Cricket, India: A history (2018)
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[[Cricket, India: A history (2019)]]
[[Cricket, India: A history (2019)]]
Latest revision as of 07:58, 10 November 2019
This is a collection of articles archived for the excellence of their content.
 India and the world: a summary of the year
As the year 2018 comes to an end, a brief look at the newsmakers and record-breakers in international cricket:
Most runs in Tests, ODIs & T20Is
- All statistics updated till December 24 2018
Tests: Virat Kohli leads the pack when it comes to getting the most runs in Test cricket in this calendar year till December 24, 2018 after the Perth Test vs Australia. In 12 matches, starting from the Cape Town Test against South Africa in January 2018 to the Perth Test against Australia in December 2018, the flamboyant Indian captain scored a phenomenal 1240 runs at an average of 56.36. No other player breached the 1000-run mark, with England captain Joe Root being second on the list with 948 runs in 13 matches.
ODIs: There are three batsmen who scored more than a thousand ODI runs in the calendar year till December 24 2018. England's Jonny Bairstow (1025 from 22 matches) and India's Rohit Sharma (1030 from 19 matches) are two of them. But once again it is Virat Kohli who stands tall at the top of the list of highest run-getters in ODIs. The Indian skipper smashed 1202 runs from 14 matches, from the Durban ODI in February to the Thiruvananthapuram ODI in November 2018, at an astounding average of 133.55 to go with a strike rate of 102.55. And that despite the fact that Kohli skipped the Asia Cup tournament.
T20Is: Indian opener in the shorter formats, Shikhar Dhawan leads the list of highest T20I run-getters in 2018, till December 24 2018. The left-hander scored 689 runs from 18 matches at an average of 40.52 and a strike rate of 147.22. Dhawan's consistency in the shortest format of the game can be gauged from the fact that he didn't hit any century, with 92 being his highest score. However, six half-centuries flowed from his bat from the Johannesburg T20 in February to the one in Sydney in November 2018.
The best of 2018: Highest Test, ODI & T20I Scores
- All statistics updated till December 24 2018
Tests: There were only two double centuries hit this calendar year. One came from Bangladesh's Mushfiqur Rahim (219*) against Zimbabwe in November. But the knock that sealed the top spot for the highest score in 2018 was hit by New Zealand opener Tom Latham when he hit an unbeaten 264 against Sri Lanka in the first Test at Wellington in December. Latham beat Alastair Cook's (244) record for a batsman carrying their bat. Latham's knock was the sixth best Test score by a New Zealander in Test cricket.
ODIs: Pakistan's Fakhar Zaman smashed his way into the record books by slamming an unbeaten 210 in the fourth ODI against Zimbabwe in Bulawayo on July 20, 2018. Zaman went past Saeed Anwar's 194 to notch up the first ODI double hundred by a Pakistani batsman. The left-handed opener's knock came off 156 balls with the help of five sixes and 24 fours. Zaman became the sixth batsman to hit an ODI double century, joining Sachin Tendulkar, Virender Sehwag, Rohit Sharma (thrice), Martin Guptill and Chris Gayle in the elite club.
T20Is: The sorry bowling attack of Zimbabwe was at the receiving end of another onslaught, this time by Australian opener Aaron Finch, who bludgeoned 172 runs in the 3rd T20I at Harare on July 3, 2018. Finch took the Zimbabwe bowling attack to the cleaners, hitting 10 sixes and 16 fours in his knock off just 76 deliveries. Finch's knock of 172 is the highest-ever T20I score and the hard-hitting opener broke his own record, set five years ago against England in Southampton, bettering it by 16 runs, before he was out hit-wicket.
The best of 2018: Most hundreds in Tests, ODIs & T20Is
- All statistics updated till December 24 2018
Tests: With five centuries in 12 Tests, Indian captain Virat Kohli heads the list of most hundreds in 2018. His first century of the year (153) was scored in the second Test against South Africa in Centurion. With two centuries (149 at Birmingham and 103 at Nottingham), Kohli finished the India-England Test series as the highest run-getter of the series. Kohli's fourth century (139) of the year was scored against West Indies in Rajkot in October and it was his 30th international hundred as captain. Kohli's fifth hundred (123) of the year was a masterclass innings, scored on a treacherous Perth track and it helped him equal Sachin Tendulkar's record of six Test centuries on Australia.
ODIs: Virat Kohli rules the roost on this list too. With six centuries in 14 matches, the Indian skipper leads the list of most ODI hundreds in 2018 till December 24 2018. Kohli hit three centuries in the six-match ODI series against South Africa - 112 in Durban, 160* in Cape Town and 129* in Centurion - superlative tons that were instrumental in India winning the series 5-1. Kohli then took his consistency to another level by hitting three consecutive centuries - 140 in Guwahati, 157* in Visakhapatnam and 107 in Pune - against the visiting West Indies in October. It was during the course of his 37th career ODI hundred in the second ODI in Visakhapatnam on October 24 that Kohli broke Sachin Tendulkar's record, to become the fastest batsman to reach 10,000 ODI runs.
