Agriculture: Indian government data

From Indpaedia
Revision as of 13:17, 1 January 2018 by Shivam Rajput (Shivam) (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

Hindi English French German Italian Portuguese Russian Spanish

This article has been sourced from an authoritative, official
publication. Therefore, it has been ‘locked’ and will never be
thrown open to readers to edit or comment on.

After the formal launch of their online archival encyclopædia,
readers who wish to update or add further details can do so on
a ‘Part II’ of this article.


The source of this article

INDIA 2012


Compiled by





Agriculture: Indian government data

AGRICULTURE is the mainstay of the Indian Economy. Agriculture and Allied Sectors contributes nearly 14.4 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India, while about 58.2 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agricultural output, however, is influenced by good or bad monsoon conditions; as nearly 55 percent of total cropped area is dependent on rainfall. Production of food grains is estimated at 241.56 million tonnes in 2010-11 (4th advance Estimates). This 23.45 million tonnes higher than last year’s production of food grains. The production of rice is estimated 95.32 million tonnes, production of wheat is estimated at 85.93 million tonnes, production of coarse cereals is estimated at 42.22 million tonnes and production of pulses is estimated at 18.09 million tonnes.

The oilseeds production during 2010-11 is estimated at 31.10 million tonnes. The sugarcane production is estimated at 339.17 million tonnes which is about 46.87 million tonnes more than the production during 2009-10. Cotton production is estimated at 33.43 million bales (of 170 kgs each) which is 9.20 million bales more than the production during 2009-10. Jute & Mesta production during 2010-11 is estimated at 10.58 million bales (of 180 kgs each) which is about 1.24 million bales lower than the production during 2009-10

Total area coverage under food grains in 2010-11 has been reported at 125.73 million hectares against 121.33 million hectares in 2009-10. The area under rice is estimated at 42.56 million hectares higher by 0.64 million hectares as compared to 2009-10. However, the area coverage under wheat during 2010-11, estimated at 29.25 million hectares is higher by 0.79 million hectares than area covered under wheat during 2009-10. The total area coverage under coarse cereals during 2010-11 is estimated at 27.64 million hectares which is lower by 0.04 million hectares than the area during the last year.

Increase in Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) between 2008-09 and 2010-11, amongst cereals, has ranged between 3.70% (wheat) and 17.6% (Paddy common). If bonus of Rs. 50 per quintal for paddy in 2008-09 and wheat in 2010-11 is considered, there is an increase of 8.33% and 11.11% in wheat and paddy, respectively. In case of pulses, the increase has ranged between 20.32% (Lentil) and 25.8% (Moong). For 2010-11, additional incentive at Rs. 500 per quintal is also payable to Arhar, Urad and moong if sold to procurement agencies during first two months after harvest/arrival of produce.

Growth : 2004-2016

Ajit Kumar Jha , Agriculture “India Today” 12/6/2017

Agricultural growth , India Today , June 12,2017


Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) is a unique scheme, primary objective of which is to assist states to achieve the overall growth rate of 4% in agriculture and allied sectors in XI Five Year Plan. This Scheme also incentivises States to allocate more funds for agriculture and allied sector. 50% of resource allocation under RKVY to each state is based on their enhanced outlays for the agriculture and allied sector. RKVY is a State Plan scheme administered by Union Ministry of Agriculture, over and above its existing Centrally Sponsored and Central Sector Schemes. Funds under the scheme are provided to the States as 100% grant.

RKVY is a quantum jump in evolution from variegated schematic approach to a completely new approach which emphasises agricultural planning. It envisages that States would prepare comprehensive District Agriculture Plans (DAPs) and State Agricultural Plans (SAPs) for building up projects which are best suited to local conditions and catalyse the existing production scenario for achieving higher production in the agriculture and allied sector, thereby giving required flexibility to the States.

RKVY Scheme has two strategic objectives - first, to encourage states to allocate more funds for agriculture and allied sector and second, to focus states to generate Additional growth in agriculture and allied sector by better planning and undertaking appropriate growth oriented projects to achieve the goal.

Revised Macro Management of Agriculture Scheme

Macro Management of Agricultural (MMA) Scheme is one of the Centrally Sponsored Schemes formulated in 2000-01 with objective to ensure that central assistance is spent through focused and specific interventions for development of agriculture in States. To begin with, the scheme initially consisted of 27 Centrally Sponsored Schemes relating to Cooperative, Crop Production Programmes (for rice, wheat, coarse cereals, Jute, sugarcane), Watershed Development Programme (National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas, River Valley Projects/ Flood Prone Rivers), Horticulture, Fertilizer, Mechanization and Seed Production Programmes. With the launching of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in 2005- 06, 10 schemes pertaining to horticulture development were taken out of purview of this Scheme.

In the year 2008-09, Macro Management of Agriculture Scheme was revised to improve its efficacy in supplementing/complementing efforts of States towards enhancement of agricultural production and productivity. Role of the scheme has been redefined to avoid overlapping and duplication of efforts and to make it more relevant to the present agricultural scenario in States to achieve basic objective of food security and to improve the livelihood system for rural masses. Revised MMA scheme comprises 10 sub-schemes relating to crop production and natural resource management. The component relating to State Land Use Board (SLUB) was discontinued with effect from 1st August, 2009.

Following are some salient features of Revised Macro Management of Agriculture Scheme :

(i) The practice of allocating funds to States/UTs on historical basis has been replaced by a new allocation criteria based on gross cropped area and area under small and marginal holdings. The assistance would be provided to States/UTs as 100% grant.

(ii) The subsidy structure has been rationalized to make pattern of subsidy uniform under all the schemes implemented by Department of Agriculture & permissible limit of assistance. States may either retain existing norms, or increase them to a reasonable level provided that norms do not exceed revised upper limits specified.

(iii) Two new components have been added namely, (a) Pulses and Oilseeds crop production programmes for areas not covered under Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize (ISOPOM) and (b) ‘‘Reclamation of Alkali Soil’’.

(iv) Permissible ceiling for new initiatives has been increased from existing 10% to 20% of the allocation.

(v) Atleast 33% of funds has to be earmarked for small, marginal and women farmers.

(vi) Active participation of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) of all tiers would have to be ensured in implementation of scheme including review, monitoring and evaluation at district/sub-district level.

Position regarding Budget Estimates, Revised Estimates as also the funds released under the Scheme during 11th Plan, year-wise, is indicated below :-

(Rs. in Crore)

  • As on 20.7.2011

HORTICULTURE SECTOR (Government of India)

Horticulture Mission for North East and Himalayan States

This Mission was launched during 2001-02 to achieve overall development of horticulture in 8 States to harness the potential that exists in the North East Region. The Mission was further extended to three other hilly States namely Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand during 2003-04. To achieve the goal and mandate of the mission, programmes were formulated under four Mini- Missions, viz. Mini Mission-I 9 Research), Mini Mission II (Production & Productivity improvement), Mini Mission-III (Post Harvest Management & Marketing) and Mini Mission-IV (Processing & Value addition)

Significant achievements have been made for overall development of horticulture since its inception till 2010-11. An additional area of 5,79,558 has been brought under cultivation of various horticulture crops including fruits (3,16,064 ha), vegetables (1,15,140 ha), spices (82,572 ha), plantation crops (14,111 ha), medicinal plants (6,464 ha), aromatic plants (10,378 ha), roots and tubers (1,319 ha) and flowers (33,510 ha). To restore the production potential of senile/unproductive orchards, 42,523 ha of orchards have been rejuvenated.

So far, a total of 1,023 nurseries, 12,654 community tanks, 14,583 tube wells, 27 tissue culture units, 39,72,805 green houses, 27 model floriculture centres, 27 mushroom units and 21,055 vermi-compost units have been established. Training to 2.93 lakh farmers/officers including women farmers has been imparted. 48 wholesale markets, 306 rural primary markets, 70 apni mandies, 18 state grading laboratories, 35 cold storage units and 81 processing units have also been established under the Mission.

During the years 2001-02 to 2010-11, an amount of Rs. 2264.30 crore has been released under the Mission of which Rs. 1641.19 crore is to the North Eastern States and Rs. 623.11 crore to the Himalayan States (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir).

During the current fiscal year 2011-12, Rs. 500 crore have been earmarked for the Mission, of which Rs. 320 crore is for North Eastern States and Rs. 180 crore for Himalayan States.

National Bamboo Mission

Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Bamboo Mission was launched in 2006-07 to promote the growth of bamboo sector in the country. The Mission addresses three major areas of bamboo development namely (i) Research and Development (ii) Plantation Development, (iii) Handicraft Development and Marketing. Since inception, 1,77,065 ha land (forest area of 124318 ha and non-forest area of 52747 ha) has been covered with bamboo plantation. An area of 46,980 ha of existing bamboo plantation has been improved for higher productivity. In addition, 1192 nurseries have been established to supply quality planting material 32,474 farmers and 5175 field functionaries from different States have been trained in the area of nursery management and bamboo plantation. In order to generate awareness among bamboo growers, 40 state level and 449 district-level workshops/seminars have been conducted. In addition, nine bamboo wholesale and retail markets, six retail outlets and three bamboo bazaars have been established in Assam, Mizoram, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa and Nagaland.

During the years 2006-11, an amount of Rs. 415.33 crore has been released out of which Rs. 258.10 crore to the North East States and Rs. 157.23 crore to other States have been released.

Central Institute of Horticulture (CIH), Nagaland

Recognizing the importance of institutional support for the development of horticulture sector in the North East Region (NER), establishment of a Central Institute of Horticulture in Nagaland has been approved in 2005-06.

The thrust areas of institute are (i) refinement/demonstration of identified technologies specific to the North East region (ii) production and supply of quality seed and planting material of improved/high yielding varieties and (iii) training of state department officials and field functionaries in selected aspects of horticulture development including post harvest management, processing, value addition and marketing.

Following are the various new initiatives taken up by the institute in line for the development of horticulture sector in the region :

• Capacity building of state government officials and farmers through trainings and exposure trips within and outside the state on identified areas like improved production technology, protected cultivation, post harvest management, processing, value addition and marketing.

Following are the various new initiatives taken up by the institute in line for the development of horticulture sector in the region:

• Capacity building of state government officials and farmers through trainings and exposure trips within and outside the state on identified areas like improved production technology, protected cultivation, post harvest management, processing, value addition and marketing.

• Dissemination of knowledge through refinement of technologies and demonstrating to the farming community such as ultra high density planting of guava, evaluation of different varieties of cashew suitable for NER, off season vegetable cultivation, high density planting and canopy management, low cost storage structure for storage for fruits and vegetables.

• Undertaking market linkage initiative through direct marketing at Delhi and Bangalore, exposure trips, participation in the exhibitions, buyers sellers meet and potential tie ups with genuine buyers.

• Promotion of organic farming and certification through imparting awareness trainings in the entire North East region, establishing of organic model farms and adoption of village as model organic village.

• Organizing a series of seminars, workshops and summit at regional and national level to evolve feasible developmental strategies and make policy decisions so as to popularize scientific technologies available from research works among extension workers of the state departments and progressive farming community on different aspects of horticulture.

National Horticulture Mission

National Horticulture Mission (NHM) was launched during the year 2005-06 with the objective of providing holistic growth to the horticulture sector through an areabased, regionally differentiated strategy, supply of quality planting material, production and productivity improvement, technology promotion, extension, post harvest management and marketing.

Physical Progress

During 2005-06 to 2010-11, under NHM, 2308 new nurseries were setup and vegetable seed was produced in 20,266 he area. An area of about 18.92 lakh ha was brought under new gardens of various horticulture crops and an area of 3.27 lakh ha under old and senile plantations was rejuvenated. An area of 1.40 lakh ha was covered under organic farming and 1,17,246 vermi Compost Units were set up. An area of 8.62 lakh ha was brought under Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)/ Integrated Pest Management (IPM) apart from setting up of 363 IPM/INM Infrastructures viz. 74 Disease Forecasting Units, 89 Bio Control Labs, 127 Plant Health Clinics, and 73 Leaf/Tissue Analysis Laboratories. 20,237 community water harvesting bodies have been created. Under the Post Harvest Management component, 366 cold storage units, 12 CA storage, 21 refrigerated vans, 540 mobile/ primary processing units were set up. 23 wholesale markets and 173 rural markets and 113 functional infrastructures for collection, grading etc. were established which help in proper handling and marketing of horticulture produce. 8.60 lakh farmers have been trained.

Financial Progress

During 2005-06 to 2010-11, an amount of Rs 5273.98 crore was released to 18 States, 3 UTs and 13 National Level Agencies for implementation of the Scheme, against which, an expenditure of Rs. 5238.23 crore has been incurred. An outlay of Rs. 1200.00 crore has been earmarked for the year 2011-12 for implementation of the scheme.

Impact of NHM

Due to interventions under NHM, a momentum has been generated in the overall growth in horticulture sector with increase in area and production from 1845m ha. and 166.9 million tons in 2004-05 to 20.9 m ha. and 223.1 million tons in 2009-10, respectively resulting in an increase of 13.28% in area.

Cooperative Reforms

The cooperative movement in India traces its origin to the agriculture and allied sector and was evolved as a mechanism for pooling meagre resources of the people with a view to providing them the advantages of economies of scale. After independence, they were considered as part of the strategy of planned economic development. Cooperatives are today at the crossroads of existence particularly in view of the fast emerging scenario of economic liberalisation and globalisation.

These institutions in general suffer from resource constraint, poor governance and management, inefficiency and non-viability. The cooperative reforms are, therefore, absolutely vital to the future of the cooperatives.

National Policy on Cooperatives

The Union government has formulated a National Policy on Cooperatives in Consultation with States. The objective of the National Policy is to facilitate all round development of the cooperatives in the country and to guide the States for fulfillment of the aforesaid objective. The policy, envisages that cooperatives be provided necessary support, encouragement and assistance and to ensure that they work as autonomous, self-reliant and democratically managed institutions accountable to their members.

Multi-State Cooperative Societies (MSCS) Act, 2002

The Central Government has taken a lead in providing required autonomy to the cooperatives by enacting MSCS Act, 2002, replacing the MSCS Act, 1984. It aims at providing functional autonomy and democratic control applicable to National level cooperative societies/Federations and other Multi-State Cooperative Societies. It is expected that it will work as a model Act for reforms in State Cooperative Laws. Amendment to the Constitution in Respect of Cooperatives

In spite of the felt need for amendment in the State Cooperative Societies, Act, the pace of reforms in Cooperative legislations by the States is not encouraging.

Therefore, to ensure the democratic, autonomous and professional functioning of cooperatives, it has been decided to initiate a proposal for amendment to the constitution for the purpose. This decision has been taken based on deliberations of the conference of State Cooperative Ministers held on 7th December, 2004. The proposed amendment to the Constitution is purported to address the key issues for empowerment of cooperatives through their voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management. The Constitution (One Hundred and Sixth Amendment) Bill, 2006 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 22.05.2006. However, the Bill could not be discussed in the Lok Sabha for passing and therefore Bill lapsed on dissolution of Fourteenth Lok Sabha. The Bill was re-introduced in Lok Sabha on 30.11.2009 for consideration and passing. Constitution of High Powered Committee

To review the achievements of Cooperative movement during the last 100 years of cooperative movement and challenges before it, and to suggest ways and means to face them and to give a new direction to the movement, a high powered committee was constituted with following terms of Reference :

1) To review the achievements of the cooperatives during the last 100 years.

2) To identify the challenges being faced by the cooperative sector and to suggest measures to address them so as to enable the movement to keep pace with the changing socio-economic environment.

3) To suggest an appropriate policy and legislative framework and changes required in the cooperative legislation in the country with a view to ensure the democratic, autonomous and professional functioning of cooperatives.

The Committee submitted its report during May 2009 recommending interalia certain amendment to the MSCS Act, 2002, Amendment to the constitution in respect of cooperatives and some general recommendations for the development of cooperative sector. Amendment to MSCS Act, 2002, and Constitutional Amendment are under process. Regarding general recommendations, States/UTs have been requested to take appropriate action for implementing the same.

The NCDC (Amendment) Act, 2002

The NCDC Act, 1962 has been amended vide NCDC (Amendment) Act, 2002 expanding the mandate of National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) to include food stuff, industrials goods, livestock and services in the programmes and activities in addition to the existing programmes. The definition of agriculture produce has been amended to cover wider range of activities by including edible and non-edible oilseeds, cattle feed, produce of horticulture and animal husbandry, forestry, poultry, farming, pisciculture and other allied activities to agriculture. Vide the amended Act, definition of industrial goods and livestock have been elaborated covering the products of areas and industries in the rural areas and includes any handicraft or rural craft.

Plant Protection

Crop losses in the country due to various pests range from 10 to 30 percent every year depending upon the severity of pest attack. Plant Protection plays an important role in sustaining agricultural production by protecting crops from pest attack and keeping pest population under control. Thrust areas of plant protection are promotion of integrated pest management, ensuring availability of safe and efficacious pesticides and administration of plant quarantine measures for preventing entry of exotic pests into the country.


Seed is a critical and basic input for enhancing agricultural production and productivity in different agro-climatic regions. Indian seed program largely adheres to the recognized three generations, namely breeder, foundation and certified seeds and provides adequate safeguards for quality assurance in the seed multiplication chain to maintain the purity of variety as it flows from the breeders to the farmers.

