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Indian states that consumed the most coffee in 2015-18
In Delhi, 2009-10
The Times of India, Mar 5, 2016
Durgesh Nandan Jha
Excessive intake of caffeine has been linked to bad health. But do children care? A survey conducted by University College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) in three Delhi schools has revealed that on an average students take 121 mg caffeine daily, mainly in the form of coffee and tea.
It is much higher than the average intake reported among teenagers in developed countries. In US, for example, the average consumption of caffeine for 12-16-year-olds is 64.8 mg daily and for 17-18-year-olds 96.1 mg daily, according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-10 data.
"The survey was part of a student project under ICMR. We did not look for health implications in the students. However, there are enough studies to prove excessive caffeine intake can have a negative effect in terms of optimal sleep and overall growth and development. It also ups the risk of engaging in risky behaviours," said Dr Piyush Gupta, professor of paediatrics at UCMS. He added that tea and coffee were the most common sources of caffeine but a few students also consumed energy drinks.
In the survey, published in the latest issue of the Indian Journal of Community Medicine, the researchers found 97% students took caffeine in one or the other form. At least 6% reported taking more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, which is higher than the maximum permissible limit. "Most students said they consumed caffeinated products to be more alert and to combat drowsiness," Dr Gupta said. Dr Ashok K Omar, director, non-invasive cardiology at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, said amount of coffee intake increases during exam time and stress. "It is observed that more caffeine children take, the less they sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance. The effect of caffeine is worst in the children who have anxiety disorder," he said.
Apart from coffee, caffeine is found in tea, cola beverages, energy drinks and certain medicines also. "A mug of instant coffee contains about 100 mg of caffeine. The general advice is that adults should not have more than three to four cups of coffee daily and students not more than two cups," said Dr Anoop Misra, chairman. Fortis C-doc. Caffeine, experts say, also enhances the preference for sweet foods and leads to an overall greater incidence of being overweight. There are more direct effects on neural, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal functions.
Baba Budangiri, Coorg, Wayanad Robusta, Chikmagalur, Araku Valley: applied for
Baba Budangiri, 250 km from Bengaluru, where coffee was first grown in India, is going for Geographical Indication (GI) of its variety of the Arabica brew.
On January 1, the Coffee Board filed an application for the GI tagging of Baba Budangiri Arabica and four other varieties — Coorg Arabica, Wayanad Robusta, Chikmagalur Arabic and Araku Valley Arabica — with the Geographical Indication Registry at Chennai.
Coffee Board head (coffee quality) K Basavaraj said: “We have applied for the GI marker and we are also profiling the majority variety grown in Baba Budangiri, a variety called Selection-795,” Basavaraj said. Selection-795 (S-795) is considered to be the natural descendant of two of the oldest African cultivars of coffee — Coffea Arabica and Coffea Liberica — and a third variety is called Kent. Currently, S-795 is the most prominent coffee grown at Baba Budangiri.
Edmund Hull in his book ‘Coffee Planting in Southern India and Ceylon’ says that Coffea Arabica originated in Caffa in southern Abyssina and then found its way to Yemen. According to John Shortt’s ‘A Handbook on Coffee Planting in Southern India’, Baba Budan (Baba Booden), a Muslim pilgrim, brought the brew from Mocha, a port city in Yemen, in the 17th century and introduced the variety in the uninhabited hills that came to be known as Baba Budangiri.
Today, Baba Budangiri Arabica is grown acorss 15,000 hectares around the original hills, where it was first planted. Over the last few centuries, coffee plantations grew beyond Baba Budangiri and the adjoining Chickmagalur and spread to Kodagu and Hassan in Karnataka, and Wayanad, Travancore and Nelliampathy regions of Kerala. It is also grown in the hilly regions of Palani, Shevroy, Nilgiris and Anamalais in Tamil Nadu. The non-traditional areas of coffee-growing in India includes certain pockets in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
Feb 24 2015
According to the Indian Coffee Board, the first planting of coffee in India happened in 1600 CE when saint Baba Budan planted seven seeds of mocha in the courtyard of his hermitage in Karnataka. Commercial plantation started during the 18th century. Traditionally, it is grown in the Western Ghats spread over Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Coffee is grown predominantly as an export commodity in India as about 65%-70% of the total coffee produced in the country is exported. In 2013-14, the total production was over 3 lakh metric tonnes, of which about 70% was produced in Karnataka alone.
Types of Indian coffee
Arabica/ Robusta coffee
Positive impact on diversity of wild birds
Coffee lovers may be discerning about their sweet arabica brews and the bolder robusta ones, but both types help maintain the diversity of wild birds in the Western Ghats. One, a little more than the other.