T20Is: When it comes to batting records, no list can be complete without the mention of Rohit Sharma. The flamboyant Indian opener hit two centuries in the shortest format of the game this year. The first, an unbeaten 100 came against England in Bristol on July 8, 2018. Rohit reached the milestone off just 56 deliveries, hitting five sixes and 11 fours with the effortless ease that only he can bring to the crease in the modern day game. Rohit's second T20I ton of the year 2018 was also an unbeaten effort coming in the second game of the T20I series against West Indies at Lucknow on November 6, 2018. This knock was off 61 balls and was studded with seven sixes and eight fours and took Rohit's tally of T20I centuries to four - the most by any batsman.
The best of 2018: Most wickets in Tests, ODIs & T20Is
- All statistics updated till December 24 2018
Tests: Off-spinners Dilruwan Perera and Nathan Lyon both took 48 wickets in the year 2018. Sri Lanka's Perera took 48 wickets from 10 Tests, with best bowling figures of 6/32 which he registered in the first Test against South Africa in Galle in July 2018. South Africa were bundled out for just 73 in 28.5 overs as Sri Lanka won the match by 278 runs. Lyon took 48 wickets from 9 matches with a best of 6/122 - which was registered in the first Test against India in Adelaide in December.
ODIs: Afghanistan bowling sensation Rashid Khan leads the bowling charts when it comes to most ODI wickets in 2018, till December 24 2018. The leg-spinner took 48 wickets in 20 matches at a strike rate of 22.2, with a best of 5/24 that was registered against Zimbabwe in Sharjah on February 13, 2018.
T20Is: Australian medium pacer Andrew Tye took 31 wickets in 19 matches at a strike rate of 13.2, with best bowling figures of 4/23 which were registered in a rain-truncated match against New Zealand in Sydney in February 2018.
The best of 2018: Best bowling figures in an innings: Tests, ODIs & T20Is
- All statistics updated till December 24 2018
Tests: South African left-arm spinner Keshav Maharaj could have become the third bowler in Test cricket history to claim all ten wickets in an innings. But that was not to be as Kagiso Rabada spoiled his party. Maharaj's 9/129 in the second Test against Sri Lanka in Colombo in July 2018 are the best bowling figures for any visiting bowler in Sri Lanka, the second-best bowling figures for a South African and only the second nine-wicket haul by a left-arm orthodox bowler in Test cricket.
ODIs: South Africa's Imran Tahir, India's Kuldeep Yadav and Sri Lanka's Akila Dananjaya all took six-wicket hauls in 2018. But Tahir's 6/24 in 6 overs is a shade better than Yadav's 6/25 in 10 overs. Tahir became the fourth South African bowler to take an ODI hat-trick in his spell against Zimbabwe in the second ODI in Bloemfontein on October 3, 2018. Zimbabwe folded for just 78, as South Africa romped home to a 120-run victory.
T20Is: West Indies’ Keemo Paul, Bangladesh’s Shakib Al Hasan, South Africa’s Imran Tahir and India’s Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Kuldeep Yadav all took five-wicket hauls but Paul’s 5/15 in the third T20I against Bangladesh at Dhaka on December 22, is the most economical. The Windies medium pacer’s maiden five-wicket at the international level derailed the Bangladesh run chase as the visitors won the match by 50 runs and the three-match series 2-1.
 BCCI vs, CoA
 March: Srini leads BCCI to take on CoA
In a massive show of strength, 22 members of the Indian cricket board met at a five-star hotel in Delhi, some over teleconference, on Saturday to discuss its worsening relations with the Supreme Court-appointed committee of administrators (CoA).
Chaired by the former Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) president N Srinivasan, the meeting expressed “disappointment” over a flurry of “unilateral” decisions that the CoA has taken that render the working committee of the BCCI largely ineffective.
CoA has not consulted us, say BCCI members
The board members strongly believe that the COA decisions have been taken without consultation of the board’s general body, a process they say is “enshrined” in the rules and regulations to be followed.
An internal note – a copy of which is with TOI – was circulated among the members highlighting close to a dozen instances where decisions have been taken “unilaterally” by the CoA. The members decided to go to the Supreme Court to raise these issues.
The BCCI members have come down heavily on the CoA-led decision to “reduce” the minimum bid value in the Invitation to Tender (ITT) for India’s bilateral rights. To top it, the members have unanimously taken exception to the manner in which the entire process has been handled by two members of the CoA, the CEO and BCCI’s legal team.
A total of 22 members of BCCI participated in the meeting. Of these, 19 members – Bengal, Himachal, Baroda, Chhatisgarh, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Hyderabad, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Saurashtra, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, Rajasthan, Railways, Goa, National Cricket Club (NCC), Cricket Club of India (CCI) and the Services Board – were present at the meeting. Kerala Cricket Association (KCA) connected with the members during the meeting via teleconference while Gujarat – which is headed by BJP president Amit Shah – and Orissa could not connect.