Indian seed programme include the participation of Central and State governments, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) system, public sector, co-operative sector and private sector institutions. Seed sector in India consists of two national level corporations i.e. National Seeds Corporation (NSC) and State Farms Corporation of India (SFCI); State Seed Corporations (SSCs); and seed companies. For quality control and certification, there are State Seed Certification Agencies (SSCAs) and State Seed Testing Laboratories (SSTLs). The private sector has started to play a significant role in the production and distribution of seeds. However, the organized seed sector particularly for food crops cereals continues to be dominated by the public sector. National Seed Research & Training Centre (NSRTC), Varanasi

The National Seed Research & Training Centre (NSRTC), Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) has been notified as a Central Seed Testing and Referral Laboratory (CSTL), with effect from 1st April, 2007. The primary objective for establishing serve as CSTL and a referral laboratory for courts in India and also to act as a the NSRTC has become a member laboratory of the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Zurich, Switzerland with effect from 2007.

Legislative Framework and Policy

The Seeds Act 1966 provides for the legislative framework for regulation of quality of seeds sold in the country. The Central Seed Committee (CSC) and the Central Seed Certification Board (CSCB) are apex agencies set up under teh Act and quality control of seeds. In response to the changes that have taken place in the seed sector, the existing Seeds Act, 1966 is proposed to be replaced by a suitable legislation to, inter-alia :

1) create a facilitative climate for growth of the seed industry;

2) enhance seed replacement rates for various crops;

3) boost the export of seeds and encourage import of useful germplasm; and

4) create conducive atmosphere for application of frontier sciences in varietal development and for enhanced investment in research and development.

The Seeds Bill, 2004 was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on 9th December, 2004. It was referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Agriculture for examination and report. The Report of the Committee has since been received and examined by the Department. The Bill is pending consideration by Parliament. Policy on the Export and Import of Seeds and Planting Materials

The export/import of seeds and planting material is governed by the Export and Import Policy, 2006-07. Restrictions on export of all cultivated varieties of seeds have been removed w.e.f. 01.04.2004, except

(i) Breeder or foundation or wild varieties.

(ii) Onion, berseem, cashew, nux vomica, rubber, pepper cuttings, sandalwood, saffron, neem, forestry species and wild ornamental plants.

(iii) Export of niger which is canalized through TRIFED, NAFED, etc.

(iv) Export of groundnuts, which is subject to compulsory registration of contract with APEDA.

The export of these seeds is restricted and is only allowed on case-to-case basis under licence issued by Director General, Foreign Trade (DGFT) on the basis of the recommendations of DAC.

The provisions regarding import of seeds and planting material are :

i. Import of seeds/tubers/bulbs/cuttings/saplings of vegetables, flowers and fruits is allowed without a licence in accordance with import permit granted under Plant Quarantine Order, 2003 (PQ Order).

ii. Import of seeds, planting materials and living plants by ICAR, etc. is allowed without a licence in accordance with conditions specified by the Ministry of Agriculture.

iii. Import of seeds/tubers of potato, garlic, fennel, coriander, cumin, etc. is allowed in accordance with import permit granted under PQ Order, 2003 and amendments made their under.

iv. Import of seeds of wheat, rye, barley, oat, maize, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, other cereals, soybean, groundnut, linseed, palmnut, coton, castor, sesamum, mustard, safflower, clover, jojoba, etc. is allowed without licence subject to the New Policy on Seed Development, 1988 and in accordance with import permit granted under PQ Order, 2003 and amendments made their under.

The Policy reiterated that all imports of seeds and planting material would be regulated under the Plant Quarantine Order 2003 and amendments made there under, Import licences would be granted by DGFT/Plant Protection Adviser (PPA) on the recommendations of the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC).

A small quantity of seeds sought to be imported would be given to ICAR, or farms accredited by ICAR, for trial and evaluation for one crop season. On receipt of applications for commercial import, DAC would consider the trial/soil borne diseases DAC is required to either reject or recommend the application to PPA for grant of import permit within 30 days of receipt. All importers have to make available a small specified quantity of the imported seeds to the ICAR at cost price for testing/ accession to the gene bank of National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR).

The import of seeds has to be either cleared or rejected by PPA after quarantine checks within three weeks. The rejected consignment has to be destroyed. During quarantine, the imported consignment is kept in a bonded warehouse at the cost of the importer. While importing seeds and plating material, it has to be ensured that there is absolutely no compromise on plant quarantine procedures. Every effort has to be made to prevent the entry into India of exotic pests, diseases and weeds that are detrimental to the interests of the farmers.

The EXIM Committee was constituted in the Seeds Division to deal with application for exports/imports of seeds and planting materials in accordance with the New Policy on Seed Development and EXIM regulation. The composition of the Committee is as under :-

(i) Secretary (Agriculture & Cooperation) - Chairperson

(ii) Agriculture Commissioner

(iii) Deputy Director General (Crop Sciences), ICAR

(iv) Deputy Director General (Horticulture), ICAR

(v) Joint Secretary (International Cooperation), DAC

(vi) Joint Secretary (Plant Protection), DAC

(vii) Horticulture Commissioner

(viii) Animal Husbandry Commissioner, Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying & Fisheries (proposed to be incorporated by the 94th Exim Committee)

(ix) Director, NBPGR

(x) Plant Protection Adviser

(xi) Economics and Statistical Adviser

(xii) Joint Secretary (Seeds), DAC - Member Secretary

The functions of the EXIM Committee are to analyze applications and furnish recommendations to PPA/DGFT for issue of licence for import/export of seeds and planting material.

The EXIM Committee meets every month subject to frequency of receipt of proposals for import\export of seeds and planting material. Exporters/importers are required to submit 20 copies of applications for export/import in the prescribed formats. The minutes of the EXIM Committee are approved by Secretary (A&C) after which letters recommending exports/imports of seeds and planting material are sent to DGFT and PPA for necessary action.


Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds

A Central Sector Scheme namely ‘Development and Strengthening of infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds’’ is Implement from the year 2005-06. The main components of the scheme are Quality Control Arrangement of Seeds. Transport subsidy on movement of seeds to North-East and other hilly areas, Establishment and Maintenance of Seed Bank, Seed village Scheme, Assistance for Creation of Infrastructure facilities, Assistance for boosting seed production in private sector, Human Resource Development, Assistance for Seed Export, Propagation of application of biotechnology in agriculture, Promotion of hybrid seeds of rice etc. The annual outlay of the scheme for 2011-12 is Rs. 350 crore.

Scheme for Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights

Legislation for protection of plant varieties and farmers rights was enacted in the year 2001. The legislation provides for establishment of an effective system for protection of plant varieties, rights of farmers and plant breeders; and to encourage the development of new varieties of plants. The Central Sector Scheme for Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights (PPV&FR) provides necessary back-up support for implementation of the legislation i.e., PPV&FR Act, 2001. The PPV&FR Authority in coordination with the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation implements the Scheme.

The main objectives of the Scheme are to provide grants to the Authority for its operational cost, implementation of provision of the Act and financial assistance to DUS Centres for developing guidelines for the identified crops and maintaining of reference and example varieties for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) test. The functions of the Authority include registration of plant varieties to protect plant breeder’s rights, which could stimulate investment for research & development for the development of new plant varieties leading to agricultural development in the country, and to protect the rights of the farmers in respect of their contribution made at any time in conserving, improving and making available plant genetic resources. Annual outlay of the scheme for the year 2011-12 is Rs. 15 crore. A total number of 45 crops species have been notified for registration purposes of the Authority. Two branch offices of plant varieties Registry of the Authority have been set up at Guwahati and Ranchi.

Implementation of OECD Seed Schemes in India

The objective of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Seed Schemes is to encourage use of seeds of consistently high quality in participating countries. The scheme authorises the use of labels and certificates for seed produced and processed for international trade according to OECD guidelines. India’s participation in OECD Seed Schemes aims to enhance its seed export capabilities and probabilities.

India’s participation in OECD Seed Scheme was accepted by the OECD in October, 2008 in respect of the five seed schemes viz. (i)Grasses and Legumes; (ii) Cereals; (iii) Crucifers and other oil or fiber species; (iv) Maize and Sorghum; and (v) Vegetables. The Divisional Head in the Seeds Division of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation is the National Designated Authority (NDA) for OECD Seed Schemes in India 10 Designated Authorities were notified for undertaking OECD varietal certification work in their allocated area of operation. The Designated Authorities are Directors of State Seed Certification Agencies of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan.


Support to State Extension Programme for Extension Reforms

The Scheme launched during 2005-06, aims at making extension system farmer driven and farmer accountable by way of new institutional arrangement for technology dissemination in the form of an Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at district level to operationalize the extension reforms. ATMA have active participation of farmers/farmer groups, NGOs, Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs), Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and other stakeholders operating at district level and below. 603 district level ATMAs have been established. 1.57 crore farmers including 38.00 lakh farm women (24.20%) have benefited through farmers oriented extension activities and 75,000 Farmers’ Interest Group (FIGs) have been mobilized since inception of the Scheme. Rs.864.16 crores have been released upto June, 2011 under the programme since its inception.

Mass Media Support to Agriculture

This scheme is focusing on two initiatives. The first is use of Doordarshan (DD) infrastructure for proving agriculture related information and knowledge to the farming community. Programmes of Regional Kendras telecast agricultural programmes for 30 minutes for five days a week. At national level, programmes are being telecast 6 days a week from Monday to Saturday. Films covering Success Stories, Innovation by farmers are being provided by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation for the Saturday slot. Audio/Video credit Card facility and publicity campaign of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) etc. are also publicized through the programme using the Free Commercial Time (FCT). The other component of the mass media initiative is use of 96 FM Transmitters of All India Radio (AIR). Kisan Call Centre (KCC)

Kisan Call Centers have been functioning since 21st January, 2004 and working in 25 different locations covering almost all the States of the country. At present, 144 Call Center Agents have been engaged in KCCs who are answering farmers’ queries in 21 local dialects. All KCC locations are accessible by dialing single toll free number ‘1551’ and ‘1880-180-1551’ from 6.00 A.M. to 10 10.00 P.M. on all 7 days a week nationwide,. At each of the KCC locations the Kisan Call Centre Agents known as L-1 agents are responding to farmers’ queries instantly. With a view to monitor the activities of KCCs, a State Level Monitoring Committee (SLMC), comprising of Secretary (Agriculture), Director of Agriculture and other development departments, representatives of BSNL. Nodal Officer of KCC, etc.., has been constituted for each KCC. Department of Agriculture & Cooperation has also taken initiative to develop a data structure in the form of Kisan Knowledge Management System (KKMS). In order to generate awareness among masses, publicity of KCC is being carried out through DD/AIR/DAVP, States/UTs, Doordarshan/All India Radio. Since inception amid till June, 2011 almost 65 lakh calls from farmers have been received in the Kisan Call Centres.


IT Apparatus in the Field Offices and Directorate of DAC

Under the DACNET Project, the Directorates/Field units have already been provided basic infrastructure which has helped in achieving e-readiness. It has been decided that respective Directorates and field officers would meet their expenditure form out of their budget. However, the residual expenditure on networking, software development and training for Field Offices/Directorates may be met from this component of the scheme.

Development of Agricultural Informatics and Communication

The objective of this component is to build a reservoir of all data related to agriculture and development of web-based applications. A number of software development work such as Farmers portal, Kisan Knowledge Management System (KKMS), digitization of Soil Mapping Data, Rainfed Farming Systems (RFS) and Watershed Development are under various stages of development. 80 portals/website/ applications have been developed and are under various states of implementation.


===Strengthening of IT Apparatus in Agriculture and Cooperation in the States and Union Territories (AGRISNET) States have a major role in providing improved services to farmers through the use of ICT. Till date, 26 States/UTs have availed of assistance under AGRISNET. In these States funds have been released mostly for implementation of limited e- Governance applications.


The Government has taken many policy initiatives for strengthening of farm credit delivery system for providing credit at affordable rates of interest to support the resource requirements of the agricultural sector. The emphasis of these policies has been on providing timely and adequate credit support to farmers with particular focus on small and marginal farmers and weaker sections of society to enable them to adopt modern technology and improved agricultural practices for increasing agricultural production and productivity. The policy essentially lays emphasis on augmenting credit flow at the ground level through credit planning, adoption specific strategies and rationalization of lending policies and procedures and brining down the rate of interest.

Institutional Arrangements

Agricultural credit is disbursed through a Multi-Agency network comprising of Commercial Banks (CBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and Cooperatives with their vast network covering almost all the villages in the country and outreach extending to the remotest part of the country. The Cooperative Credit Institutions, both in short and long-term structure are the main institutional agencies for dispensation of agricultural credit. In addition, on the lines of the Business Correspondent and Business Facilitator model, Banks are using the services of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Self Help Groups (SHGs), Joint Liability Groups (JLGs), Micro Finance Institutions and other Civil Society Organization as intermediates in providing financial and banking services in the rural areas.

Policy Initiatives for Increasing the Flow of Credit

The Government has initiated several measures to galvanize the institutional credit system to make them more responsive to the needs of farmers. Some of the important measures initiated in this regard are as under:-

1. To accelerate the flow of credit to agriculture and allied activities, the Government is implementing a comprehensive Farm Credit Package since June, 2004. The package inter-alia envisaged doubling of agriculture credit flow in the next three years beginning from 2004-05 taking 2003-04 as base year. The credit package also envisaged to finance 50 lakh new farmers each year by Commercial Banks including RRBs and Debt Relief Measures for farmers in distress and farmers in arrears, One Time Settlement (OTS) scheme for small and marginal framers and relief to farmers indebted to noninstitutional lenders, such as money lenders.

2. From Kharif 2006-07, farmers are receiving crop loans upto a principal amount of Rs. 3 lakh at 7% rate of interest. During 2010-11, Government provided an additional 2% interest subvention as incentive to those farmers who repay short term crop loans as per schedule. The Government has raised this subvention for timely repayment of crop loans from 2% to 3% from the year 2011-12. Thus, the effective rate of interest for such farmers will be 4% in the year 2011-12.

3. Farm loan upto Rs. 1 lakh has been made collateral/security free.

4. Government has implemented the Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 under which about 3.69 crore farmers have benefited from the scheme involving debt waiver & debt relief of Rs. 65,318.33 crore.

5. The Task Force constituted by the Government to look into the issue of a large number of farmers, who had taken loan from private money lenders in the country has submitted its report on 30.06.2010. The Government has accepted the recommendations of the Task Force relating to KCCs and JLCs/SHGs for extending credit facilities to the farmers and vide Department of Agriculture & Cooperation’s letter dated 27th August, 2010, Ministry of Finance (Department of Financial Services) has been advised to take appropriate action for implementing these recommendations.

6. Initiatives have been taken by Ministry of Agriculture to provide Kisan Credit Card to all the eligible and willing farmers in a time bound manner. All States/ UTs have been advised to chalk out a detailed action plan and launch campaign to provide KCC to all the eligible and willing farmers particularly the small and marginal farmers in a time bound manner. So far 10.04 crore KCCs have been issued.

7. The Reserve Bank of India has issued detailed guidelines to the banks for undertaking relief measures by banks in areas affected by natural calamities. The guidelines inter-alia includes restructuring of existing loans, conversion of loans, sanction of consumption loan, grant of fresh loans etc.

Revival Package for Short Term Cooperative Credit Structure

In pursuance of recommendations made by Task Force headed by Prof. Vaidyanathan, the Government of India had approved a Revival Package for Short Term Cooperative Credit Structure (STCCS) aimed at making it a well managed and vibrant structure to best serve the credit needs of Rural India. Revival Package envisages an outlay of Rs. 13,597 crore for recapitalization of STCCS, capacity building & training and computerization subject to legal reforms by the State Governments.

The Revival Package seeks to (a) provide financial assistance to bring the system to an acceptable level of health; (b) introduce legal and institutional reforms necessary for their democratic, self-reliant and efficient functioning; and (c) take measures to improve the quality of management as an integrated package.

So far, 25 States, namely Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujrat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pardesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Orissa, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Government of India and NABARD. These states cumulatively cover 96% of the STCCS units in the country. AS on May, 2011 an amount of Rs. 8993.08 crore has been released by NABARD as Government of India’s share for recapitalization of 53,560 PACS.

Kisan Credit Card

The Kisan Credit Card (KCC) Scheme was introduced in August, 1998 with major share of crop loans being routed through it. Banks were advised that the credit card should normally be valid for 3 years subject to an annual review. The scheme was revised in October, 2004. The revised scheme aims at providing adequate and timely credit for the comprehensive credit requirements of farmers under single window, with flexible and simplified procedure, adopting whole farm approach including the short term credit needs, term loan and a reasonable component for consumption needs, through Kisan Credit Card. The banks may extend the validity of KCC from 3 years to 5 years in case of sanctioning of term loan facility under KCC. So far 10.04 crore KCC’s have been issued by the banking system in the country.

Rehabilitation Package for Distress Farmers

A Rehabilitation Package of Rs. 16978.69 crore for 31 suicide prone Districts in four States viz. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala is under implementation. The rehabilitation package aims at establishing a sustainable and visible farming and livelihood support system through debt relief to farmers, improved supply of institutional credit, crop centric approach to agriculture, assured irrigation facilities, watershed management, better extention and farming support services and subsidiary income opportunities through horticulture livestock, dairying, fisheries etc. So far Rs. 19880.11 crore (as on 31st March, 2011) has been released to these States. The Government has further carried out mid-term modification and has extended the period for implementation of the non credit components by 2 more years i.e. up to 30th September, 2011.

The Government has approved package for Development of Kuttanad Wetland Eco-system and mitigation of agrarian distress district of kerala envisaging an outlay of Rs. 1840.75 core and Rs. 764.45 crore respectively. These packages have been formulated on the basis of the recommendations made by M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) for mitigating the agrarian distress in Idukki and Kuttanad Districts of Kerala as a part of Rehabilitation Package for the farmers in suicide-prone districts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra.

