts of Karbi Anglong, Cachar and others annexed to Assam, made part of Nagaon district

1833: Upper Assam made an independent kingdom and Purandar Xingha made king 1834: Independent Kochaari Kingdom reestablished

1835: Tea Plantation Inauagarated

1835: Jaintia Hills were annexed to Assam

1836: Assamese language was replaced by Bengal as the official language of Assam

1838: Upper Assam again annexed by the British, districts of Sibsagar and Lakhimpur established

1842: Matak Kingdom around Xodiyaa annexed by British into Assam

1850: Kochaari Kingdom re-annexed to Assam

1861 Phulaguri Dhawa, the first peasant uprising against British rule was repressed

1866: Angaami Naga Kingdom annexed to Assam, made a district

1869: Garo Kingdom annexed to Assam, made a district

1873: Assamese was once again made the official language of Assam after a period of 37 years

1874: Assam separated from Bengal and made into a separate province

1884: Jagannath Baruah formed the first socio cultural organisation and named it Sarbajanik Sabha at Jorhat.

1886: Assam's participation in the national wave dates back to 1886 at the second session of Indian National Congress held at Calcutta, where Debi Chandra Baruah, Gopinath Bordoloi, Kamini Kumar Chandra, Bipin Chandra Pal, Satyanath Baruah, Joy Gobindasom represented Assam.

1894 Patharughat, peasant uprising against British taxes left about 140 peasants dead Year Post Indian Independence Assam Contemporaneous events Date source

1898: Lushaai Kingdom annexed by British, made a district of Assam

20th Century

1905-12: Assam made a part of the new province of East Bengal and Assam under a lieutenant governor

1912: Division of Bengal ends, Assam made a part of Bengal again; Assam is overseen by a chief commissioner

The year 1912 is a memorable year is the annals of Assam history because of three things, which were: (1) Gandhiji's visit to Assam, (2) Strikes by Assam Bengal train service and steamer companies, which were the cause of widespread unrest and (3) After a period of 63 years i.e., in 1912, Assam passed into the hands of a Governor, thus paving the way for a dual administration, which lasted till 1936.

1916 the Assam Chatra Sanmilan formed

1917: Kuki Naga Kingdom annexed to the District of Nagaland in Assam

1917 Assam Sahitya Sabha(formerly known as Sadou Asom Sahitya Sanmilani) was formed.

1919: Assam made a separate province again, Sylleht made a district of Assam

1919: Assam Association formed by Manik Chandra Baruah, joined the Assam branch of Indian National Congress.

1921: Governorship is created in Assam

1947: District of Sylleht votes to join East Pakistan

1948: University established in Guwahati

1948: North East Frontier Agency was separated from Assam, for security reasons

1951: Dewangiri in Kamrup ceded to Bhutan

1962: Indo-China war. Assam and the North-East faced the brunt of the war. It was a big psychological blow to the people of the North-East and it sent a strong signal to prospective investors that Assam is not a safe place for investment. The 1962 war also perhaps changed the perspective of the national policy makers vis-a-vis Assam from development to defence. Soon thereafter the Indo-Pak war of 1965 broke out. Once again Assam had to go through the trauma of the war. The riverine route from Assam to the outside world through the then East Pakistan were sealed as a result of the war. The next severe blow came in 1971 when Assam not only had to suffer the war-time tension and inconveniences of the Bangladesh liberation war but also had to give shelter to millions of refugees from erstwhile East-Pakistan for more than a year.

1963: District of Nagaland separated from Assam and made into a state

1972: NEFA, Garo and Khaasiyaa Hills, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura separated from Assam.Gaaro and Khaasiyaa Hills become the state of Meghalaya(21st Jan. 1972), Manipur and Tripura also become a state.

1974: Assam shifts its capital from Shillong to Guwahati.

1979 Assam Agitation begins

1985 Assam Accord signed. End of Assam Agitation

1987 NEFA becomes the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram becomes a state.

1989-91 President's Rule imposed in assam and Operation Bajrang and Operation Rhino is carried out by Indian Army to flush out ULFA terrorists.

1991-Till now President's Rule was revoked in 1991 and normalcy slowly returns through election of new governments under Hiteshwar Saikia, Prafulla Mahanta and two consecutive terms by Tarun Gogoi.

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