Arabica grows under the deep shade of native trees, with benefits for both farmers and birds. The surprise is that Robusta, also grown under native shade, is not far behind in the Ghats, unlike in other parts of the world.
These insights from a group of researchers were published in the journal Scientific Reports.
Native trees are cut down to grow robusta, in order to give it more sunlight, earning this coffee the tag of being inhospitable to wildlife. In Vietnam, for instance, full-sun coffee growth occurred at the expense of native trees. India too has leaned towards robusta: between 1950 and 2015, planted area under robusta grew by 840% while arabica grew by 327%.
Scientists from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS-India) and USA’s Princeton University compared bird diversity in 61 arabica and robusta estates across Chikkamagaluru, Hassan and Kodagu districts in Karnataka.
What they found is that the plantations supported 79 species of forest-dependent birds in all, but arabica estates hosted twice the number of endemic birds than robusta. They also supported more birds that depend on forests, and eat fruits, insects and other food. Interviews with 344 coffee-growers showed that arabica was more profitable, with returns of around ₹1 lakh per hectare.
Yet, surprisingly, robusta plantations also hosted high bird diversity. “To our surprise, robusta agroforests had much higher diversity of birds that are specifically adapted to the habitat than we expected,” says scientist Krithi Karanth of WCS-India, who led the study.
Since robusta farmers in the Western Ghats retain native trees, they have been able to preserve the complex canopy structure, setting them apart from others worldwide, says Ms. Karanth.
“Though the current selling rate for robusta is only around ₹3,000 for a 50-kg-bag, it is easier to grow,” explains Suresh M. D., who owns a one-acre coffee plantation of both coffee types.
Araku Valley coffee
One hears of cooperative farming where government, NGOs or corporate entities provide resources or knowhow to support cultivation. But in the picturesque and protected Araku Valley of Andhra Pradesh, a unique agri enterprise has taken shape. Tribals from this region, with the backing of four business leaders, are growing top-notch quality coffee, which made its debut overseas under an exotic brand.
Anand Mahindra (chairman, Mahindra & Mahindra), Kris Gopalakrishnan (co-founder, Infosys), Satish Reddy (chairman, Dr Reddy's Laboratories) and Rajendra Prasad Maganti (chairman, Soma Enterprise, a construction company) have joined hands to form an enterprise that will launch Araku coffee's first store in Paris.
For the 150-odd tribal communities living in the Maoist-infested belt, the global debut is a big step forward. Until 15 years ago, their life was dependent only on collecting forest produce. A predominantly tribal area (including the Bagathas, Valmikis Kondus and Poorjas) in Visakhapatnam district, the Araku region is classified as an agency area; the government has cre ated a special developmental and fun ding plan for locals. All the land here be longs to the government and a tribal is entitled to get land as much as she can till for free, to earn a living.
Coffee cultivation is not new to the area--the British did it and the govern ment continues to grow the beans under its own brand, but it was only in the re cent past that tribals tried their hand at it on a large scale. From 1,000 acres some years ago, the land under coffee produc tion has gone up to 20,000 acres.
The four investors have stepped in to assist them in increasing bean produc tion by roping in global experts. “We want to make Araku a gourmet coffee brand, acceptable in global markets and that's why we chose Paris for the debut,“ , Mahindra told TOI, adding that the pro fits made from the venture will be ploug hed back to improve the quality of the farmers' lives.Araku will be sold under five variants with the most expensive stock pri ced around Rs 7,000 a kg. The steep price can be justified by the fact that this is per haps the first time in the world that cof fee is being produced using techniques similar to those in wine making. Like unique tastes of different wines identified by the soil in which the grapes are grown, the variants of Araku coffee also draw their flavours from the `terroir' or unique environment.
“Araku coffee is unique because of its complex terroir and that's why premi um. Everybody wants a simple life but they pay for complex things. Luxury is all about complexity,“ Mahindra said.
Araku coffee was originally a nonprofit venture supported by Naandi Foundation, the brainchild of Andhra Pradesh chief minister Chandrababu Naidu and Anji Reddy , founder of Dr Reddy's. The late Reddy brought Mahindra into Naandi and the chairman of the au to major, along with the other three investors, soon transformed the social enterprise into a for-profit venture.
“Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. All these are passe. I believe it is now time for private enterprise at shared value, which I call 3.0,“ Mahindra said.
Araku coffee has already got a geographical indication (GI) tag, which authenticates the unique properties a region can offer to a product. But until now, the Arabica coffee produced by the tribals was being sold in bulk to roasters who were ready to pay a premium for this brew.
Plan is to launch the next set of retail stores in New York and Tokyo. Which means the world famous Columbian and Sumatra coffees will soon have competition on the shelf from a little-known region called Araku in India.