Flow of Credit-Achievement

The target of agriculture credit flow for the year 2010-11 was fixed at Rs. 3,75,000 crore and the achievement as on March, 2011 is Rs. 4,46,779 crore forming 119% of the target. Target for credit flow for 2011-12 is Rs. 4,75,000 crore.


The frequency and severity of droughts, floods, cyclones and erratic climatic changes accentuate uncertainty and risk in the agriculture production and the livestock population in India. At present, food Crop Insurance Schemes, namely National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) , Pilot modified NAIS, Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and Pilot Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS) are under implementation in the country to mitigate the risk in agricultural production. The brief details about these schemes are given in the following paragraphs.

National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS)

With a view to provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crop in the notified areas as a result of natural calamities, pest and diseases; to encourage the farmers to adopt progressive farming practices, high value inputs and higher technology in agriculture and to stablize farm incomes, particularly in disaster years, National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) is being implemented in the country from Rabi 1999-2000 season. The scheme is available to all farmers - Loanee farmers are covered on compulsory basis in a notified area for notified crops and for non-loanee farmers it is voluntary - irrespective of their size of holding.

The scheme envisages coverages of all the food crops (cereals, millets and pulses), oilseeds and annual commercial/horticultural crops, in respect of which past yield data is available for adequate cumber of years. The premium rates are ranging between 1.5% and 3.5% per cent (of sum insured) for food and oilseed crops. In the case of commercial crops, actuarial rates are being charged. Under the scheme, at present, 10% subsidy in premium is available to small & marginal farmers.

The scheme is optional for States/UTs and at present, it is being implemented by the 25 States and 2 Union Territories namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujrat, Haryana, Himachal Pardesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Puducherry. During the last twenty two crop seasons (i.e. from Rabi 1999-2000 to Kharif 2010), 1714 lakh farmers have been covered over an area of 2626 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to Rs. 2,10,524 crore. Claims to the tune of about Rs. 21,031 crore have become payable against the premium income of about Rs. 6303 crore benefiting about 462 lakh farmers.

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)

The Times of India, Aug 23 2016

The general insurance market as in March 2016, segment-wise ; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, Aug 23 2016

Mayur Shetty  Out of almost nowhere, the government has created a new market of Rs 17,000-18,000 crore with its new crop insurance scheme. This segment will be almost twice the size of the fire insurance business of non-life companies, which includes premium from covering buildings, factories, houses and shops. Until 2015-16, crop insurance was a business that generated less than Rs 5,000 crore of premium and most of it was booked by the Agricultural Insurance Corporation.

The reason for the change in fortunes is the new scheme -Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY). In the earlier National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS), both premium and claims were capped for the insurer. This time, the government has freed the pricing. In exchange, insurers undertake to fully compensate the farmer for any loss. So while the government has an initial outgo in the form of a premium subsidy, it does not have to pay out anything even if there is widespread crop failure. Earlier, the exchequer would compensate for any losses above a certain limit.

“Subsidising of the premium paid by the farmer is done in most countries. This is be Although the farmer pays a flat 2% of the sum insured for kharif and 1.5% for rabi, insurance companies are free to charge 12% if claims in earlier years justify that kind of pricing. The difference between the subsidized rate the farmer pays and the actuarial rate will be paid by the government. “The farmer now sees more value in farm insurance as the entire crop is covered.The policy also covers pre-sowing and post-harvest risks,“ said Dasgputa.

According to G Sriniva cause in farming every aspect of production is out of the control of the farmer and there is a need for risk mitigation in the form of insurance,“ said Bhargav Dasgupta, MD & CEO, ICICI Lombard General Insurance. The private insurer has bid for several states as the risk-based premium now makes crop insurance a viable business. san, chairman, New India Assurance, earlier only 15% of `loanee farmers' (farmers with bank debt) were purchasing insurance because the premium rates were high.Now with premium rates for farmers being capped, more and more people are taking it.“Our target is to take it to at least 50% of the loanee farmers.Even if it reaches 30%, we should see a premium of Rs 15,000 crore,“ said Srinivasan.

Review of NAIS

Over a period of implementation of NAIS, certain limitation/shortcoming are observed. Accordingly, a Joint Group was constituted to study the improvements required in the existing crop insurance schemes and to develop broad parameters of an appropriate and farmer friendly crop insurance scheme.

Modified NAIS (MNAIS)

Based on the recommendations of a Joint Group and views/comments of various stake-holders, proposal of Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNIAS) has been approved by Government of India for implementation on pilot basis in 50 districts during the remaining two years of 11th five year plan from Rabi 2010-11 season.

The Salient features of MNAIS are as under:

(i) Actuarial premium with subsidy in premium ranging 40% to 75% to all farmers.

(ii) Only upfront premium subsidy is shared by the Central and State Governments on 50:50 basis and all claims liability would be on the insurance companies.

(iii) Unit area of insurance reduced to Village/village panchayat level for major crops.

(iv) Indemnity for prevented sowing/planting risk & for post harvest losses due to cyclone.

(v) On account payment up to 25% advance of likely claims as immediate relief.

(vi) Minimum indemnity level of 70% instead of 60%.

(vii) Scheme is available to all the farmers - loanee and non loanee - irrespective of their size of holding.

(viii) Loanee farmers are covered on compulsory basis in a notified area for notified crops whereas for non-loanee farmers scheme is voluntary.

(ix) Uniform seasonality disciplines both for loanee & non-loanee farmers.

(x) Participation of private sector insurers for creation of competitive environment for crop insurance.

During Rabi 2010-11, the pilot was implemented by 12 States in 34 districts and 3,66,675 farmers have been covered over an area of 3,64,232 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting of Rs. 719.21 crore against the premium income of about Rs. 46.08 crore. The Government has provided upfront premium subsidy to the tune of Rs. 22.11 crores. The Claims will be settled by concerned insurance Companies after closing of season.

Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS)

Efforts have been made to bring more farmers under the fold of Crop Insurance by introducing a Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) as announced in the Union Budget for 2007-08 in selected areas on pilot basis. WBCIS is intended to provide insurance protection to the farmers against adverse weather incidence, such as deficit and excess rainfall, high or low temperature, humidity etc. It has the advantage to settle the claims within shortest possible time.

The WBCIS is based on actuarial rates of premium but to make the scheme attractive, premium actually charged from farmers have been restricted to at par with NAIS. The scheme is available to all the farmers - loanee and non-loanee - irrespective of their size of holding. Further, to provide competitive service to the farmers, private insurance companies viz. ICICI-Lombard, IFFCO-TOKIO, M. S. Cholamandalam and HDFCERGO General Insurance Companies have been involved for implementation besides Agriculture Insurance Company of India. (AIC).

During the last eight crop seasons (i.e. from Kharif 2007 to Rabi 2010-11), 126 lakh farmers have been covered over an area of 18 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to Rs. 12,382 crore. Claims to the tune of about Rs. 855 crore have become payable against the premium income of about Rs. 1841 crore benefiting about 43 lakh farmers.

Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS)

The Department of Agriculture & Cooperation is also implementing Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS) on pilot basis during years 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 in the selected areas of Andhra pardesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The Scheme is being administered by the Coconut Development Board (CDB) through AIC . The scheme proposes to cover entire palms in the region selected for implementation, according to eligibility criteria (i.e. in the age group of 4 to 60 years). The Sum Insured (SI) is based on the average input cost of the plantation and the age of the specific plant. The SI varies from Rs. 600 per palm (in the age group of 4-15 years) to Rs. 1150.00 per palm age group of 16-60 years). The premium rate per palm ranges from Rs. 4.25 (age group of 4 to 15 years) to Rs. 5.75 (in the age group of 16 to 60 years) and it varies from about 0.75% to 0.5% of the SI per year, considering the age of specific palm. 50% of premium would be contributed by Coconut Development Board (a Central Government Agency), 25% by the concerned State Government and the remaining 25% by the farmer. AIC is responsible for making payment of all claims within a specified period and will implement the scheme.

Technology Mission on Oilseeds & Pulses

The Technology Mission on Oilseeds was launched by the Central Government in 1986 to increase the production of oilseeds to reduce import and achieve selfsufficiency in edible oils. Subsequently, pulses, oil palm and maize were brought within purview of the Mission in 1990-91, 1992, and 1995-96, respectively. In addition, the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board is engaged in promotion of Tree Borne Oilseeds (TBOs) including Jatropha and Karanja for production of bio diesel.

Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM)

In order to provide flexibility to the States in implementation based on regionally differentiated approach, to promote crop diversification and to provide focused approach to the programmes, the schemes of Oilseeds Production Programme, Oil Palm Development, National Pulses Development Project and Accelerate Maize Development Programme of Ninth Plan were merged into one Centrally Sponsored Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM) during the 10th Five year Plan which is being implemented with effect from 1st April, 2004. The scheme has been implemented in 14 major oilseeds and pulses growing States, 15 States for Maize and in 9 States out of 12 States approved for oil palm from 2004-05 to 2010-11. The pulse component of ISOPOM has been merged with NFSM-Pulses w.e.f. 1.4.2010.

The ISOPOM has the following special features:

(i) Flexibility to the States to utilize the funds for the scheme/crop of their choice.

(ii) Annual action plan to be formulated by the State Governments for consideration and approval of the Government of India.

(iii) Flexibility to the States for introducing innovative measures or any special component to the extent of 10 per cent of financial allocation.

(iv) Involvement of private sector by the State Governments for the implementation of the programme with a financial cap of 15 per cent.

(v) Flexibility for inter component diversion of funds upto 20 per cent for non-seed components only.

(vi) Diversion of funds from seed components to non-seed components with the prior approval of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. Implementation of oilseeds production programme has helped in increasing the production of oilseeds from 108.30 lakh tonnes in 1985-86 to 311.01 lakh tons during 2010-11 (4th Advance Estimates).

The area under Oil palm increased from 8585 ha. at the end of 1992-93 to 173127 ha. in 2010-11. Production of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs) during 2010-11 is 6,38,971 MT yielding around 1,05,625 MT of Crude Palm Oil (CPO).

The production of maize increased from 88.84 lakh tons in 1994-95 to 212.80 lakh tons during 2010-14 (4th Advance Estimates).


Land Scenario in India

The land serves as storages for water and nutrients required for plants and other living micro-macro-organism. The demand for food, energy and other human requirements depends upon the preservation and improvement of the productivity of land. But land resources are limited. Increasing human and animal papulation has reduced availability of land over the decades. Per capita availability of land has declined from 0.89 hectare in 1951 to 0.37 hectare in 1991 and is projected to slide down to 0.20 hectare in 2035. As far as agricultural land is concerned, per capita availability of land has declined from 0.48 hectare in 1951 to 0.16 hectare in 1991 and is likely to decline further to 0.08 hectare in 2035. This decline in the extent of cultivable land is mainly due to increase in population and diversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes such as urbanization, roads, industries, housing etc.

Out of 328.73 million hectare of geographical area of India, about 141 million hectare is Net Area Sown. Of this, about 62 million hectare (44%) is irrigated and the remaining is rainfed. Rainfed area is generally subjected to wind and water erosion and is in different stages of degradation for subjecting it to intensive agriculture. Therefore, it needs improvement in terms of productivity per unit of land and per unit of water for optimum production. Rainfed agriculture is characterized by low levels of productivity and low input usage. Crop production is subjected to considerable instability from year to year due to its dependence on rainfall, which is slightly erratic and variant in space and time. More than 200 million of the rural poor live in the rainfed regions. These risk prone areas exhibit a wide variation and instability in yields.

Land Degradation

The information on the extent of soil degradation in the country has been assessed by various agencies. The estimates of these agencies vary widely i.e. 63.9 million hectare to 187 million hectare, due to different approaches in defining degraded soils and adopting various criteria for delineation. The main agencies that have estimated soil degradation are - National Commission on Agriculture (NCA, 1976), Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development (SPWD, 1984), National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA, 1985), Ministry of Agriculture (1985), and National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSSLUP, 1984 & 2005). Problems of land degradation are prevalent in many forms throughout country and in most cases, a combination of such problems exists. In the absence of comprehensive and periodic scientific surveys, estimates have been made on the basis of localized surveys and studies. NBSS&LUP and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) conducted several studies and logically concluded that 146.82 million ha. area is suffering from land degradation in the country. Watershed Programmes for Development of Degraded Lands

Various Watershed Development Programmes (WDPs) namely, National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA), Soil Conservation in the Catchments of River Valley Project & Flood Prone River (RVP & FPR), Reclamation and Development of Alkali & Acid Soils (RADAS), Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDPSCA) and Rainfed Area Development Programmes (RADP) are being implemented for prevention of soil erosion and land degradation across the country.

NRM Schemes/Programmes

The Central Sector Schemes and Centrally Sponsored Programmes being implemented by the Natural Resource Management (NRM) Division for development of degraded lands are given below:


1. Soil and land Use Survey of India (SLUSI)

Plan and Non-Plan

Soil and Land Use Survey of India (SLUSI) is a subordinate office of the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, established in the year 1958 with its headquarters at New Delhi. It has seven Regional Centres located at Noida, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Ranchi. The major mandate of SLUSI is to conduct various types of soil and land resource surveys and provide a soil related database for planning and implementation of programmes relating to soil and water conservation for the development of degraded lands. The proposed targets for 2011- 12 are as under:

• Rapid reconnaissance Survey (RRS) - 101.00 lakh hectares

• Detailed Soil Survey (DSS) - 3.62 lakh hectares

• Soil Resource Mapping (SRM) - 121.00 lakh hectares

An amount of Rs.13.00 crore under Plan and Rs.2.00 crore under Non-Plan is allocated for completing the targets.

Soil Conservation Training Centre Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), Hazaribagh, Jharkhand - Non-plan This Centre organizes medium and short duration training courses every year for field Functionaries and project officers of the State Government engaged in implementation of soil and water conservation programmes. During 2011-12, an amount of j0.45 crore has been allocated for undertaking various training courses.

Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDPSCA)-Plan This Scheme was launched during the Eighth Five Year Plan in seven states of North Eastern Region, namely, Arunachal Pardesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura with 100 percent Central Assistance to the State Plan. During 2011-1, an area of 0.41 lakh ha. of Jhum land has been targeted for development with an expenditure of Rs.50.00 crore.


Soil Conservation in the Catchments of River Valley Project and Flood Prone River (RVP and FPR)

Presently, this programme is being implemented in 60 catchments of 27 States (all the States Except Goa) including all the States of North Eastern Region of the country. The total catchment area of ongoing programme is about 113.51 million hectare, out of which an area about 30.15 million hectares is categorized as a priority area, needing urgent treatment under this programme. The catchment are mostly interstate in nature and all categories of lands viz. agriculture, waste and forests are taken up for treatment in an integrated manner on watershed approach basis. During 2011-12 an area of about 2.00 lakh hectares is targeted for treatment with estimated cost of Rs.250.00 crore.

Reclamation and Development of Alkali and Acid Soils (RADAS)

This Programme has been restructured and launched during Xl Plan for development of alkali and acid Soils in the States of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram in North Eastern Region and in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka and Rajasthan. During 2011-12, an area of 0.20 lakh hectare has been targeted for reclamation and development, at an estimated cost of Rs.24.00 crore.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is one of the eight Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It seeks to address issues regarding ‘ Sustainable Agriculture’ in the context of risks associated with climate change by devising appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring food security, enhancing livelihood opportunities and contributing to economic stability at the national level.

The mission identifies ten key dimensions for promoting sustainable agricultural practices, which will be realized by implementing a Programme of Action (POA) that covers both adaptation and mitigation measures through four functional areas namely, Research and Development, Technologies, Products and Practices, Infrastructure and Capacity Building. While recognizing the role of modern technologies and research in promoting the sustainability of agricultural production, the Mission also emphasizes the need to harness traditional knowledge and agricultural heritage for in-situ conservation of genetic resources.


The POA would be operationalised through mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation strategies in ongoing research and development programmes and in flagship schemes including; Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), National Horticulture Mission (NHM), National Food Security Mission (NFSM) etc. through a process of selective up scaling and course correction measures. This would further be supplemented by introduction of new programmatic interventions and by seeking convergence with other National Missions and collaborations with key Ministries/ Departments for institutionalizing linkages for addressing cross-sectoral issues. The Mission document on NMSA has been approved in principle by Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change (PMCCC).

Programmes/Schemes of RFS Division

The RFS Division is implementing few programmes for development of degraded lands including rainfed areas. The main schemes and Programmes of RFS Division are:

National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)

The National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) was launched in the 8th Plan period and has been subsumed under Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA) since November, 2000. The broad objectives are - (i) conservation, upgradation and sustainable utilization of natural resources; (ii) enhancement of agricultural productivity in sustainable manner; (iii) restoration of ecological balance in the degraded and fragile rainfed eco-systems by greening these areas through appropriate mix of trees, shrubs and grasses; (iv) reduction in regional disparity between irrigated and rainfed areas; and (v) creation of sustained employment opportunities for the rural poor.

The programme is presently is being implemented in all the States. NWDPRA has been thoroughly restructured by retaining the technical strength of the earlier programme and incorporating the lessons learnt from successful projects, especially on community participation. During 2011-12, an area of about 2.50 lakh hectares is targeted for treatment with estimated cost of Rs.300.00 crore.

Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP)

Ministry of Agriculture has also initiated farming system and farmer centric interventions under a new scheme “Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP)” to look into the specific need of the rainfed areas for improving the quality of life of farmers especially, small and marginal farmers by offering a complete package of activities to maximize the farm returns for their food and livelihood security. Under this programme, adoption of an end to end approach covering production, on-farm management, storage, marketing, value addition are being contemplated to assure appropriate returns to the farmers from the rainfed areas. RADP has been accorded in principle approval by Planning Commission for implementation through a window of RKVY Scheme. During 2011-12, an amount of Rs.250.00 crore has been allocated/earmarked under RKVY Scheme for RADP for adoption of holistic agriculture development through integrated farming system in 10 identified States across the country on pilot basis.