The office-bearers of the BCCI are all set to call for a Special General Meeting (SGM) “as early as possible” to set these matters for the record. “This matter will also be brought up for cognizance of the Supreme Court when the hearing happens. What is happening now borders on the illegal and the constitution of the BCCI has been thrown into the dustbin by individuals who have been given no such authority by the country’s highest court,” office-bearers of the BCCI told TOI soon after the Saturday meeting.
 BCCI vs, CoA: the March meeting
19 members: Bengal, Himachal, Baroda, Chhatisgarh, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Hyderabad, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Saurashtra, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, Rajasthan, Railways, Goa, National Cricket Club (NCC), Cricket Club of India (CCI) and the Services Board; One member attended via teleconference: Kerala; Two members extended support but couldn’t attend: Gujarat, Orissa Why: Members listed out their grouses against the SC-appointed Committee of Administrators (CoA) for unilaterally taking decisions in BCCI which are ‘long term in nature’ and potentially detrimental to the game’s administration
- Minimum bid value in the ITT for media rights of domestic and bilateral games * Office-bearers not being allowed to operate bank accounts of BCCI * One-time benefit to CoA member Diana Eduljee and her sister * Decision to appoint (and desist) Dhruv LLP as tax consultants to BCCI in conflict with ex-CoA member * Employee appointments at exorbitant salaries without consulting general body * Decisions taken with regard to National Cricket Academy (NCA) without consulting the other members * BCCI CEO Rahul Johri hiring a security personnel * Falsifying of BCCI accounts What members say: This matter will also be brought up for cognizance of the SC when the hearing happens.
An SGM will be convened.
 Pace bowlers excel
Back in the 2015 World Cup Down Under, India had surprised one and all with their relentless pace attack. Before their semifinal exit at the hands of Australia, India had taken all available 70 wickets in seven matches. Seamers Mohd Shami and Umesh Yadav were the enforcers, supported by a nippy Mohit Sharma. Umesh finished the World Cup with 18 wickets while Shami had 17.
A lot has changed since then as India look ahead to the next World Cup to be held in England next year. Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Jasprit Bumrah have emerged as the preferred opening seam duo, but the search for a third seamer has not been as successful. Shami and Umesh have made only sporadic appearances in ODIs and are pooled together in a mix of back-up seamers including Shardul Thakur, Deepak Chahar, Barinder Sran, Siddharth Kaul and Khaleel Ahmed.
However, Khaleel, 20, seems to have the wind blowing in his favour. With the team management expressing their desire to get a quality left-arm seamer in the set-up, the youngster has a good chance of taking the flight to England, especially after his show (3/13 from five overs) against West Indies in the fourth ODI on Monday.
The lanky lad from Tonk in Rajasthan, who has risen through the under-19 ranks, made his debut in the Asia Cup. On Monday, he moved the ball both ways under lights and snapped up the wickets of Marlon Samuels, Shimron Hetmyer and Rovman Powell. Admittedly, it was the best bowling conditions in the series so far but Khaleel made the most of it.
“Khaleel is an exciting talent. If the pitch has something to offer, he can extract something. (He) bowled in the right areas. Happy to see him make the ball talk,” captain Virat Kohli said in acknowledgement afterwards.
One can only hope that Khaleel is given an extended run because apart from Bhuvneshwar, Bumrah and Hardik Pandya, no seamer has got a fair run in ODIs in the past two years. From the beginning of 2017, the above three have played 37, 35 and 38 matches respectively. The most any other seamer has played is 13 games by Umesh, whose tendency to leak runs has pushed him back despite his strike rate of 33.8 during this period.
With Pandya’s fitness woes and Bhuvneshwar looking off-colour with the new ball in conditions not conducive to swing, Bumrah remains the only in-form bowler in ODIs for India. It is imperative that selectors zero in on a few more options. On the tendency to constantly to chop and change the back-up pacers, former batsman Ajay Jadeja had said recently during a chat show, “There is no selection happening now, only rejection happening.”
Someone who has lost out in this game of musical chairs is Shami, who has played just five matches from the beginning of 2017. Though he was India’s leading wicket-taker in the Tests against South Africa, he was not picked for the ensuing six One-dayers and those in England. With the World Cup also scheduled in England, giving Shami an opportunity to have a go in those conditions would have been the prudent thing to do.
When Bhuvneshwar and Bumrah were rested for the first two matches against West Indies, Shami was recalled to ODI’s after a gap of one year but when was again axed once they returned. With 94 wickets from 52 ODIs, Shami deserved much better.
With a handful of matches remaining before the World Cup, it remains to be seen who all among the pace battery gets to fly to England. If Khaleel can keep the momentum going, he can surely be one.