Agricultural Mechanization

Strategies and programmes have been directed towards replacement of traditional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmers to own tractors, power tillers, harvester and other machines, availability of custom hire services, support services of human resource development, testing, evaluation and research & development. A huge industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Introduction of technologically advanced equipments through extension and demonstration besides institutional credit has also been taken up. Equipments for resource conservation have also been adopted by the farmers.

Under various Government sponsored Schemes like Macro Management of Agriculture, Technology Mission for Oilseeds, Pulses, National Horticulture Mission, Technology Mission on Cotton, National Food Security Mission etc. financial assistance is provided to the farmers for the purchase of identified agricultural implements and machines.

Farm Machinery Training & Testing Institutes

Farm Machinery Training & Testing Institutes (FMT&TIs) have been established at Budni (Madhya Pradesh), Hissar (Haryana), Garladinne (Andhra Pradesh) and at Biswanath Chariali (Assam). The institutes have the capacity to train 6000 personnel annually on various aspects of agricultural mechanization. These institutes also undertake testing and performance evaluation of agricultural machines including tractors in accordance with National and International Standards. Since inception 1,25,460 personnel have been trained and about 3281 machines tested by these institutes till 31st March 2011. During 2010-11 these institutes have trained 6255 personnel and tested 1235 machines.

Demonstration of newly developed agricultural/horticultural equipments

With the objective of induction of new technology in the agricultural production system, demonstration of newly developed improved agricultural equipment including horticultural equipment has been undertaken. These schemes have been merged in Centre Sector Scheme - Promotion & Strengthening of Agriculture & Mechanization through Training, Testing & Demonstrations Component. 100% grant in aid is given to the implementing agencies for procurement and demonstration of identified equipment. This scheme is implemented through the State/Centre Government organizations. For implementation of Schemes, funds are released to States and two organizations (viz. ICAR & SFC) on the basis of proposals received for assistance under the scheme. During the year 2010-11, 14652 demonstrations of new equipments were conducted benefiting 373848 farmers.

Outsourcing of Training

This is a new component approved from the Tenth Plan in order to train large number of farmers at nearby places and implemented w.e.f. 2004-05. The training programmes have been arranged through the identified institutions by each state namely State Agricultural universities (SAUs), Agricultural Engineering Colleges/ Polytechnics etc. During the year 2008-09, funds amounting to Rs.27.20 lakh have been provided for conducting training programmes at the identified institutions.

Post Harvest Technology and Management

“Reforming Agricultural Markets & Promoting Post Harvest Technology” has been identified as one of the thrust areas for the Ministry of Agriculture by the Prime Minister’s Office. Accordingly, the Department is implementing a new scheme on ‘Post Harvest Technology and Management during Xl Plan period w.e.f. March 2008 with an approved outlay of Rs.40.00 crores. Under the scheme the technologies developed by ICAR, CSIR and those identified from within the country and abroad for primary processing, value addition, low cost scientific storage/ transport of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits and the crop by-product management is being given thrust. Under this scheme during the year Rs.478.00 lakh have been released for distribution of post harvest equipments through subsidy, organizing demonstration and training on post harvest technologies.

State Agro Industries Corporations (SAICs)

The aim of the Corporations is to manufacture and distribute Agriculture Machinery; encourage investments for establishment and operation of Agriculture based industries; provide technical help; and give consultation to farmers and other agencies. 17 SAICS were set up between 1965 to 1970 as joint sector companies with equity participation of the Government of India and respective State Governments in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pardesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Many of the State Governments have increased their equity participation and SAICs in six states namely, Gujarat, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and West Bengal have no Central Government’s shares as they have been transferred to the state governments, concerned.

Legislative Framework

The Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act 1983 came into force with effect from 14 December 1983. The Act provides for the regulation of trade and commerce, production, supply and use of products of any industry producing dangerous machine with a view to securing the welfare of persons operating any machines and for a payment of compensation for death or bodily injury suffered while operating any such machine. Power threshers used for threshing of an agricultural crops have been under the ambit of this Act. The power operated chaff cutter and power operated sugarcane crusher have also been brought under the purview of the Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act 1983 by way of Notification No. G.S.R. 505 (E) and also the Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Rules 1984 have been amended vide Notification No. G.S.R. 506 (E) dated 24th July 2007

National Food Security Mission


National Food Security Mission (NFSM) is a crop development scheme of Government of India that aims at restoring soil health and achieving additional production of 10, 8 and 2 million tons of rice, wheat and pulses, respectively by the end of 2011-12. It was launched in August, 2007 as a follow up of the special session of National Development Council convened in May 2007, with an approved outlay of Rs. 4883 crores for the period from 2007-08 to 2011-12. A sum of about Rs. 3381 crores has been spent till 31.3.2011.

Salient features of the Mission

l The Mission has focused on the Districts with productivity of wheat/rice below the State average. The total area targeted is about 20 and 15 million hectares for rice and wheat respectively. On the other hand, Districts with potential for area expansion and productivity enhancement have been covered under pulses.

l The mission is under implementation in 480 Districts of eighteen States viz. comprising of 142 Districts for rice in 15 States; 142 Districts for wheat in nine States and 468 Districts for pulses in 16 States. Some of the Districts are common for two or more crop components.

l The Mission interventions consists of a judicious mix of proven technological components covering seeds of improved varieties, soil ameliorants, plant nutrients, farm machines/implements and plant protection measures that are promoted through financial assistance to the farmers coupled with capacity building of farmers and innovative extension techniques such as Farmers’ Field School and Field Demonstrations. Resource conservation technologies such as zero till seed-cum-fertilizer drill, sprinklers sets and system of rice intensification received special attention in the mission. In addition to these interventions there is provision of local initiatives to address the location specific problems in the District and need-based short/medium term applied/ adaptive research projects. Similarly there is provision for pilot projects on controlling the menace of blue bull and providing community generators in places where adequate ground water is available at shallow depth and availability of electricity is inadequate.

l Dedicated Project Management Teams (PMTs) have been provided at District, State and National levels to facilitate delivery of planned interventions to farmers. Consultants and Technical Assistants provided at each level are part of PMTs.

l There is direct transfer of funds from the Centre to a State level nominated autonomous Agency which in turn transfers the funds to the District Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA).

l To support location specific activities which are otherwise not covered under the mission but can help in boosting the production of rice, wheat and pulses, a provision of 10% of the total allocations in NFSM has been made. The assistance is limited to two crores per District for the entire 11th plan period where mission programme for two of more crops is implemented. Districts where only one crop programme is being implemented, the assistance has been limited to Rs. One crore. The States, however should ensure that the programme under local initiative is a part of the Strategic Research And Extention Plan (SREP) of the District drawn up by ATMA.

l Publicity campaigns are organized at National, State and District level through advertisements in print media, video clips on mass media, brochures, fairs, exhibitions, street plays etc. for popularizing the components of that Mission among farmers and others stakeholders.

l The Mission is steered by a General Council (GC) constituted under the chairmanship of Union Agriculture Minister as its apex governing body. This Council draws members from Planning Commission, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Finance, Fertilizer and Water Resources Ministries. It is empowered to take policy decisions and make necessary changes in programme design in response to the feedback from States.

l Food Security Mission Executive Committees (FSMEC) at the National, State and District level have been constituted under the chairmanship of Secretary (A&C), Chief Secretary of respective States and the District Collector or Chief Executive Officer of Zila Parishad, respectively. A National Mission Director at the National level and State Mission Directors in all the NFSM States are appointed who are the member secretaries of the respective Executive Committees at the National and State level. National Mission Director is also the member secretary of the GC.

l In addition to above components a special initiative under the name of Accelerated Pulses Production Programme (A3P) was initiated in 2010 to boost the production of pulsed by active promotion of technologies in 1000 clusters of 1000 hectares each.

l Monitoring and Evaluation are an important and integral part of the Mission. Baseline survey, annual concurrent evaluation, regional workshops and midterm evaluations are required to be conducted for quantitative and qualitative assessment of the programme in a structured manner. National, State and District level monitoring teams are constituted to provide an oversight to the delivery of various planned interventions.

l A Joint Secretary level officer has been appointed as the Mission Director at National level for carrying out the mandate of the Mission. Director of Agriculture/equivalent level officer at the State and District Agriculture Officer at District level have been assigned the responsibility of execution of the Mission programme at the State and the District level, respectively.


Increased Production of Foodgrains

The mission could accomplish the targeted additional production of 20 million tons within 4 years of its implementation. As per the 4th advance estimate of 2010-11, total foodgrain production of 241.56 million tons is achieved against the pre-NFSM production of 217.28 million tons i.e. additional production of 24.28 million tons achieved against the target of 20 million tons. The year-wise production in respect of Rice, Wheat, Pulses and total foodgrains during the last four years and the pre- NFSM year of 2006-07 is given below:

Component Production in 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Remarks 2006-07 (4th (pre-NFSM) advance estimate)


14.2 14.76 14.57 14.66 18.09 Additional production of 3.89 million tons compared to 2006- 07. Total 217.28 230.78 234.47 218.11 241.56 Additional production of 24.28 million tons compared to 2006- 07.

There has been complete turnaround in the case of pulses in the very first year of focused work. Merger of Pulses component of ISOPOM with NFSM Pulses, launching of Accelerated Pulses Production Program under NFSM-Pulses, implementation of 60000 pulses villages programme, synergistic working with NCIPM and IIpr, ICAR institutes, and raising the Minimum Support Price of Pulses crops created an immediate impact. From a stagnating production level of 14.5 million tons over the past fifteen years of so, the production in 2010-11 reached 18.09 million tons as per 4th advance production estimates.

As per the progress reports received from the States, significant achievements under NFSM have been recorded during the course of implementation of Programme in the last four years i.e. during 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11.

New farm practices have been encouraged through 5.34 lakh numbers demonstrations of improved package of practices. As many as 68856 numbers of demonstrations on System of Rice intensification (SRI) as well as 36564 lakh qtls of seeds of high yielding varieties of Rice, Wheat and Pulses and hybrid rice have been distributed. About 97.65 lakh ha. of area has been treated with soil ameliorants (gypsum/lime/micro nutrients) to restore soil fertility for higher productivity. An area of about 37.40 lakh ha. has been treated under Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Further, nearly 28.24 lakh numbers of improved farm machineries including water saving devices have been distributed. Capacity building of farmers has been encouraged through arranging 39759 farmers’ field schools (FFS) at the farm level so far.

Creation of Web Based Portal

A dynamic web based portal of the NFSM has been started with the address http:/ / It has static as well as dynamic content. Guidelines, proceedings of the meetings of NFSMGC, NFSMEC and other communities, reporting and monitoring formats and publicity material among others are all provided on the website which is periodically updated. In addition, web based management information system had been created to facilitate beneficiary-wise direct data entry at the District level. State wise web pages are created to give similar look and feel for ease of locating information. These pages are automatically updated with content form States through progress reports, success stories, area, production and yield statistics, observations of the monitoring communities and the tour reports of PMT members.

Monitoring & Evaluation

Special efforts were made to develop manuals for record keeping, formats for base lime survey, concurrent evaluation, midterm evaluation, monitoring reports for use of NALMOTs, SALMOTs and DALMOTs, and reporting formats for the project management teams. A planning tool “Logical Framework Analysis” was developed to correctly identify the key parameters for monitoring. Reward procedure was


Linkages with R&D organisations

Over the years of NFSM has developed functional linkages with R&D organisations involved in development and popularization of scientific material (crop varieties, nucleus and breeder seed, prototypes of improved farm/processing implements/ machines, plant protection chemicals) practices for keeping abreast with the new technological innovations and their propagation in the field. A list of institutions and programmes under sponsorship of NFSM is depicted below:

New Initiatives

Accelerated pulses production Programme

A new initiative of Accelerated Pulses production programme (A3P) has been initiated under National Food Security Mission from Kharif 2010, where in, farmers of 1 million hectares of potential pulses areas would be involved in intensive promotion of pulses through village level block demonstration of production and protection technologies. This would enable the farmers of the A3P areas to avail Seed Minikits, Integrated nutrient Management, Integrated pest management components free of cost up to 2 hectares of area of individual farmers.

60,000 pulses villages: In addition, Pulses farmers in selected watershed areas in major pulses growing states are provided incentives for purchase of tractor, rotavator and ridge furrow planters etc. as a unit to be used on custom hiring basis under new initiative of "organizing 60000 pulses and oilseed villages". During 2011-12, the scheme would be implemented in the States with more than 500000 hectares of pulses area. The states of M.P., U.P., Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, constituting nearly 96% of pulses area would be covered under the scheme.

The program in 2012 would be a bouquet of three broad categories of interventions under which a number of deliverables could be taken up as per the specific requirements in any area.

Green revolution in eastern India: This initiative is being implemented in Eastern Region of the country comprising of Bihar, Jharkhand, eastern UP, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and West Bengal. The objective is to increase the productivity of crops, mainly rice, wheat, maize, pulses by intensive cultivation through promotion of recommended agriculture technologies and package of practices.

Major programmes of the state Plans 2010-11

Bihar: More emphasis on rice production followed by wheat and pulses; intercropping of Maize and Arhar; intercropping of sugarcane and reclamation of acidic and sodic soils.

Chhattisgarh: Emphasis on Construction of runoff management structures (Check dams); Demonstration of HYV rice/hybrid maize/sugarcane with emphasis on tissue culture; Agriculture Technology Support to the farmers recently allotted with permanent lease of forest arable land; Integrated nutrient management.

Jharkhand: More emphasis of Intensive cultivation of rice in non NFSM districts; Construction of irrigation and rainwater harvesting structures.

Orissa: Major programmes included are Integrated sugarcane development including in sugar factory areas; management of acidic soils; e-pest surveillance; rice demonstrations.

Uttar Pardesh: Major programmes included are Creation of Irrigation potential; rice, wheat, maize and sugarcane development programme.

West Bengal: More emphasis on addressing the problematic soil including arsenic affected soils; production and distribution of seeds; creation of irrigation facilities; conservation of water; land resources; farm mechanization.

Assam: Major Programmes included are demonstrations of hybrid rice in summer, cultivation of hybrid maize, scientific cultivation of Pulses during summer, amelioration of soils.

National Mission on Micro irrigation

A Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on Micro Irrigation was launched in January, 2006 on the recommendation of the Task Force on Micro Irrigation (MI). The Scheme is continuing in mission mode since June, 2010 as the "National Mission on Micro Irrigation" (NMMI). The Scheme has popularized the use of MI technology to enhance water use efficiency in agriculture and has found wide acceptability among the farmers.


Since inception of Micro Irrigation Scheme, about 2.63 million ha. has been covered incurring an expenditure of Rs.3035.68 crore under NMMI upto 2011.

New Scheme on Vegetable Initiative for Urban Clusters=

A new scheme on Vegetable Initiative for Urban Clusters has been launched during 2011-12 with an outlay of Rs.300.00 crore, within the overall aegis of the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). The scheme will be implemented near major urban clusters. The main objective of the scheme is to enhance production and productivity of vegetables duly addressing all concerns related to both the demand and supply side of the vegetable sector in selected cities.

New scheme of Saffron Mission

Department of Agriculture & Cooperation has initiated a Saffron Mission with a total cost of Rs.37218.28 lakh to be implemented during 2010 to 2014. Out of this total cost, an amount of Rs.28806.80 lakh is Government of India share under RKVY scheme.

The following components are included in this intervention:

a) Replanting

b) Improving soil health

c) Production of Planting Material

d) Strengthening of irrigation System

e) Enhancing Product Quality

f) Saffron Mechanization

g) Maintenance Cost of Machinery under Public Farms

h) Weather Station Development

i) Transfer to Technologies

j) Quality testing and Marketing

k) Enhancing Research and Extension capabilities

Agricultural Marketing

Organized marketing of agricultural commodities has been promoted in the country through a network of regulated markets. Most of the State governments and Union Territories have enacted legislations (APMC Act) to provide for regulation of agricultural produce markets. While by the end of 1950, there were 286 regulated markets in the country, today the number stands at 7,157 (31.3.2010). The advent of regulated markets has helped in mitigating the market handicaps of producers/ sellers at the wholesale assembling level, but the rural periodic markets in general, and the tribal markets in particular, remained out of its developmental ambit.

Agriculture sector needs well functioning markets to drive growth, employment and economic prosperity in rural areas of the country. In order to inject dynamism and efficiency into the marketing system, large investments are required for the development of post-harvest and cold chain infrastructure nearer to the farmers' field. A major portion of this investment is expected from the private sector, for which an appropriate regulatory and policy environment is necessary.

Alongside, enabling policies need to be put in place to encourage procurement of agricultural commodities directly from farmers' field and to establish effective linkage between the farm production and the retail chain and food processing industries. Accordingly, amendment to the State Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMC) Act for deregulation of marketing system in the country is suggested to promote investment in marketing infrastructure, motivating corporate sector to undertake direct marketing and to facilitate a national integrated market.

The Ministry of Agriculture formulated a Model Law on agricultural marketing for guidance and adoption by State Governments. The model legislation provides for establishing of Private Markets/Yards, Direct Purchase Centres, Consumer/ Farmers Markets for direct sale and promotion of Public Private Partnership in the management and development of agricultural markets in the country. Provision has also been made in the Act for constitution of State Agricultural Produce Marketing Standards Bureau for promotion of Grading, Standardization and Quality Certification of agricultural produce. This would facilitate pledge financing, direct purchasing, forward/future trading and exports. Seventeen States/UTs have amended their APMC Act and the remaining States are in the process of doing so.

In pursuance of the 53rd National Development Council (NDC) resolution, the Ministry of Agriculture has prepared APMC Model Rules in 2007 also based on the Model Law and circulated to all concerned States/UTs. So far, 9 States have framed their amended APMC Rules.

In order to expedite the pace of reforms, the Ministry of Agriculture has constituted a committee of State Ministers In-charge, Agricultural Marketing on 02.03.10. The Committee has held six meetings so far and is examining the issue of market reforms in consultation with States and various other stake holders.

Infrastructure Requirement

Investment requirement for the development of marketing, storage and cold storage infrastructure in the country has been estimated to be huge and with a view to induce investment in the development of marketing infrastructure as envisaged above, the Ministry has implemented the following Plan Schemes:-

Grameen Bhandaran Yojana

The Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture has launched 'Grameen Bhandaran Yojana' w.e.f. 01.04.2001. The main objectives of the scheme include creation of scientific storage capacity with allied facilities in rural areas to meet out various requirements of farmers for storing farm produce, processed farm produce, agricultural inputs, etc., and prevention of distress sale by creating the facility of pledge loan and marketing credit.

Initially scheme was approved for two years i.e. 2001 to 2003. Since there had been huge response to the scheme, it was extended up to 30.9.2004. Beyond this date, the scheme was approved for continuation up to 31.3.2007 with some modifications. Under the pre-revised scheme, back ended subsidy @ 25% of capital cost of the project has been provided. In case of NE States, hilly areas and SC/ST entrepreneurs, subsidy has been provided @ 33.33% of the capital cost of the project.

Under the revised scheme w.e.f. 26.06.2008, subsidy @ 25% is being given to all categories of farmers, agriculture graduates, cooperatives & CWC/SWCs. All other categories of individuals, companies and corporations are being given subsidy @ 15% of the project cost. In case of NE States/hilly areas & SC/ST entrepreneurs and their cooperatives and Women Farmers, subsidy shall be 33.33%. The scheme will continue during the whole period of Xl Plan with a target of 90 lakh tonnes and a

Budget allocation of Rs 400 crores

The scheme has now been made more farmer friendly by allowing subsidy for smaller godowns of 50 MT size in general and of 25 MT in hilly areas. Five lakh tonnes capacity to be created is reserved for small farmers. Since the inception of the scheme w.e.f. 1.4.2001 and up to 31st May, 2011, 24,942 godowns having a capacity of 284.31 lakh tonnes with a subsidy release of Rs.732.23 crore has been sanctioned by NABARD & NCDC all over the country.

Marketing Research and Information Network

The Ministry of Agriculture has launched an ICT based Central Sector Scheme of Marketing Research and Information Network in March, 2000 to provide electronic connectivity to important wholesale agricultural markets in the country for collection and dissemination of wholesale prices and other market related information to the farmers and other users through AGMARKNET portal ( As on date, 3026 markets have been linked with AGMARKNET portal form all over the country. These markets are reporting daily prices and arrivals in respect of more than 300 commodities and 2000 varieties from more than 1800 markets covering all major agricultural and horticultural produce.

In addition to price, several other market related information is provided on the portal. These relate to accepted standards of grade labeling, sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, physical infrastructure of storage and warehousing, marketing yards, fees payable, etc. Efforts are on to prepare a national atlas of agricultural markets on a GIS Platform that would indicate the availability of entire marketing infrastructure in the country including storage, cold storages, markets and related infrastructure. Similarly, commodity profiles indicating post harvest requirements of important commodities are being loaded on the portal.

===Development/Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardization=== The Ministry of Agriculture is implementing another Central Sector scheme for "Development/Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardisation" under which, Investment subsidy is provided @ 25 per cent on the capital cost of the marketing infrastructure development subject to a maximum of Rs.50 lakh for each project in all States and @ 33.33 per cent of capital cost subject to a maximum of Rs.60 lakh for each project in case of North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Himachal Pardesh, hilly area and to SC/ (ST) and their cooperatives.

In respect of infrastructure projects of State Governments/State Agencies, there is no upper ceiling on subsidy to be provided under the scheme. The scheme is reform linked and applicable in such States/Union Territories which undertake reforms in APMC Act to allow "Direct Marketing" and "Contract Farming" and to permit agricultural produce markets in private and cooperative sectors. Further infrastructure projects promoted by States can be considered which have waived off the market fee on perishable horticulture produce.

26 states/UTs viz. Madhya Pardesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Manipur, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pardesh, Punjab, Andhra Pardesh, Sikkim, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshdweep, Arunachal Pardesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Bihar, U.T. of Chandigarh, Assam, Tripura, Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa and Jharkhand have become eligible to receive financial assistance in the form of subsidy under the scheme.

695 awareness programmes have been conducted in notified States/UTs since inception of the scheme and upto the end of 31.03.2011, 4529 projects sanctioned by NABARD and subsidy of Rs.293.10 crore has been released. Besides this, 340 project proposals of different State agencies have been sanctioned involving Rs.114.43 crore as subsidy. In cooperative sector NCDC has sanctioned 1409 infrastructure projects involving Rs.30.90 crore as subsidy as on 31.5.2011.

Terminal Market Complex

The Department has recently taken the initiative to promote modern terminal markets for fruits, vegetables and other perishables in important urban centres of the country. These markets would provide state of art infrastructure facilities for electronic auction, cold chain and logistics and operate through primary collection centres conveniently located in producing areas to allow easy access to farmers.

They are envisaged to operate on a 'Hub-and-Spoke' format wherein the Terminal market (the hub) would be linked to a number of collection centres (the spokes), conveniently located in key production centres to allow easy access to farmers for marketing of their produce. These markets would be set up under the scheme of National Horticulture Mission (NHM). The markets will have all required infrastructural facilities with end to end approach. The floor subsidy is 25% of the project cost with a ceiling of subsidy of 40% uptp Rs.50 crores per Terminal Market Complex (TMC). There is provision of equity participation by Producers' Association in the TMC upto 26%. The project is implemented under Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. The TMC projects of Chennai, Madurai, Nagpur, Babangaon (Thane) and Sambalpur have also been accorded.

Organizations Under the Administrative Control of DAC

The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) has three organizations dealing with marketing under its administrative control, namely, the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI), Faridabad, the Ch. Charan Singh National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM), Jaipur and the Small Farmers Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC), New Delhi.

Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI)

It is an attached office of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation and is headed by Agricultural Marketing Adviser. The Directorate has its Head Office at Faridabad (Haryana), Branch Head Office at Nagpur (Maharashtra), 11 Regional Offices and the Central Agmark Laboratory at Nagpur. Besides this, there are 26 Sub-Offices, 11 Regional Agmark Laboratories (RALs) spread all over the country.

The main functions of the Directorate are as follows:

1. Rendering advice on statutory regulation, development and management of agricultural produce markets in the States/UTs;

2. Promotions of Standardization and Grading of agricultural and allied produce under the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937;

3. Training of personnel in Agricultural Marketing;

4. Marketing Extention;

5. Marketing Research and Information Network;

6. Construction of Rural Godowns; and

7. Development of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure.

Ch. Charan Singh National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM)

Ch. Charan Singh National Institute of Agriculture Marketing (NIAM) came into being on 8th August, 1988 at Jaipur (Rajasthan) with a mandate for Training, Research, Consultancy and Education in the field of Agriculture Marketing. As an apex body of Agricultural marketing in India, the Institute has been playing a vital role as policy advisory body to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The Institute is managed by a Governing Body under the Chairmanship of Minister for Agriculture and an Executive Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation.

The aim of the Training programme is upgradation of skills for the existing Agricultural Marketing personnel. The pragrammes cover contemporary topics in the areas of Quality Standards, Post Harvest Management, Contract farming, Agricultural Marketing Reforms, Market led Extention & Risk Management, Food Safety, Information Technology, Women Empowerment, Scientific Storage, World trade Organisation (WTO) etc.

The Institute has been imparting training to senior and middle level Executives of Agricultural and Horticultural departments, agro industries, corporation, State Marketing Boards, Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees and apex level cooperatives, Commodity Boards, export house recognized by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Development Authority (APEDA), commercial banks and non-governmental organizations.

The Institute has prepared Agricultural Marketing Plans for the development of Agricultural Marketing in a number of States. It also prepares Project Reports for setting up Terminal Markets and other Agri-Business projects.

NIAM conducts applied research on important Agricultural Marketing issues through its own faculty and students.

NIAM is conducting Post Graduate Diploma Programme (PGDABM), which is a two-year residential AICTE approved programme. The admission to the course is made through NIAMAT test on all India centres.

Small Farmers' Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC)

The Small Farmers' Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) was registered by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 in January 1994.

SFAC is managed by a Board of Management consisting of 20 members and chaired by Hon'ble Union Minister of Agriculture as its Ex-Officio President and the Secretary (Department of Agriculture & Cooperation), Government of India as its Ex-Officio Vice-President. The Managing Director is the Chief Executive of SFAC. SFAC has established State level SFACs by contributing to corpus fund. The mission of the Society is to support innovative ideas for generating income and employment in rural areas by promoting private investment in agribusiness project.

The Central sector scheme for agribusiness development implemented by SFAC was approved by the Government on 19th July, 2005 with an outlay of Rs. 48.00 crore.

The scheme is being implemented by SFAC in close association with commercial banks to provide Venture Capital to agribusiness projects and assist farmer/ producer groups in preparation of quality Detailed Project Reports (DPR).

The main objectives of the scheme are to facilitate setting up of agribusiness ventures in participation with banks, catalyse private investment in setting up of agribusiness projects and thereby providing assured market to producers for increasing rural income and employment, strengthen backward linkages of agribusiness projects with producers, assist farmers, producer groups, and agriculture graduates to enhance their participation in the value chain through project development facilities, arrange training and visits etc. of agripreneurs setting up identified agribusiness projects. SFAC provides financial assistance to agribusiness project by way of equity participation.

Integrated Nutrient Management

The main objective of Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) Division is to ensure adequate availability of quality fertilizers to farmers through periodical demand assessment and timely supply of fertilizers, promoting integrated nutrient management, which is soil test based judicious and balanced use of chemical fertilizers in conjuction with organic manures and bio-fertilizers, promotion of organic farming and ensuring quality control of fertilizers through implementation of Fertilizer (Control) Order, 1985.

Fertilizer Consumption

India is the third largest producer of fertilizer after China & USA and second largest consumer after China in the world. Against 24.91 million tonnes of fertilizer (NPK) consumed during 2008-09, the nutrient consumption is 26.49 million tonnes during 2009-10. The consumption of major fertilizers namely, Urea, Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP), Muriate of Potash (MOP), Single Super Phosphate (SSP) and Complexes were 26.67, 10.49, 4.63, 2.65 and 8.02 million tonnes respectively during 2009-10.

All India average fertilizer consumption in 2009-10 was 135.27 kg/ha of NPK nutrients. There is wide variation in consumption from state to state. It is 237.1 kg/ha in Punjab, 225.7 kg/ha in Andhra Pardesh, 209-9 kg/ha in Haryana and 205.8 kg/ha. in Tamil Nadu. Consumption is comparatively low in Rajasthan (48.3 kg/ha.), Himachal Pradesh (54.8 kg/ha.), Orissa (57.6 kg/ha.) and Jharkhand (70.0 kg/ha.) and less than 5 kg/ha. in States like Arunachal Pardesh and Nagaland.

Price of Fertilizers

Presently urea is the only fertilizer which is under Statutory Price Control. To ensure adequate availability of fertilizers to farmers at reasonable rates, subsidy is provided by Government of India. Urea, the most consumed fertilizer, is subsidized under the New Urea Pricing Scheme. Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) policy in Urea is under consideration of Government of India. The P&K fertilizers, which are decontrolled, are covered under Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) policy from 01-04-2010. The subsidy is given to the companies on the basis of nutrients (N, P, K & S) present in the fertilizers. There is policy for uniform freight subsidy on all fertilizers under the fertilizer subsidy regime. The prices of major fertilizers are as under:-


Buffer Stocking of Phosphoric & Potassium Fertilizers

A buffer stock of limited quantity of Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) and Muriate of Potash (MOP) is being maintained at strategic locations to meet emergent requirements. These stocks are in the nature of rolling stocks and are replenished when depleted. Besides meeting emergent needs, it also helps to meet requirement to States which have low demand and hence sometimes find it difficult to induce suppliers to move fertilizers in small quantities.

Fertilizer Quality Control

Fertilizer is a critical and costly input for sustaining agricultural production and ensuring food security of the country. The Government ensures the quality of fertilizers through Fertilizer (Control) Order (FCO), issued under Essential Commodities Act, 1955 to regulate the trade, price, quality and distribution of fertilizers in the country. The State Governments are the enforcement agencies for implementation of the provisions of FCO, 1985. The Order prohibits the manufacture, import and sale of any fertilizer, which does not meet prescribed standards. It provides for compulsory registration of fertilizer manufacturers, importers and dealers, specification of all fertilizers manufactured/imported and sold in the country, regulation on manufacture of fertilizer mixture, packing and marking on the fertilizer bags, appointment of enforcement agencies, setting up of quality control laboratories and prohibition on manufacture/import and sale of non-standard/ spurious/adulterated fertilizers.

To check the quality of fertilizers sold in the country, there are 74 Fertilizer Quality Control Laboratories at present, including 4 Central Government laboratories namely, Central Fertilizer Quality Control & Training Institute, Faridabad and its its three Regional Laboratories at Chennai, Navi Mumbai and Kalyani. These laboratories have a total annual analyzing capacity of 1.31 lakh samples. The Analytical capacity and the number of samples analyzed and found non standard during the last 5 years are as follows:


Fertilizer Control Order, 1985

In order to encourage the use of Single Super Phosphate (SSP), specifications of SSP have been redefined. The specification in terms of moisture of DAP has also been revised. A new biofertilizer, namely Mycorrhiza has been incorporated in the Fertilizer Control Order 1985. So far 36 soil and crop specific customised fertilizers have been notified under FCO.

National Project on Promotion of Organic Farming

With the view to promote organic farming practices, to reduce the burden on Chemical Fertilizers, to ensure effective utilization of farm resources and to cater to domestic and international growing Organic Food Market, a National Project on Organic Farming was launched during 10th Plan with an outlay of Rs. 57.04 crores (w.e.f. 01.10.2004). The Scheme is continuing in the 11th Five Year Plan with an outlay of Rs. 101.00 crore with the following revised mandates:

1. Promotion of Organic Farming in the country through technical capacity building of all the stakeholders including human resource development, technology development, transfer of technology, promotion and production of quality organic and biological inputs, awareness creation and publicity through print and electronic media.

2. Statutory quality control requirements of biofertilizers and organic fertilizer under Fertilizer Control Order (FCO), 1985, including revision of standards and testing protocols keeping in view the advances in research and technology and bringing remaining organic inputs under quality control regime.

3. Capacity building for soil health assessment, organic input resource management and market development.

4. Capacity building and network development for farmers group centric organic certification know as Participatory Organic Guarantee System for India (PGSIndia). There are around 226 biofertilizer production units in the country with installed capacity of 86,078 MT and annual production of more than 20,040 MT of biofertilizers and more than 45,475 MT of other inoculants including bio-pesticides.

Under the Scheme, capacity has also been created for processing of 1022 tons of agricultural waste per day in to compost, 5,260 MT/annum if biofertilizers and more than 1,06,430 MT/annum of vermi-culture and vermi-compost. Since the launch of the scheme, the area under certified organic farming has increased 25 fold from 42,000 ha. (2003-04) to 10,80,000 ha. (2009-10). The organic food production has increased from 4 lakh ton in 2006-07 to 18 lakh ton during 2009-10 valued at Rs. 5450 crore.

Balanced Use of Fertilizers

The Government is promoting soil test based balanced and judicious use of Chemical fertilizers. "National Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility" has been introduced for this purpose during 2008-09 with the aim of setting up of static and mobile soil testing laboratories. There are 715 soil testing laboratories in India (2009- 10) with annual analyzing capacity of 7.0 million samples. As a result of various initiatives of the Government 'N', 'P' and 'K' consumption ratio has improved to 4.3:2.0:1.0 during 2009-10 from 7.0:2.7:1.0 during 2000-01, the preferred ratio being 4.0:2.0:1.0.

Drought Management

Department of Agriculture & Cooperation coordinates relief measures necessitated by drought, hailstorm and pest attack.

As regards all other natural calamities is concerned, Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal agency which undertakes all activities ranging from their administration to approval of release of funds to the State Governments of the adversely affected States.

It is primarily the responsibility of the State Government to take necessary measures in the wake of natural calamities from State Disaster Response Funds (SDRF). As per the recommendation of the 13th Finance Commission, the contribution to SDRF between the Centre and the States concerned is in the ratio of 75:25 for General Category States and 90:10 for 11 Special Category States viz. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The Union Government supplements the efforts of the States by providing financial and logistic supports.

There are a number of regular programmes and schemes which also help in drought proofing and drought mitigation, as on approach.

The criteria of assistance are determined by the Finance Commission which remains operational till the recommendations of the next Finance Commission are laid down in the Parliament subject to the approval of Parliament.

During 2009-10, unprecedented drought took place in various parts of the country affecting 90 districts in 4 States. The level of gravity of this drought was never witnessed in the last two decades. Keeping in view the severity of hardships faced by the farmers, "Diesel Subsidy Scheme" was launched in 2009 in drought/ deficit rainfall areas to save the standing crops.

The Union Government provides financial assistance to the State Governments based on their memoranda for additional help under Nation Disaster Response Fund (NDRF). For 2010-11, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation has brought out a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) for effective management of drought. It is an actionable programme, which could be pressed into immediate action in the event of a crisis situation to minimize the damage to life, property and environment. CMP is a part of overall spectrum of Drought Management Plan and is a management intervention required during time of crisis. It defines the roles and responsibilities of various agencies involved in crisis management and put together a communication process for quickly notifying the Public in the event of a crisis.