 Mithali Raj criticises Diana Edulji, Ramesh Powar
Veteran Says She Felt Distressed, Humiliated
India’s women’s ODI team’s captain, Mithali Raj, has severely criticised CoA member Diana Edulji and coach Ramesh Powar in a letter written to the BCCI. “I have always reposed faith in Diana Edulji and have always respected her and her position as a member of the COA. Never did I think she will use her position against me. Her (Edulji’s) brazen support in the press with regard to the decision of my benching in the semifinal (sic) has left me deeply distressed, more because she knows the real facts, having spoken to me. Thereafter, her statement saying ‘selection is not the COA’s headache’ is like suggesting there is no system of checks and balances and anyone can do anything and get away because they have the backing of people in power,” Mithali said in her letter.
The senior India cricketer, who made her international debut way back in 1999, and has played in all three formats of the game with distinction, added, “I am aware that by writing this e-mail, I’m making myself even more vulnerable. She (Edulji) is a CoA member while I’m just a player.” The sentence, in many ways, brings out the ills of Indian cricket, where a cricketer has to worry about taking on an administrator.
“I scored back-to-back fifties in the games before the semifinal, was adjudged player of the match on both occasions, but was left out in the semifinal. The brazen support of a COA member is a clear sign of bias. By saying ‘I don’t support someone’ and then going all out to support my benching in the press is prejudice of the clearest sort.”
The cricketer is equally vocal about Powar, who she accuses of targeting her in particular and making her feel like an outcast. “My issues with the coach started immediately as we landed in the West Indies. At first there were small signs that his behaviour towards me was unfair and discriminatory but I did not bother much about it. It appeared he was out there to prove a point and from there on his behaviour changed dramatically towards me and really caused a lot of stress in the middle of one of the most important tournaments for us,” wrote Mithali. Mithali adds that this behaviour kept getting worse as Powar began to behave like she did not exist in the team.
The Hyderabad-based cricketer says Powar instructed her not to come to the ground (during the Australia match) “as the media will be there”. “I was taken aback. I was told I was not to be with my own team in one of our biggest games. I spoke to the manager immediately and told her that I am not seriously injured and only sick and that I want to come and watch my team play. She agreed and told me to come. But I received a text from Ramesh in a few minutes after my conversation with the manager wherein he told me not to step out of the dressing room.”
Ending her letter on an emotional note, Mithali wrote, “For the first time in a 20-year long career I felt deflated, depressed and let down. I am forced to think if my services to my country are of any value to a few people in power who are out to destroy me and break my confidence.”
 ‘Diana contradicted own stand’
The Committee of Administrators (CoA) member and former India captain Diana Edulji’s statement on Monday that the team management’s call to drop senior player Mithali Raj for the Women’s World T20 semifinal cannot be questioned has left former India coach Tushar Arothe left bemused.
Arothe claims that Edulji took a completely different stand a few months back with regards to team selection for the T20 Asia Cup. “Why is Diana contradicting her statement by saying that it was the team management’s decision to drop Mithali? Why did she interfere in team selection during the Asia Cup in Malaysia? At that time too, the team management had taken a decision to drop (pacer) Pooja Vastrakar in the final. However, after the tournament, I, on-tour selector Shashi Gupta and skipper Harmanpreet were summoned by Diana and asked why Vastrakar was not played in the final,” Arothe told.
 ‘Senior official interfered in men’s selection’
Mithali Raj’s scathing letter to the BCCI, blaming CoA member Diana Edulji and national coach Ramesh Powar of undermining, targeting and humiliating her as a player seems to have opened a pandora’s box.
As BCCI firefights, more whispers have started doing the rounds when it comes to interfering in team selection. Well-placed sources told TOI on Tuesday — hours after Mithali’s letter to the Board — that a senior BCCI administrator very recently “interfered with the men’s team too” and tried dictating the selection process to appoint an interim captain in one of the Asia Cup matches held in the UAE in September.
“In the match against Afghanistan, Rohit Sharma rested himself and the Indian team management decided to hand over the captaincy to MS Dhoni because of his seniority and also as a special gesture. A senior BCCI administrator, however, kept insisting that appointing MS would’ve been a regressive step and said the next seniormost cricketer should lead the side. So, all this talk about outsiders not interfering is absolute nonsense. The administrator refused to give MS the captaincy which was very weird given his experience,” a source in the know of things said.
 BCCI’s planning dilutes Ranji Trophy
Event Will Miss Top 50 Players For 2 Rounds
Confusion prevails in Indian cricket, as BCCI’s planning to strengthen the bench strength has actually led to diluting the Ranji Trophy, India’s premier domestic tournament.
With the India senior Test and ‘A’ teams away on tours, it has been learnt that the Asia Cup for emerging teams — to be held from December 2 to December 17 in Sri Lanka — has been given List A status. It was a U-23 affair till the last edition in March last year.
This means the Ranji Trophy will be without nearly top 50 players in the country. While the fourth round of the tournament begins on Wednesday and is due to finish on December 1, the board has asked the players in the emerging team to play this round of matches and then leave for Sri Lanka as India are scheduled to play on December 7.