The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries is one of the Departments under the Ministry of Agriculture. It came into existence on February 1, 1991 by merger of two Divisions of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation viz. Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development into a separate Department. The Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation and a part of the Ministry of Food Processing Industries was later transferred to this Department on October 10, 1997. The Department is responsible for matters relating to livestock production, preservation, protection & improvement of stocks, dairy development, matters relating to the Delhi Milk Scheme and the National Dairy Development Board. It also looks after all matters pertaining fisheries, which includes inland and marine sectors and matters related to the National Fisheries Development Board.


The contribution of livestock sector to the food basket in the form of milk, eggs and meat has been immense in fulfilling the animal protein requirement of ever-growing human population. The present availability of human protein in an Indian diet is around 11.3gm per person per day, as against a world average of 29gm. However, keeping in view the growing population, the animal protein availability has to increase at least twofold, for maintaining the nutritional level of growing children and nursing mothers in India.

Milk Production: During past five-year plans, several measures were initiated by the Government to increase the productivity of livestock, which has resulted in significant increase in the milk production to the level of 11.2 million tonnes in the year 2009-10 as compared to 53.9 million tonnes in 1990-91. India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world.

Egg-Production: The egg production in the country has reached 59.84 billion numbers in 2009-10.

Wool Production: The wool production in the country has reached 42.7 million kg during 2009-10.

Other Livestock Products:

Livestock sector not only provides essential protein and nutritious human diet through milk, eggs, meat etc., but also plays an important role in utilization of non-edible agricultural by-products. Livestock also provides raw material by-products such as hides and skins, blood, bone, fat etc.


Livestock Insurance

For promotion of the livestock sector, it is important that along with providing more effective measures for disease control and improvement of genetic quality of animals, a mechanism of assured protection to the farmers and cattle rearers is required against eventual losses of such animals. In this direction, the Government of India introduced a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on Livestock Insurance on a pilot basis during 2005-06 & 2006-07 in 100 selected districts. The scheme continued during 2007-08 also. A full fledged scheme on Livestock Insurance was implemented in 2008-09. The scheme covers 300 selected districts from 10.12.2009.

This CSS being implemented in all the States has twin objectives; providing protection mecchanism to the farmers & cattle rearers against any eventual loss of their animals due to death; and to demonstrate the benefit of the insurance of livestock. The scheme benefits the farmers (large/small/marginal) and cattle rearers having indigenous/crossbred milch cattle and buffaloes. Benefit of subsidy is to be restricted to two animals per beneficiary per household. The funds under the scheme are bing utilized for payment of premium subsidy, honorarium to the Veterinary Practitioner and publicity campaign for creation of awareness. 50% of the premium of insurance is paid by the beneficiary and the rest is paid by the Government of India. An amount of Rs.20.12 crore has been released to States and 4.94 lakh animals have been insured during 2010-11 up to December, 2010.


The first Livestock Census was conducted during 1919-1920 and since then it is being conducted quinquennially by all States/UTs in India. The 18th Livestock Census was conducted with 15/10/2007 as the date of reference. The Census is conducted as a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Livestock Census is the only source, which gives detailed information on all species of livestock and poultry, animal driven agricultural implements & machinery, and fishery statistics. In the 18th Livestock Census (2007), for the very first time digital data upto the household level has been processed at the central level through National Informatics Centre. Breed-wise data has also been collected for the first time.

The All India Report (Provisional Results) on the 18th Livestock census, processed by the National Informatics Centre from the digital data on village level totals, is available on the official website of the Department ( The All India Report (final results), derived from digital household level data is expected to be ready by the end of March 2011. Out of budgetary allocation of r18.50 crore for 2010-11, an amount of Rs.8.04 crore has been released till 31.12.2010 to the States/UTs for the conduct of 18th livestock census. In additional to this an amount of Rs.26.70 lakh has been released to NIC for meeting the expenses on computerization.


India possesses 27 acknowledged indigenous breeds of cattle and seven breeds of buffaloes. Various Central and Centrally sponsored schemes are being implemented for genetic improvement of cattle and buffalo with a view to enhance the per capita availability of consumption of milk through increased milk production. Efforts are also made to protect and preserve the indigenous cattle and buffalo in their native tract, which are facing threat of extinction. The elite animals are selected and registered on the basis of their performance for production of superior pedigree bulls, bull-mothers, frozen semen and frozen embryos for future breeding improvements.

There are seven Central Cattle Breeding Farms at Alamadi (Tamil Nadu) , Andeshnagar (U.P.), Chiplima and Semiliguda (Orissa), Dhamrod (Gujarat), Hessarghatta (Karnataka), and Suratgarh (Rajasthan). These are engaged in scientific breeding programmes of cattle and buffaloes and production of high pedigreed bulls for National Project for Cattle/Buffalo Breeding Programme. In addition, these farms provide training to the farmers and breeders. They are producing high pedigree bull calves of indigenous, crossbred and exotic breeds of cattle and important buffalo breeds for distribution of States. During 2009-10, these farms produced 394 bull calves for using in artificial insemination/natural services and trained 2,888 farmers in dairy farm management. For the year 2010-11 (till 31st December, 2010), the corresponding achievements are 314 and 2,389 respectively. Central Frozen Semen Production and Training Institute located at Hessarghatta, Karnataka producing frozen semen of indigenous, exotic and crossbreed cattle and Murrah buffalo bulls for use in Artificial Insemination (A1).

The Institute also provides training in frozen semen technology to technical officers of the State Governments and acts as a Centre for testing the indigenously manufactured frozen semen and Al Equipments. The Institute produced 8.66 lakh doses of frozen semen and provided training to 255 persons in field of Frozen Semen Technology & Andrology during the year 2009-10. During 2010-11 (till 31st December 2010), 9.13 lakh doses of frozen semen were produced and 145 persons were produced and 145 persons were imparted training.

Central Herd Registration Scheme is for registration of elite cow and buffalo, breeds of national importance and provides incentive for rearing of elite cows and male calves. It plays a vital role in sourcing indigenous germplasm required for the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding. The scheme has a significant role in assisting the Department of Animal Husbandry of States and Union Territories, private sector and Government undertakings in procuring elite dairy cows and buffaloes as well as bulls and progeny of high genetic potential for use in the development programme.

Four CHRS Units have been established under this scheme at Rohtak, Ahmedabad, Ajmer and Ongole. A total of 92 Milk Recording Centres located in the States of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh and functioning under these centres for recording the milk yield of indigenous breeds of Gir, Kankrej, Haryana and Ongole of Cattle and Murrah, Jaffrabadi, Surti and Mehsana breeds of buffalo for confirmation of their phenotypic breed characteristics and milk production level. These are identified in their breeding tracts and publicity is made for marketing of registered cows, buffaloes and calves. Primary registration of 14, 428 cows and buffaloes were done during the year 2009-10. The corresponding figure for 2010-11 (till 31st December 2010) is 12,323.

Genetic improvement in bovines is a long term activity and Government of India has initiated a major programme. 'National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding' (NPCBB) from October 2000 over a period of ten years, in two phases each of five years, with an allocation of 402 crore for Phase-I. In order to consolidate gains made during Phase-I, Phase-II has been initiated from December 2006 with an allocation of r914.89 crore. The NPCBB envisages genetic upgradation of bovine population on priority basis with a focus on development and conservation of important indigenous breeds. The project envisages 100% grant-in-aid to Implementing Agencies.


Poultry development has been a household activity in India. However, scientific poultry production in India gained momentum during the last four decades due to concerted efforts of the Government of India through policies, institution and focused research and the initiatives taken by the private sector. The poultry sector has emerged from entirely unorganized farming practice to commercial production system with state-of-the-art technological interventions. Poultry sector, besides providing direct or indirect employment to people, is also a potent tool for subsidiary income generation for many landless and marginal farmers. It also provides nutritional security especially to the rural poor.

The CPDOs located at four regions viz. Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar, Mumbai and Bangaluru have been playing a pivotal role in the implementation of the policies of the Government with respect to poultry. The mandate of these organizations has specially been reoriented to focus on improved indigenous birds, which lay on an average 180-200 eggs per annum and have vastly improved Feed Conversion ratio in terms of feed consumption and weight gain. In these CPDOs, training is also imparted to the farmers to upgrade their technical skills. Besides, CPDO, Bangaluru is also imparting training to in-service personnel from within the country as well as overseas. Diversification with species other than chicken like ducks, turkey, guinea fowl, Japanese quail and emu is also undertaken. The Central Poultry Performance Testing Centre (CPPTC), located at Gurgaon is entrusted with responsibility of testing the performance of layer and broiler varieties. This Centre gives valuable information relating to different genetic stock available in the country.

The main objective of the Poultry Venture Capital Fund Scheme is to encourage entrepreneurship skills of individuals in various poultry activities. Under this, various poultry activities like establishing poultry breeding farms with low input technology birds (also for ducks/turkey/ guinea fowl/Japanese quail/emu etc.) feed go-down, feed mill, feed analytical laboratories, marketing of poultry products (specialized transport vehicles, cools room storage facilities and retention sheds for birds etc.) egg grading, packing and storage for export capacity, central grower units etc. have been funded as interest free loan.


According to Livestock census 2003, there are about 61.47 million sheep and 124.36 million goats in the country. About five million households in the country are engaged in the rearing of small ruminants (sheep and goats) and other allied activities.

Central Sheep Breeding Farm, Hissar is engaged in production of acclimatized exotic/cross bred superior quality rams. During 2010-11 (till 31th December 2010), the farm supplied 698 rams and 65 bucks. A total of 78 farmers were trained in mechanical sheep shearing and 532 farmers were trained in sheep management.


11th Plan allocation for this scheme has been enhanced from r16.00 crore to Rs.45.00 crore. Major features of the scheme are:

(i) Breeds of livestock showing declining trend in population around 10,000 will be covered. (ii) Poultry and duck breeds with population of 1,000 would also be covered, (iii) Strengthening of policy and institutional framework and linkages with research agencies are provided for, besides setting up nucleus breeding units. (iv) Variable project period allowed for small and large animals. (v) The States are required to prepare an inventory of livestock breeds and varieties. Allocation under the scheme during the financial year 2010-11 is r4.20 crore against which Rs.1.11 crore was released till 31st December 2010,

Assistance provided during the financial year 2010-11 for continuation of nucleus breeding units are to Assam Agriculture University (for Doom pig - Rs.28.50 lakh),

Government of Gujarat (for Suri goat- r32.25 lakh), Government of Jammu & Kashmir (for conservation of Yak Rs.50.00 lakh).


This CSS was approved in April, 2009 for implementation during 11th Plan with an outlay of Rs.134.83 for three years starting from 2009-10. The budget allocation for financial year 2010-11 was Rs.42.00 crore. The scheme envisages setting up of 54 intensive small ruminants development clusters with venture capital through NABARD as well as infrastructure development and institutional restructuring. Under this scheme, there is a provision for establishment of individual sheep/goat farms through NABARD. The scheme is aimed at women beneficiaries, poor and marginal farmers.

During the year 2010-11, fifty one sheep/goat loans have been sanctioned in Tamil Nadu and another 530 units are identified to be covered. About 60 proposals are in process of sanction in Andhra Pradesh. Rs.517.94 has been released till 31st December 2010 to various States and NABARD.


There are 21 export-oriented modern abattoirs and 57 meat processing plants registered with Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority exporting raw meat (Chilled and frozen) to about 63 countries.


This scheme is aimed at assisting farmers/ landless labourers/cooperatives and Tribals particularly in North-Eastern States by rearing pigs under stall fed condition for quality pork production and organized pork marketing in rural and semi-urban areas. An amount of Rs.1.50 crore was released against a budget Allocation of Rs.3.00 crore till 31st Dec.2010.


Adequate availability of feed and fodder to livestock is vital for increasing the productivity and also for sustaining the ongoing genetic improvement initiatives. Optimum and efficient utilization of feed and fodder resources holds key for successful commercial livestock production. The area cultivated under fodder resources holds key for successful commercial livestock production. The area cultivated under fodder is about 4.6% of the total cultivable area. Exclusive pastures and grasslands are widespread and are grazed by the domestic animals. Total area under permanent pastures and grasslands is about 12.4 million hectares (NABCONS).

An area of 15.6 million ha is classified as wasteland and is also available for grazing. However majority of these lands have either been degraded or encroached upon restricting their availability for livestock grazing. Presently, the Department is implementing a Central Sector Scheme, "Central Fodder Development Organization" and a "Centrally Sponsored Fodder and Feed Development Scheme" to supplement the efforts of states in feed and fodder sector. In addition states are assisted under special package for suicide prone areas in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra States.

1. Seven Regional Stations have been established in different agro climatic zones of the country for production of high yielding varieties of fodder/ fodder seed and transfer of scientific fodder production technology through training of officers/farms, demonstration of latest fodder agronomic practices and organization of farmer fairs. During 2010-11 these stations produced 376.96 MT of high yielding fodder variety seeds, conducted 6681 field demonstrations, organized 149 training programmes and 154 Farmer Fairs.

2. During 2010-11, Central Fodder Seed Production Farm located at Hessarghatta (Karnataka) working with the same objectives as of Regional Stations produced 75.00 MT fodder seeds of different varieties of grasses/ legumes, conducted 829 field demonstrations, organized 22 training programmes and 19 farmers fairs.

3. A Central Minikit Testing Programme of fodder crops is under implementation for popularizing the high yielding fodder varieties on a large scale through Director Animal Husbandry of States. During 2010-11, 11.79 lakh minikits were allotted to the States for distribution to farmers free of cost.

II-Centrally Sponsored Scheme

Besides the above, a modified Centrally sponsored Feed and Fodder Development Scheme is being implemented from 2011-11 for establishment of Fodder Block making Unit, Grassland Development including Grass Reserves, Fodder Seed Procurement and Distribution, Strengthening of Feed Testing Laboratories, Introduction of hand driven chaffcutter, Introduction of power driven chaff cutter, establishment of silage making units, Demonstration of Azolla cultivation & production units, Establishment of by-pass protein production units and Establishment of Area Specific Mineral Mixture / Feed Pelleting/Feed manufacturing Units, under which funds of r4243.98 lakh was released to various States during 2010-11.

In addition, Special Livestock Package for Suicide Prone Districts of Maharashtra and Kerala is implemented under which Rs. 653.46 lakhs was released during 2008-09 for Feed and Fodder Supply Programme and establishment of fodder Block making units.

Central Fodder Development Organization

Under this Central Sector Scheme, 7 Regional Stations for Forage Production & Demonstration located in different agro-cliamatic zones of the country and one Central Fodder Seed Production Farm at Hessarghatta, Bangalore are being operated.


The Indian Dairy sector acquired substantial growth momentum from 9th Plan onwards, achieving an annual output of over 112.54 million tonnes of milk during 2009-10. This has not only placed the country on top of the world, but also represents sustained growth in the availability of milk and milk products for the growing population.

Dairying has become an important role in providing employment and income generating opportunities. The per captia availability of the milk reached at a level of 263 income generating opportunities. The per capita availability of the milk reached at a level of 263 grams per day in the year 2009-10, but it is still lower than the world average of 284 grams per day. about 14.08 million farmers have been brought under the ambit of 1,35,439 village level dairy corporative societies.

Intensive Dairy Development Programme (IDDP)

The Schemes, 'Integrated Dairy Development Programme (IDDP) in Non-Operation Flood, Hilly and Backward Areas' was launched in 1993-94 on 100% graint-in aid basis. The scheme was modified in March, 2005 and was named as 'Intensive Dairy Development Programme (IDDP)'. The scheme is presently being implemented in hilly and backward areas and also in districts, which received less than Rs.50.00 lakh for dairy development activities under Operation Flood programme.

Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality and Clean Milk Production

With the increase in milk production, quality standards prevalent today in milk production, milk collection and processing needs improvement. The microbiological quality of milk is poor due to lack of knowledge about clean milk production and lack of post milking chilling facilities in the villages. To compete in international market for export of milk and milk products, it has become necessary to produce the dairy products of international standards.

Since inception, the Department has approved 151 projects spread over 21 States and one UT at a total cost of Rs.258.43 crore with a Central share of Rs.211.24 crore till 31.12.2010. An amount of Rs.15.12 crore has been released during the year 2010-11 (till 31st December 2010) for implementation of approved projects, 5.74 lakh farmer members have been trained and 1,835 Bulk Milk Coolers (BMCs) with a total chilling capacity of 35.75 lakh litres have been installed and 1,253 existing laboratories have been strengthened.

Assistance to Cooperatives

The scheme started during 1999-2000, aims at revitalizing the sick dairy cooperative unions at the district level and cooperative federations at the State level. The rehabilitation plan is prepared by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in consultation with the concerned State Dairy Federation/district Milk Union. Each rehabilitation plan is to be implemented within a period of 7 years from the date of its approval. Since inception, an amount of Rs.106.17 crore has been released under the scheme till 31st December, 2010. Out of 37 Milk Unions, 17 have turned around and earned profit as on 31.03.2009.

Dairy Venture Capital Fund

To bring about structural changes in unorganized sector, measures like milk processing at village level, marketing of pasteurized milk in a cost effective manner, quality upgradation of traditional technology to handle commercial scale using modern equipments and management skills, a new scheme viz. 'Dairy Venture Capital Fund' is being implemented during 11th Five Year Plan with an outlay of r 250.00 crore during XIth plan after separating the Poultry component of erstwhile 'Dairy/Poultry Venture Capital Fund' scheme launched in 2004-05. Under this scheme, assistance is provided to the rural/urban beneficiaries under a schematic proposal through bankable projects.

Eligible beneficiaries, under the scheme, include agricultural farmers/individual entrepreneurs and groups of all sections of unorganized as well as organized sector including cooperatives and NGOs, from any part of the country. The scheme has been revised and renamed as "Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme" with effect from 1st September, 2010. The scheme is being implemented through NABARD and funds amounting to Rs.144.99 crore were released to NABARD till 31st August, 2010, including Rs.12.00 crore released during 2010-11. NABARD has sanctioned 18,184 Dairy Units and released r174.39 crore till 31st August, 2010.

National Dairy Plan

National Dairy Plan is a strategic plan prepared by NDDB with an estimated outlay of Rs.17,371 crore to achieve a target of 180 million tonnes of milk production annually by 2021-22. Milk production is expected to grow at 4% with an annual incremental output of 5 million tonnes in the next 15 years. Districts will be categorized into 324 high potential districts for intensive development and 282 low potential districts for further expansion of the sector. Under this plan the Government is contemplating to enhance milk production in major milk producing areas, strengthen and expand infrastructure to produce, process and market milk through the existing and new institutional structures. The plan envisages breed improvement through Artificial Insemination (AI) and through natural service, setting up plants to augment cattle feed, by-pass protein and mineral mixture and expanding/strengthening milk processing infrastructure. The plan also proposes to bring 65% of the surplus milk produced under organized sector for procurement as against the present 30%. The cooperative and private sector would continue to have 50:50 share.

Delhi Milk Scheme (DMS)

Delhi Milk Scheme (DMS) was set up in 1959 with the Primary objective of supplying wholesome milk to the citizens of Delhi at reasonable prices as well as for providing remunerative prices to milk producers. The initial installed capacity of Delhi Milk Scheme was for processing/packing of 2.55 lakh litres of milk per day. However, in order to meet increasing demand for milk in the city, the capacity was expanded in phases to the level of 5.00 lakh litres of milk per day. The Department has developed a web site for use by related user.


With the improvement in the quality of livestock through launching of extensive cross breeding programmes, the susceptibility of these livestock to various diseases including exotic diseases has increased. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality, efforts are being made by the State/Union Territory Governments to provide better health care through Polyclinics/Veterinary Hospitals/Dispensaries/first-Aid Centers including Mobile Veterinary Dispensaries.

The Statewise details of Veterinary Institutions are given at Annexue-XI.

In order to provide referral services over and above the existing disease diagnostic laboratories in the States, one Central and five Regional disease Diagnostic Laboratories are also functioning. Further, for control of major livestock and poultry diseases by way of prophylactic vaccination, the required quantity of vaccines are produced in the country at 29 veterinary vaccine production units. Of these, 21 are in the public sector and 7 in private sector.

While efforts are made to ensure better livestock health in the country, efforts are also made to prevent ingress of diseases from outside the country, and to maintain standards of veterinary drugs and formulations. At present, the Drugs Controller of India regulates veterinary drugs and biologicals in consultation with this Department. The following schemes are implemented for Livestock Health.

Animal Quarantine and Certification Service

The objective of this service is to prevent ingress of livestock diseases into India by regulating the import of livestock and livestock related products, and providing export certification of International Standards for livestock and livestock products which are exported from India. There are six quarantine stations in the country out of which four located at New Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, and Kolkata are operating smoothly from their own premises, which include a small laboratory. The other two Animal Quarantine Stations at Hyderabad and Bengaluru are currently operating from the airport offices where, the import of Grand Parent (GP) stock of poultry, pets, laboratory animals and livestock products has already commenced.

National Veterinary Biological Products Quality Control Centre

The Choudhary Charan Singh National Institute of Animal Health has now been established at Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh to undertake the testing of vaccines and biologicals for their quality. The Institute has started functioning. So far, the Indian Veterinary Research Institute was assisting in the task of monitoring the quality of vaccines and biological.

Central/Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratories

In order to provide referral services over and above the 250 existing disease diagonistic laboratories in the States, one Central and five Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratories have been set up by strengthening the existing state diagnostic facilities. The Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis (CADRAD) of Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar is functioning as Central Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. The Disease Investigation Laboratory, Pune, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Kolkata, Institute of Animal Health & Biologicals, Bengaluru, Animal Health Institute, Jalandhar and Institute of Veterinary Biologicals, Khanapara, Guwahati are functioning as referral laboratories for Western, Eastern, Southern, Northern and North-Eastern region, respectively.

Livestock Health & Disease Control (LH&DC)

This Centrally Sponsored Scheme is being implemented throughout the country with Macro Management approach by amalgamating all the animal health related Plan schemes with some modifications since 2003-04. The scheme has the following components:

(a) Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD)

(b) National Project on Rinderpest Eradication (NPRE)

(c) Professional Efficiency Development (PED)

(d) Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD-CP)


The present wave of Avian Influenza (commonly known as 'Bird Flu') in poultry commenced in 1997 in Hong Kong. It has infected numerous species of birds in Asia, Europe, America and Africa since 2003. A total of 62 countries reported Avian Influenza in domestic poultry/wild life during the period 2003-2009, of which, 50 countries have reported this disease in domestic poultry. The following measures have been taken up by the Government of India for control and containment of current Avian Influenza outbreak as well as to prevent its ingress into the country.

(i) Culling of entire poultry population in the affected zone of 0-3 kms.

(ii) Continuous strengthening of preparedness to tackle any future eventuality in terms of upgradation of laboratories, training of manpower, stockpiling of materials for control and containment etc.

(iii) Training veterinary personnel in preparedness, control and containment is continuing. More than 80% veterinary workforce in the country has been trained to handle control and containment operations.

(iv) To strengthen the diagnosis of Avian Influenza, two prefabricated Bio-Safety Level 3 (BSL 3) laboratories have been established at Jalandhar and Kolkata. Two more similar BSL3 laboratories have already been procured and are being installed at Bengaluru and Bareilly. Two BSL 3 laboratories of constructed category are being set up at Pune and Guwahati. 23 State Disease Diagnostic Laboratories ae being upgraded to BSL 2 level. Three laboratories are already functional. The remaining are at various stages of completion.

(v) Reserve of essential material for control operations have been developed and are being expanded further.

(vi) Sensitization of general public on Avian Influenza through Information, Education and Communication (IEC) campaigns.

(vii) Transparent approach towards reporting not only outbreaks but also information of unusual sickness/mortality in poultry and results of laboratory diagnosis.

(viii) All the state governments have been alerted to be vigilant about the outbreak of the disease, if any.

(ix) Import of poultry and poultry proudcts have been banned completely from HPAI positive countries.

(x) Border check posts with neighbouring countries have been alerted. (xi) Guidelines issued to the states for further guidance to the poultry farmers.


The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries has been undertaking various production, input supply and infrastructure development programmes and welfare oriented schemes besides formulating/ initiating appropriate policies to increase production and productivity in the Fisheries Sector.


Table ends

The fisheries sector has been one of the major contributors of foreign exchange earnings through export. Export of fish and fishery products has grown manifold over the years.


The ongoing scheme of Development of Freshwater Aquaculture and Integrated Coastal Aquaculture have been combined with four new programmes on Development of Coldwater Fish Culture; Development of water-logged Area and Derelict water bodies into aquaculture estates; Use of Inland Saline/Alkaline Soil for Aquaculture; and Programme for Augmenting the Productivity of Reservoirs. This scheme broadly has two components-Aquaculture and Inland Capture Fisheries.


The Government has been implementing an important programme in inland sector, viz., Development of Freshwater Aquaculture through the Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs). A network of 429 FFDAs covering all potential districts in the country are in operation. During 2010-11, about 1,05,060 ha. of water area was brought under fish culture.


With the objective of utilizing the country’s vast brackish water area for shrimp culture, an area of about 41,250 hectares was developed for shrimp culture till 2010- 11 through 39 Brackishwater Fish Farmers Development Agencies (BFDAs) set up in the coastal areas of the country.


The Government is providing subsidy to poor fishermen for motorizing their traditional craft, which increases the fishing areas and frequency of operation with consequent increase in catch and earnings of fishermen. The Government has also been operating a scheme on fishermen development rebate on HSD oil used by fishing vessels below 20 meter length to offset the operational cost incurred by small mechanized fishing boat operators.


The Government has been implementing a scheme with the objective of providing infrastructure facilities for safe landing and berthing to the fishing vessels. Since inception of the scheme, six major fishing harbours viz., Cochin, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Roychowk, Paradip and Season dock (Mumbai), 62 minor fishing harbours and 194 fish landing centres have been taken up for construction in various coastal States/UTs.


Important programmes for the welfare of traditional fishermen are (i) Group Insurance Scheme for active fishermen, (ii) Development of Model Fishermen Villages, (iii) Saving-cum-relief Scheme, and (iii) Saving cum component financial assistance is provided to the fishermen during the lean fishing season.


The Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training, Kochi with units at Chennai and Visakhapatnam, aims at making available sufficient number of operators of deep-sea fishing vessels and technicians for shore establishments. Integrated Fisheries Project, Kochi, envisages processing, popularizing and test marketing of unconventional varieties of fish. The Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries, Bangaluru, is engaged in techno-economic feasibility study for location of fishing harbour sites. Fishery Survey of India (FSI) is the nodal organization responsible for survey and assessment of fishery resources under the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).


National Fisheries Development Board was established to work towards blue revolution with a focus on to increase the fish production of the country to a level of 10.3 million tonnes, to achieve double the exports from 7,000 crores to 14,000 crores and direct employment to an extent of 3.5 million by extending assistance to the various agencies for implementation of activities under Inland, Brackish water and Marine sectors. IT will become a platform for public-private partnership for fisheries, a mechanism for an end approach for ensuring proper self-availability to efficient marketing etc.

It is an autonomous organization under the administrative control of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. It has been registered with the Office of the Registrar of Societies, Hyderabad on 10th July, 2006 with the registration number of 933 of 2006.

The Board was inaugurated on 9th September, 2006. The office was established at Hyderabad. The period of implementation of the various activities of the board is 6 years (2006-12) :

i) To bring major activities relating to fisheries and aquaculture for focused attention and professional management;

ii) To coordinate activities pertaining to fisheries undertaken by different Ministries/Departments in the Central Government and also coordinate with the State/Union territory Government;

iii) To improve production, processing, storage, transport and marketing of the products and culture fisheries;

iv) To achieve sustainable management and conservation of natural aquatic resources including the fish stocks;

v) To apply modern tools of research and development including biotechnology for optimizing production and productivity form fisheries;

vi) To provide modern infrastructure mechanisms for fisheries and ensure their effective management and optimum utilization;

vii) To generate substantial employment;

viii) To train and empower women in the fisheries sector, and

ix) To enhance contribution of fish towards food and nutritional security.

Major activities to be taken up by the National Fisheries Development Board :

i) Intensive aquaculture in ponds and tanks;

ii) Enhancing productivity from Reservoir Fisheries;

iii) Brackish water Coastal Aquaculture;

iv) Mariculture;

vi) Sea Ranching;

vii) Seaweed Cultivation;

viii) Infrastructure for Post Harvest Programmes;

ix) Fish Dressing Centres and Solar Drying Fish;

x) Domestic Marketing;

xi) Other Activities.

The total budget provision for implementation of various activities of National Fisheries Development Board for the period 2006-12 is Rs. 2100 crores and subsequently reduced to Rs. 1500 crores.


The Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture provides government support, service and linkage to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and is responsible for coordinating research and educational activities in the field of agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries. Also, it helps to bring about interdepartmental and inter-institutional collaboration with national and international agencies engaged in agriculture and allied sectors. The Deparatment has one more autonomous body, viz. the Central Agricultural University, Imphal under its administrative control.


The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an apex national organization for conducting and coordinating research and education in agriculture including animal husbandry, fisheries and allied sciences.. The Council undertakes research on fundamental and applied aspects in traditional and frontier areas to offer solutions to problems related to conservation and management of resources, productivity, improvement of crops, animals and fisheries. It plays a pivotal role in developing new technologies in agriculture and allied sectors and performs the functions of introduction and exploration of genetic resources of plants, animals and fisheries.


The Council has its headquarters at New Delhi and a vast network of institutes all over the country consisting of 49 institutes including 4 national institutes with Deemed to be University status; 6 National Bureau; 17 National Research Centres; 25 Project Directorates; and 78 All India Coordinated Research Projects including Network Projects. For higher education in agriculture and allied fields there are 44 State Agricultural Universities and 1 Central Agricultural University at Imphal. With an extensive network of research infrastructure, backed by an excellent team of scientists and other personnel, the ICAR is making rapid strides in agricultural research, and provides support to the national efforts in achieving food security and self-sufficiency.


The activity spectrum and the highlight of research, education and extension in different fields :


One hundred and thirty one varieties/hybrids of major food crops including rice, wheat, barley, maize, pearl millet, and pulses and oilseeds have been released/ identified for different agro-climate regions of the country.

Significant crop improvement research includes development of rice varieties, namely Improved Pusa Basmati and Improved Samba Mahsuri, identification of 17 high-yielding varieties of pulses, 6 varieties of groundnut, 1 variety of soyabean and 2 hybrids of sun flower for release in different agro-ecologies. A total of 7,339.7 tonnes of breeder seed of centrally released field crop varieties was produced.

Gene sources for resistance to Ug99 rust with new genes have been developed and race-specific and adult plant resistance to Ug99 and its cool temperature derivatives have been successfully introgressed in Indian wheat breeding materials.

For cutting edge research across disciplines and commodities, a National Institute on Abiotic Stress Management has been established in Maharashtra and is already operational. A DNA bank has been established, cutting across plant and animal kingdom, so that desirable traits could be incorporated while evolving new varieties, hybrids, breeds etc. For value-addition and efficient utilization of genetic resources and to check biopiracy, special thrust is being given on gene prospecting and allele mining; phonemics, functional genomics and bio informatics. The ICAR has embarked upon an ambitious multidisciplinary programme ‘Bioprospecting of Genes and Allele Mining for Abiotic Stress Tolerance’ to meet the challenges due to climate change. The 35 ICAR institutes are involved in this project. This will also broaden the window of optimal growth conditions for cultivated crops under adverse climate, thereby increasing yield and reaping enhanced stabilized production under changed climatic conditions.


In coconut, accession IND 125 S was recommended for cultivation in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and hybrid IND 376 for Assam and Kerala. Two varieties, namely Kufri Nilima and Kufri Frysona, of potato were released for cultivation in Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu and Indo-Gangetic plains respectively. In spices, one variety each of ginger (Subhada) and cumin (RZ 345) was recommended for release.

Hybrid 1084 of dwarf stature mango with regular bearing was found promising. In banana, embryo rescue was standardized for wild species and hybrids involving wild species. Fingerprints of 44 grapes accessions were developed. Bhima Red variety of onion, developed through bulb to row selection method, posesses attractive red colour with yield around 30 tonnes/ha in rabi and yield potential of 50 tonnes/ha in late kharif.

The bud chip technology emerged as one of the most viable and economical alternatives in reducing the cost of sugarcane production, besides other advantages.

Bacterial inoculants developed to alleviate harmful effect of salinity for enhanced growth and yield of wheat in saline soils were identified through sequencing of 16S rDNA. Leaf powders of Vitex nigundi - and Polygonum-treated food recorded least preference by Rattus rattus in laboratory, indicating their anti-rodent properties.

The double hedge row system of planting in guava, aonla and litchi proved best method for realizing high fruit yield. Under salinity stress, Thompson Seedless grape when grafted on B2-56 rootstock exhibited high level of stress tolerance. Wedge grafting in walnut practised under polytrench recorded high success rate. In arecanut, mined cropping with pepper, banana and citrus was suitable for northeastern region. The intercropping systems involving ginger, tapioca, coleus, amorphophallus for black pepper; sweet potato+red gram; elephant foot yam with mango/sapota, potato+garlic have been identified for continuous and high yield.

Release of bio-control agents, namely Mallada boninesis and Tamarixia, in citrus orchards resulted in 31-33, 47-49 and 26-30 per cent reducation of black fly, psyla and leaf miner populations respectively. By releasing parasitoids, infestation on coconut leaf by leaf-eating caterpillar could be suppressed effectively. Soft rot of ginger could be managed by bio-fumigation using cabbage and mustard plant refuses. Marigold and yam bean were effective barrier crops for sweet potato weevil. The problem of fruit cracking in pomegranate could be reduced with application of boron and zinc.

A fermented drink/beverage from banana pulp and sorghum sprouts was produced from over-ripe bananas. The beverage can be preserved with flavour for 3 months under refrigerated conditions. For preparation of dried juice powder of citrus fruits, fresh fruits of four Citrus species, namely citron, acid lime, Nagpur mandarin and Mosambi, as well as juice blend of pummelo and citron fruits were utilzed to manufacture the value-added products.

Carbonated beverages were prepared from mango, passion fruit and custardapple. Aloe Shampoo and Aloe Hair Cream, having shelf-life of more than 10 months, were developed from Aloe vera.

Extrudates were prepared from cassava blended with corn flour, maida, wheat flour and finger millet. High protein and dietary fibre-enriched pasta were prepared from cassava-maida blends.

A process patent (No. 1261/MUM/2008) has been filed by the Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research at Indian Patent Office, Mumbai, for preparation of pure aloin from aloe through extraction and purification. The new method is easy, quicker, effcient (recovery up to 90 per cent) and cost-effective (most of the solvent used can be recovered for reuse) and can be used for extraction of aloin of high quality from fresh, sun-dried, oven-dried or freeze-dried leaf exudates. As aloin purity of more than 90-95 per cent can be achieved by this method, it is suitable for industrial purposes.