Adding to the confusion is the fact that the junior selection committee picked the squad despite the tournament being a List A tournament. Jayant Yadav, who is one of BCCI’s contracted players, has been picked to lead the side. “The decision to make this tournament a List A tournament was taken at the recent Asian Cricket Council meeting. It was decided that only four players over 23 could be picked in the team. That’s why the junior selection committee was given the job to pick the team,” a BCCI official told TOI.
However, BCCI had announced the squad on November 4. TOI understands that the paucity of players due to the coinciding ‘A’ tour had forced BCCI to field a more senior team for the tournament.
India ‘A’ and U-19 coach Rahul Dravid had said last year that the Ranji Trophy should not be compromised. After Dravid’s suggestion, the senior selectors picked two different teams for two unofficial ‘Tests’ against New Zealand at home last year since that ‘A’ series also overlapped with the Ranji Trophy. Interestingly, Dravid had also pointed out at the workload on these players who shuttle between ‘A’ cricket and domestic matches in a matter of days.
The planning has upset the plans of the state teams. Delhi will be without their Nitish Rana and Himmat Singh (emerging team members) and Navdeep Saini (‘A’ tour) for the next fixture.
There’s discontent over how the Ranji Trophy is being played. “This whole arrangement seems to have been done to give everyone some work for the sake of it,” a domestic stalwart who didn’t wish to be identified said. “No other country allows its premier first-class tournament to be diluted like this.”
 England series
 T20 International series: India win 2-1
Rohit Sharma’s elegant unbeaten century made it a walk in the park for India as they cruised to a seven-wicket victory against England to clinch the three-match T20 International series 2-1 here on Sunday. The Indian vice-captain made a target of 199 look ridiculously easy on a small Bristol ground after the visiting bowlers did a commendable job at the back end to restrict the hosts to a sub-par score.
Captain Virat Kohli (43 off 29 balls) played his part with his authoritative strokeplay while Hardik Pandya, who shone with the ball earlier with a fourwicket haul, also made a significant contribution with the bat. Pandya hit 33 not out off just 14 balls as India reached to 201 for 3 in 18.4 overs.
India thus clinched their sixth consecutive T20I series win, which is part of an unbeaten run stretching back to September 2017. The series win also set the right tone for the gruelling challenges ahead with the three-match ODI series, up next, starting from July 12.
Rohit stroked his way to 100 not out, his third T20I hundred, with the help of 11 fours and five sixes, adding 89 runs for the third wicket with Kohli, who got his first score of note on the tour of UK. Virat’s 43 came from 29 balls and had two fours and two sixes.
Chasing a decent target of 199 on a small ground, India made a bright start with 21 runs on board after the second over but opener Shikhar Dhawan (5) got out immediately as Jake Ball made a fine diving catch at short fine leg.
The other opener Rohit Sharma was in good touch as he hit Liam Plunkett for two sixes and a four in the fourth over to build up the momentum of the Indian run chase. Lokesh Rahul (19 off 10 balls) fell to a spectacular catch by Chris Jordan who made a huge ground from long-on and then flung himself full length to pluck the ball out of nowhere. Despite that, India were on course with 70 on board for 2 wickets at the end of powerplay.
Ben Stokes was introduced in the seventh over and he made an immediate impact by conceding just two runs from that over. But Rohit was not the one to remain quiet as he collected a few more fours to reach his fifty off 28 balls in the ninth over while also taking Indian score to 100 for 2 at halfway mark.
Earlier, opening batsman Jason Roy rained sixes in his blistering innings of 67 off just 31 balls but India made a superb fightback on to restrict England to 198 for nine.
Sent into bat, Roy and his opening partner Jos Buttler (34 runs of 21 balls) shared 94 runs from 7.5 overs to make a flying start in their innings. England would have posted a much bigger total but for the comeback by the Indian bowlers led by Hardik Pandya who took 4/38.
The character they showed is something we are really proud of. As captain, very happy to see that. We had the quality to bowl those wicket-taking deliveries. We applied pressure and pulled the game back. (Hardik Pandya) is a really good all-round cricketer, very confident, and the way he picked up those wickets is what you want to see in younger guys. Then he delivers with the bat... Rohit was obviously very special but Hardik was standout... Great to start with a series win. —Virat Kohli We had a tremendous start with the bat and we didn’t do ourselves justice...20 or 30 short.
Our execution of shots wasn’t there. Picking the right ball to hit is something we’ll have to work on. India bowled well, but on a small ground we’d have expected to score more than that. Thought we’d have to do something special with the ball and it’s hard to defend on a ground like this. Hopefully we can learn as we go along. We learn and hopefully improve.” —Eoin Morgan
 India lost the Edgbaston Test
See graphic :
Highlights of the Edgbaston Test, 2018, which India lost to the UK
 Position after losing first two tests
See graphic :
England vs. India- The position after India had lost the first two tests
 India ‘A’
 Beat South Africa ‘A’ at Bengaluru
Hosts Prevail With 7 Balls To Go; 10-Wkt Match Haul For Siraj
For the second time in the contest, Rudi Second walked out to bat when his team needed a stayer at the crease. In the first innings too, he had come in with his team struggling at 93/4 before contributing a defining 94. The script on the final day of the first four-day match between India ‘A’ and South Africa ‘A’ too panned out in a similar fashion.