Among the Pseudomonas strains isolated from rainfed regions of India, Pseudomonas putida ‘GAP-P 45’ was able to induce synthesis of novel proteins in the plants conferring tolerance to drought stress. Bagasse proved a sucessful biostimulator for the removal of ammonia and nitrate in shrimp aquaculture. This technology is available for adoption by farmers.

Gmelina-turmeric based agroforestry was found suitable for Humid and Sub- Humid regions. Gmelina with turmeric, sapota, teak-based agro forestry system proved useful for adoption in transitional and hilly zone with medium/deep soils under irrigated condition in Karnataka.

A pond-based farming technology (deep water rice in kharif+watermelon, okra, spinach, chili in winter+on-dyke vegetables-fruits+fish inside pond) in a representative deep waterlogged areas (1-2.5 m water depth) of Puri district, Orissa enhanced the net water productivity to Rs. 7.21/m3 and net returns (Rs. 22,100) in rice.

Rainwater harvesting system was designed and agricultural diversification model (on-dyke horticulture, fisheries, cultivation of diversified field crops, short-term fruits like papaya, banana, floriculture like marigold, tuberose etc.) with harvested rain water was developed for small and marginal farmers with multiple use of water. The technology has been recommended for inclusion in the ‘National Rural Employment Guarantee Act’ for implementation in watersheds of eastern Indian states. A network of 47 model watersheds has been developed that provides a basis for undertaking projects as part of the natural watershed development programme. Water requirement of animals fed on cactus+grass/straw feed was considerably reduced, making the cactus a feed admixture of choice in the regions facing waterscarcity.

Climate change: With about 60 per cent of the cultivated area as rainfed, our agricultural production is strongly influenced by the movement of South-west monsoon. The monsoon set in over Kerala on 23rd May, one week before its normal date of 1st June, it advanced rapidly and covered the entire country by 3rd July, compared to its normal date of 15th July. Out of 526 meteorological districts for which data are available, 215 districts (41 per cent) of the meteorological districts received excess/normal rainfall and the remaining 311 districts (59 per cent) received deficient/scanty rainfall during the season that reflected adversely on the overall production of Kharif crops especially, rice and the coarse grains.

Responding to the situation, the Council formulated and helped in implementation of the technologydriven contingency crop plan to mitigate the effects of drought like situation following erratic monsoon and to compensate the kharif crop losses during the rabi season. Crop-weather advisories were disseminated through the country-wide network of the ICAR research institutes, state agricultural universities and Krishi- Vigyan Kendras (KVKs). An area of 36,675 ha with the participation of 56,719 farmers was brought under demonstrations on resource conservation technologies in districts facing drought. The drought like situation followed by floods in several parts of the country was a cause of concern and more so because we are witnessing this phenomena with increasing frequency.

The studies under controlled environment conditions (free air CO2 enrichment,open top chambers) and modeling showed that a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide up to 550 ppm enhanced the yields of wheat, chickpea, greengram, pigeconpea, soyabean, tomato and potato between 14 per cent and 27 per cent. In coconut, arecanut and cocoa, increased CO2 led to higher biomass production. A study on Sahiwal and Holstein Friesian crossbred (Karan-Fries) heifers revealed that HSP72 protein level increased due to thermal exposures, relatively higher in Karan-Fries (106 per cent) than Sahiwal (22.4 per cent). Resource conserving technology was the most cost effective strategy to reduce N loss and GHG emission, whereas integrated N management costs high for mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emission.


Research and development in the ICAR on farm tools and machinery, post harvest and technology on cereals, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, jute, natural resins, gums and lac, and removable energy sources are being carried out by the Central Institue of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal; Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana; Central Institute of Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai; National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fibres, Kolkata and Indian Institute for Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi.

A number of implements such as manure spreader, hill drop planter, cumin planter, baler with reaping attachment were developed as tractor-operated machinery. A power tiller-operated two-row canopy sprayer was developed for cotton and pigeonpea that can remove more than 550 bud chips in an hour by a person. A suitable experimental model of continuous type animal feed block making machine was fabricated.

Pomegranate aril extractor is capable of processing whole pomegranate at the rate of approximately 30-35 fruits/minute, and this technology was transferred for commercial exploitation.

In a poultry litter-based biogas plant the use of poultry litter increased the yield of biogas generation by 17 per cent (from 66 to 83 per cent) compared to normal cowdung-based biogas plant. The briquettes made from soyabean and piegeonpea stalks can be used for domestic application, in gasifier and commercial boilers. A rapid process for ethanol production from kinnow waste (peel+pulp) using galactose adapted yeast cells was developed.

A technology was evolved for development of pulp and paper by mechanical pulping process (chemical free) from date palm leaf and carry bag, writing pad etc. The technology can be transferred to rural sector at low capital investment. A lacbased formulation was developed for fruit coating applications on apple and citrus fruits like kinnow and orange. The formulation yielded good results in respect of gloss and firmness to kinnow. Shellac-based dental plates were prepared. Naturalsynthetic composite geotextile was used for protection of a part of the bank of Mayurakshi River (rainfed river) in West Bengal.

A software Cotton Bale Manger was developed to perform design and generation of bale identification tag and to interface this bale tag with the bale database management software. Another software GINERP for managing a modern ginnery has already been commercialized.


The role of A1 and A2 beta casein milk variants in human health is a matter of concern for scientific investigations. The B-casein A1/A2 frequency data indicated predominance of A2 variant (0.987) in zebu cattle breeds, while buffaloes showed only A2 milk type. The results point towards the origin of A2 variant in Bos indicus cattle. This is the first report of A1/A2 milk variant in majority of Indian zebu cattle and riverine buffalo breeds. An association study showed higher adult body weight of the individuals carrying the allele in yak. This marker information could be incorporated in marker-assisted selection for higher adult body weight in yak, as the body weight determines draught and pack ability and quantity of meat production.

The average age at first calving of Frieswal cows was 979.56 days. The breeding value of Hariana sires for milk yield and draught ability confirmed that these 2 traits are of different nature. ‘‘Garima’’ a cloned buffalo calf was born through a new and advanced ‘Hand-guided cloning technique’, at the NDRI, Karnal on 6th June, 2009. The growth of the calf is normal and has good health status. For the first time a mithun calf was born through artificial insemination. The introduction of FecB gene from Garole into Malpura and backcrossing of Genetically Modified with Malpura increased body weights of their lambs, and GMM ewes produced 40 per cent twins in the flock. Layer poultry variety Gramapriya was widely accepted by the farmers of Kashmir Valley.

To achieve targeted growth rate of 6 per cent in livestock output, progress in livestock infrastructure, institutional efforts and availability of live stock feed is required to be accelerated by about 50 per cent. Supplementation of zinc and copper from organic sources was more effective in inducing estrus and anoestrus crossbred cows. Methane emission from fresh dung on dry-matter basis was lower in zebu cattle than crossbred cattle. Green fodder feeding increased milk conjugated linoleic acid in cows and buffaloes and it has anti-cancer property. It increases up to 310 per cent in ghee prepared by indigenous method. Commercially available microbial feed additives enhanced growth by 12.0 per cent and feed intake by 11.6 per cent in fattening lambs for mutton production. As supplementation of concentrate mixture during post-weaning stages improved body weights of lambs, farmers fetched 25 to 33 per cent more price in the market.

An antioxidant (Vitamin E) in combination with liver stimulant was found detrimental for egg production in birds. Combination of melatonin and toxin binder alleviated adverse effects of aflatoxicosis in broilers.

The foot-and-mouth virus typing ELISA kits were manufactured, which ensured uniformity in application and test result across the country. Establishment of an international foot-and-mouth Disease Reference Laboratory will facilitate Global participation and eardication of the disease from South Asia.

A ‘FROGIN’ software was developed for precise prediction and forecasting of haemonchosis in sheep. Complete HN and F genes of velogenic New castle disease virus were cloned for use as bi-cistronic DNA vaccine. PLG nano-particles encapsulating outer membrane proteins of Salmonella Gallinarum induced good IgA antibody in chickens.

To safeguard the livestock production, a high security animal disease lab with P-4 measures was established. It played a pivotal role in providing diagnostic services for avian influenza besides developing vaccine.

Microbial assays were developed, which are useful in dairy industry as ‘‘ON FARM’’ milk screening test for beta-lactam group. Health benefits of cow ghee were validated. Cow ghee decreases initiation and progression of mammary and gastrointestinal tract cancer in rats.


Barcoding of five species of tuna was carried out and deposited with the gene bank of National Centre for Biotechnology Information ( Chemo-litho-auto-trophic bacteria, which can be used for bioremediation of shrimp-farm discharge, were identified. A molecular tool was developed for the detection of these bacteria and is being offered to private entrepreneurs for its commercialization. Forensic investigations using DNA barcoding helped in identification of whale shark (Rhynocodon typus) meat designated as endangered species. And it can be used effectively in curtailing illegal trade.

Puntius pulchellus locally called Haragi Meenu in Karnataka, a threatened species of peninsular carp endemic to the Krishna river basin, was induced-bred for the first time. A technology for round-the-year seed production of Asian seabass was developed. Electron beam irradiation method could be devised to reduce antinutritional factors in plant-based aquafeed ingredients.

System for the storage of live fish with aeration was designed, developed and tested. The FRP silo for fish culture/holding system, which is the first of its kind in the country, was designed and fabricated. The protein content could be enhanced to 11-12 per cent, with whey protein concentrate, defatted soya flour and prawn paste. Bonding applications was up scaled to 5.0 kg level and is ready for transfer. The solid adhesive was tested on various surfaces by a industry in Kerala.


Human Resource Development programmes and talent search in agricultural sciences to meet the future needs of agricultural research, education and extension received priority attention. Efforts are being made for continuous upgradation and maintenance of standards and quality of higher agricultural education in the country through professional support and financial aid to the Agricultural Universities. The National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad, started a 2- year post-graduate diploma programme on management (Agriculture) besides 2 more programmes on Information Technology Management and Intellectual Property Management. Accreditation was granted to 5 State Agricultural Universities and to the MBA programme of the Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner. Thus 31institutions are accreditated for higher quality education.

Construction of museum one each in 38 State Agricultural Universities, allocation of Rural Awareness Work Experience Programme to 44 Agricultural Universities and institution of ‘‘Norman Borlaug Chair in Agricultural Biotechnology for Crop Improvement’’ are expected to improve the quality of education. To face the emerging challenges, the Model Act for Agricultural Universities in India was revised and communicated to all Agricultural Universities for adoption. A national core group formed by the ICAR, has revised the course curricula and syllabi of all post-graduate (Masters and Doctoral) programmes to make them utilitarian, updated and competitive. A new component of International fellowship was introduced for pursuing Ph.D. programme at the Indian Agricultural Universities and Overseas Universities for Indian and overseas candidates.


The KVKs have produced seeds, planting materials, bio-products, livestock material, poultry and fisheries to a tune of Rs. 1,304.47 lakh lakh quintal of seeds including cereals, oilseeds, pulses commercial crops, vegetables, flowers, spices, and fodder and fibre crops. Besides, KVK sproducet 146.09 lakh seedings and saplings and provided to 159,000 farmers.

The ICAR empowered women through Gender Knowledge Centre Portal (, Database on women in agriculture, Reference system in which 1038 references were entered into database, and small-scale entrepreneurship in livestock production. The village level para extension workers created public awareness on scientific farming methods, and demand for farm information and technology. The All India Coordinated Research Project on Home Science showed significant results in gender database, drudgery reduction, ensuring food and nutritional security, and utilization of under-utilized agro-and animalbased resources.

Information, Communication and Publicity Services: The council has redesigned and further developed website ( The ICAR News and ICAR Reporter were made available on-line, besides several other publications. Guidelines were developed for bringing uniformity in the websites of ICAR institutes. The ICAR has decided to allow open access to its research journals online for the benefit of students, researchers and farmers for free nationally and internationally.


The National Agricultural Innovation Project has made significant progress in approving and grounding 187 sub-projects (39 in component I, 51 in II, 36 in component III, and 61 in component IV) at a total outlay of about Rs. 1,017 crore. In Component I (Strengthening ICAR as Catalyzing agent of Management of Change in the Indian NARS), more than 3,000 theses were digitized and full text data are uploaded ( The ‘Agropedia’ has further diversified and more than 30,000 people from 165 countries visited AQUA SMS and voice services are reaching over 10,000 farmers regularly. Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture (CeRA) continues to attract more users with cumulative hits on their web site ( crossing the one million mark and 0.36 million downloads.

In Component II (Research on Production to Consumption Systems), significant achievements include development of cheaper concentrate mixture feed for livestock production, standardization of processes for preparation of value-added products from sea buckthorn, development of clonal propagation technology for industrial agroforestry, preparation of value-added extruded products from tuna red meat, and formulation of SILO feed from tuna processing waste.

In Component III (Research on Sustainable Rural Livelihood Security), through approved projects 102 disadvantaged districts (out of 150 disadvantaged districts in 27 States of the country) are covered. The total number of targeted farmers/ agricultural labourers includes 1,30,000. The major crop interventions across all clusters included introduction of improved variety of crops, introduction of horticultural crops, enhancement in cropping intensity and intercropping. Incomegenerating activities such as lac cultivation, mushroom cultivation, vermicomposting, tasar silk cultivation were introduced wherever it had potential.

Motivation of more than 48,000 farmers in backward areas with large population of tribals; adoption of suitable drought mitigation measures with suitable advice to the farmers; introduction of lac cultivation in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh as a major income-generating activity, particularly under rainfed/dryland situations are some of the significant acheivements.

In Component IV (Basic and Strategic Research), the last sub-project ‘Bioprospecting of genes and allele mining for biotic stress tolerance’ is the largest in NAIP (Rs. 57 crore budget and 36 partners). It is a bold attempt to bring in a large number of scientists together to attempt a far-reaching initiative in basic and strategic research cutting across all species barriers (animals, microbes and plants). Significant acheivements include development of novel micro-well chip based biosensor; revelation of methodology for isolation and purification of microbial polysaccharides; isolation of nitrate-reducing microbes having potential to be used as probiotics in mitigating methane emission for eco-friendly livestock production.


The research carried out at the institute in North-West Himalayas led to release of 10 varieties/hybrids of different crops for different agro-climatic regions of the country.

A total of 23.38 tonnes breeder seeds of 51 released varieties/inbred lines was produced. In addition, 1.61 tonnes nucleus seeds of 42 released varieties was produced out of breeder seed producing agencies to take up further multiplication. Seven inbred lines of maize were registered with the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources for high tryptophan and lysine content.

The research work conducted at the institute in North-East Himalayas led to a release of a cold-tolerant variety NEH Megha Rice 3. Besides, two upland genotypes of rice (RCPL 1-115 and RCPL 1-116) were developed for Mizoram, Nagaland and Manipur regions. Both the genotypes are tolerant to acideic soils and brief moisture stress and moderately tolerant to leaf and neck blast. Grains possess sufficient dormancy to withstand the effect of rain which frequently occurs at maturity stage.

A 4-row pre-germinated paddy seeder was developed for hilly region, having advantage of line sowing in hilly areas with narrow terraces having widths upto 1m. A batch-type tray dryer having about 600 Kg capacity was designed and developed at this institute in collaboration with the other ICAR institute. Overall quality of the dried product was very good, without any loss in colour, flavour and aroma.

The institute has produced piglets out of AI with frozen semen. Boar semen was successfully frozen using conventional method of freezing that does not involve costly equipment like programmable cell freezer. The standardized technology shall have immense applicablility in breed improvement programme of pigs and to produce superior germplasm pigs at farmer’s field, even in remote areas. PCR-based protocols for rapid detection and confirmation of infectious bacterial pathogens of livestock and poultry in the North-eastern region were standardized.


Five varieties of rice, and two varieties of sweet-potato were developed as a result of a research work conducted at the institute in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. A 3-tier strategy was developed for water resource development, namely development of plastic film-lined tanks on the top of hills, recharge structure-cum130 well system in the mid-hills and development of open dug wells in the valley areas. Such systems are very useful for utilization of water during dry periods.

A total of 483 bacteria, 117 Trichoderma spp, 32 Ralstonia solanacearum and 35 fungal pathogens were isolated. Novel strains of bacteria were identified as B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. amyloiquefaciens and Enterobacter cloacae. Of the total species isolated T. asperellum, T. erinaceum, T. avalisporum and T. brevicompactum were recorded for the first time from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Brooders of damsel fish species, namely Amphiprion alkallopsis, Amphiprion ephippium and Premnas biaculeatus, were collected from reefs and maintained in hatchery for the development of suitable breeding pair. The maroon damselfish, Premnas biaculeatus, could breed repeatedly five times in captivity.

The distribution and abundance of rotifers, a potential feed for larvae of damsel fishes in Andaman, was explored by a survey from brackishwater areas in South Andaman. Species like Brachionus plicatilis, B. rotundiformis, B. urceolaris, B. murrayi, B. calyciflorus. B. falcatus and Kellicotia sp. were identified. The presence of Brachionus plicatilis species complex is a notable character of the rotifers present in Andaman waters.

Backyard duck rearing is an integral part of various farming systems in the islands. The Pekin x Chara-Chembelli crossbred showed good performance, and can be used as a meat-purpose duck under backyard condition.


Patents were granted to the ICAR in 8 fields of invention. The ICAR institutes secured 4 Trademarks to distinguish the ICAR products. Six copyrights were registered by the ICAR institutes to protect their software from unauthorized copying. The premise of centralized planning and decentralized execution for Intellectual Property Management in the ICAR was strengthened. Some of the ICAR institutes have entered into MoUs with private and public sector companies for commercialization of plant varieties/hybrids.

See also

Agriculture: India

Personal tools