Resuming at his overnight score of four and team total at 99/4, Second, 29, ground it out in the middle for 324 minutes at the M Chinnaswamy stadium to score another gritty 94 (214b, 11x4), but could not deny the home team a win.
On a dull Tuesday when the clouds kept them company through the day, the home team struggled to break the resistance of the resilient visitors, until, in fading light and with their bowlers jaded, Shreyas Iyer’s men managed to pull off an innings and 30-run win. While the margin suggests it was a walk in the park for India ‘A’, the opposition made them sweat, with the win coming with seven balls left for close of play and Second nearly pulling off a draw. Yuzvendra Chahal struggled throughout the game but got the wicket which eventually mattered, trapping Second leg-before.
Through the day, the visitors played with the sole objective of not throwing away their wickets. First, nightwatchman Zubayr Hamza (63, 126b, 11x4) decided to make a match of it and found an able ally in Second. Unlike the previous three days, the bowling side had to wait till the ninth over for a breakthrough which Gurbani (2/45) ensured with Hamza being caught at slips by Hanuma Vihari.
Second and Shaun Von Berg (50, 175b, 1x4) then added a patient 306-ball 119 for the sixth wicket. The fall of Von Berg to Gurbani and a low one from Yuzvendra Chahal trapping Second in front, set the South Africans back further. Malusi Siboto did try to salvage a draw with his 50-ball 7 (64 minutes) but ran out of partners as pacer Mohammed Siraj completed his second five-wicket haul of the match.
BRIEF SCORES: India A 584/8 dec (Agarwal 220, Shaw 136, Hendricks 3-98) beat South Africa A 246 (Second 94, Siraj 5-56) and 308 (Second 94, Hamza 63, Siraj 5-73) by an innings and 30 runs
 India’s rank in the world
 April: India stretches lead at top of Test rankings
India stretch lead at top of Test rankings
Dubai: India have consolidated their position at the top of the International Cricket Council (ICC) Test team rankings following the annual update. In the ICC's annual update, the series results from 2014-15 are removed and outcomes from the 2015-16 and 2016-17 seasons are weighted at 50 per cent. India have stretched their lead over South Africa from four to 13 points after gaining four points to reach an aggregate of 125 while South Africa have lost five points and slipped to 112. South Africa are, however, still comfortably ahead of the remaining sides. Australia are placed third with 106 points after gaining four points following the update, taking back the position from New Zealand, who had overtaken them at the last cut-off date of April 3. After the update, New Zealand remain on 102 points while England have inched closer, reaching 98 after gaining one point.
Watson, Bailey on Australia review panel:
Former Test players Shane Watson and George Bailey will join Australia captains Tim Paine and Rachael Haynes on a panel tasked with drafting a charter of behaviour in the wake of the ball-tampering scandal in South Africa. The player review, to be overseen by former Test opener Rick McCosker, would also include fast bowler Pat Cummins and Darren Lehmann's replacement as coach of the men's team CA have also appointed Dr Simon Longstaff, executive director of the Sydneybased Ethics Centre, to lead a separate review.
 Pandya, Bhuvneshwar, Ashwin: 3 Indians breakdown in 3 months
Allrounder’s Mid-Over Injury Puts BCCI’s Fitness-Management Under Sharp Focus
The Indian team’s injurymanagement programme has come under the scanner yet again. This time due to Hardik Pandya breaking down in the middle of the game against Pakistan.
Pandya, who was rested against Hong Kong on Tuesday, went down after bowling the fifth ball of the 18th over in the Pakistan innings here on Wednesday. In his fifth over of the innings, Pandya held his back in his follow through and lay down on his back. He had to be stretchered off the field after he failed to get up on his feet.
The Indian team management termed it as an acute lower back injury, which ruled him out of the game. An hour after the incident, the message came through from the team management that Pandya was “able to stand and is being monitored”.
The exact nature of the injury could not be determined as the allrounder was also suffering from back spasms. Team sources said a call on his further participation in the tournament would be taken at the end of the match against Pakistan on Wednesday night.
This is the third instance in the last three months that an Indian player has broken down during an important fixture. Bhuvneshwar Kumar got injured in the final ODI in England in July, while R Ashwin aggravated his injury in the fourth Test last month.
It’s time the team management and the board officials figured out a way to preserve their best players.
 International Cricket Council and India
 Manohar wins 2nd term, unopposed
Shashank Manohar will continue to head the International Cricket Council (ICC) for a second two-year term as its independent chairman after he was elected unopposed by the world governing body’s board members. Manohar had also not faced any opposition when he was elected as ICC’s first independent chairman in 2016. Incidentally, Manohar, was twice elected BCCI president (2008 and 2015) unopposed.
As per ICC norms, all ICC directors, past and present are eligible to contest for the chairman’s post provided they are nomination is backed by two or more directors. In a repeat of the 2016 election, Manohar emerged as the sole nominee for ICC’s top post. Chairman of the independent Audit Committee, Edward Quinlan, who conducted the election process, declared Manohar’s candidature successful. Manohar will be formally anointed at ICC’s annual conclave in Dublin next month. England and Wales Cricket Board’s outgoing chairman Giles Clarke was seen as the only possible threat to Manohar’s candidature. But with Giles failing to successfully woo the Asian cricket boards, it became clear that Manohar would brook no opposition.
Significantly, the BCCI, of which Manohar is a past president, too threw its weight behind Manohar even though as section of its officials are reportedly not happy with the ICC’s decision to scrap the Champions Trophy scheduled to be held in India in 2020 and replace it with the World T20 event. More significantly, the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB), which is fighting a legal battle with the BCCI for the latter’s refusal to ‘honour’ an MoU under which India and Pakistan were supposed to play six bilateral series, too backed Manohar’s candidature.
 Performance of…
 2013, Dec- 2018 Aug: gap between Kohli, Rest of India
Runs scored by and batting averages of Virat Kohli and other Indian batsmen overseas, 2013, Dec- 2018 Aug
Centuries scored by Virat Kohli and other Indian batsmen overseas, 2013, Dec- 2018 Aug
Batting performances of Virat Kohli and other Indian batsmen overseas, 2013, Dec- 2018 Aug
After the Edgbaston Test, it is becoming apparent that Virat Kohli stands head and shoulders above his teammates when it comes to scoring runs overseas against serious competition. But this isn’t a recent phenomenon — Kohli has been doing the bulk of the scoring since Dec 2013 against major opposition away from home.
 Pace bowlers in Test Cricket, 2017-2018
See graphics :
The Performance of Indian Pace bowlers in Test Cricket, 2017, July-2018 July
Wickets taken by pacers out of total wickets taken by India in Tests over the year, 2017, July-2018 July
 Performers not rewarded
 Too much talent, too few slots
Mayank has been in phenomenal form and I feel for him. The reason I think he is not in the team for Sri Lanka is because of the opening slot. At the moment, youngsters are being tried out in T20 format but Shikhar, Rohit and KL Rahul are occupying the top-order, making it difficult to fit in Mayank.
When you are the No.1 Test and ODI team, you have the best cricketers and it becomes difficult to fit in all the talented players. Many players lost out on an India cap when Dravid, Sehwag, Laxman and Ganguly played.
In case of Jalaj, I think they chose Jayant over him because they wanted to test his fitness as he was playing after a long time.
PERFORM AND PERISH?
Most runs in a domestic season Runs 100/50 Season
Player Runs 50s/100Season
- Mayank Agarwal (Kar) 2141 8/9 2017-18 Shreyas Iyer (Mum) 1947 4/11 2015-16 Wasim Jaffer (Mum) 1907 6/9 2008-09 Ajay Sharma (Del) 1894 7/6 1994-95
Top Ranji performers over last 5 seasons
Mayank Agarwal (Kar) 1160 2017-18 Priyank Panchal (Guj) 1310 2016-17 Shreyas Iyer (Mum) 1321 2015-16 Robin Uthappa (Kar) 912 2014-15 Kedar Jadhav (Mah) 1223 2013-14
Most Ranji wickets over last 5 seasons
Jalaj Saxena (Ker) 44 2017-18 Shahbaz Nadeem (Jhar) 56 2016-17 Shahbaz Nadeem (Jhar) 51 2015-16 R Vinay Kumar (Kar) 48 2014-15 Rishi Dhawan (HP) 49 2013-14
Break-up of the season
Innings 30 Runs 2141 Ranji Trophy 1160 Vijay Hazare Trophy 723 Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy 258
 Players’ remunerations
Indian cricket stars’ remunerations, 2018
Top Guns To Earn ₹7 Cr Each In 350% Pay Hike, Demotion For Ashwin, Rahane, Dhoni, Jadeja
Even as it excluded pacer Mohammad Shami from the list of contracted players due to a controversy, the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) introduced a new A+ category, which includes five players — skipper Virat Kohli, Rohit Sharma, Shikhar Dhawan, and pacers Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Jasprit Bumrah, which will ensure them annual contracts worth Rs seven crore each.
Since the A+ contracts were only meant for those who play regularly for India in all formats, former India captain MS Dhoni and senior off-spinner R Ashwin weren’t included in this category, but have been given A grade contracts. Dhoni has retired from Tests, while Ashwin, having lost his place in India’s limited overs team, is a regular only in the Test side.
Explaining this new category, a top Board official told TOI: “There are internal policy decisions in which we’ve clarified who’ll fall in which grade. Those who’re a certainty in the XI in all the formats have been given A+ contracts. We feel that those who’re playing all the should benefit the most,” he said. It is, however, a debatable point, since both Rohit and Shikhar failed to establish their place in India’s Test side in South Africa.
Apart from Dhoni and Ashwin, others in the A category are Ravindra Jadeja, Murali Vijay, Cheteshwar Pujara, Ajinkya Rahane and Wridhhiman Saha. These seven players would be eligible for a contract of Rs five crore.
As TOI had reported a few days back, this is a substantial hike in player payments —the contracts were worth Rs 2 crore (A grade), Rs 1 crore (B Grade) and Rs 50 lakhs (C Grade) for the 2016-17 season. At that time too, the Supreme Courtappointed Committee of Administrators (CoA) was in charge, and it had hiked the players’ salaries. As per the new contracts for the 2017-18 season, even a ‘B’ grade contract is worth 3 crores, while a Grade ‘C’ contract is worth Rs one crore.
Perhaps, the Board could’ve done better by naming Pujara, who’s one of India’s premier batsmen in Test cricket but fails to find a slot in either India’s LOI team or a contract in the lucrative IPL, in the A+ category, but then this gradation has been taken after consulting skipper Virat Kohli, coach Ravi Shastri and Dhoni.
The B category features seven players-KL Rahul, Umesh Yadav, Kuldeep Yadav, Yuzvendra Chahal, Hardik Pandya, Ishant Sharma and Dinesh Karthik. The Grade B category contracts are worth Rs three crore. In Grade C, which again includes seven players, and where one gets Rs one crore, are Kedar Jadhav, Manish Pandey, Axar Patel, Karun Nair, Suresh Raina, Parthiv Patel and Jayant Yadav.
The annual contracts are for the period between October 2017 to September 2018.
Curiously, while off-spinner Jayant Yadav, who last played for India in the 2016-17, season, found a Grade ‘C’ contract, the likes of Shreyas Iyer and Shardul Thakur, who are now regulars in India’s limited overs side, failed to bag a contract.
“I fail to understand on what basis has this gradation been done. How many games has Yadav played last season? How does Karthik get a B grade contract? What does he play regularly? Only T20s. Are you looking at players’ performances, or just their mere presence in the squad? If you’re looking at nurturing future, then Shreyas and Shardul should’ve been there,” felt a section of the Board.
“The CoA was of the view that the performance and position of Indian cricket needs to be recognised with the fee structure comparable to the best in the world,” the BCCI said.
Among the women, World Cup stars Mithali Raj, Jhulan Goswami, Harmanpreet Kaur and Smriti Mandhana have been kept in the top bracket, under which the annual contract is worth Rs 50 lakh. In a further boost for women’s cricket in India, the Board has introduced Grade ‘C,’ which is worth Rs 10 lakhs.
Shami’s contract on hold
Meanwhile, the BCCI has withheld Mohammad Shami’s contract till he’s cleared of the serious allegations made by his wife. According to sources, the decision was taken by the Supreme Court-appointed Committee of Administrators (CoA), which is supervising the functioning of the board these days.
“It’s a personal issue, and we shouldn’t be commenting on it. Actually, we were in a bit of a dilemma on this point. At one level, this (the BCCI contract) is purely a professional issue and we can’t interfere with his personal matter. However, there’s a small element of ethics involved also. Someone could’ve taken a stand that his wife is making serious allegations…so we thought that we’ll verify the allegations against him over twothree days and then take a call,” an official said.
 September: Rohit makes it 1-2 for India in ODIs
Rohit Sharma, who led his team to Asia Cup title in the absence of top-ranked Virat Kohli, on Sunday climbed two places up to a careerbest second position to make it a 1-2 for India in the ICC ODI batting rankings. This is for the second time that Sharma is in second position, having first reached No. 2 in July this year. He aggregated 317 runs in the tournament. Shikhar Dhawan gained four slots to reach fifth position.
Another Indian to gain in the rankings table is spinner Kuldeep Yadav, who has advanced three places to take a career-best third position. Afghanistan’s Rashid Khan has displaced Shakib Al Hasan from the top of the all-rounders’ list. He has become the first from his country and 32nd overall to reach top position in the list.
In the ICC ODI Team rankings, there is no change in positions in the list led by England, who are followed by India, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the West Indies.
 October: Virat, Rohit The Greatest ODI pair?
As in Oct 2018, Virat, Rohit were arguably the world’s greatest ODI pair
 South Africa: January- February 2018
 Kohli, Dhawan vs. SA; other batsmen lacking
Overdependence On The Indian Skipper Does Not Augur Well For India In The Long Run
To say that the series between India and South Africa has turned into a series between Virat Kohli and the hosts won’t be an overstatement. While Shikhar Dhawan has proved to be a productive ally to his West Delhi compatriot in the shorter formats, none of the other batsmen have really chipped in.
The Test series was a classic case in point. In fact, Kohli was the lone centurion across both teams and was easily the top-scorer with 286 runs at an average of 47.66. The next best Indian was Hardik Pandya who scored 119 runs at an average of 19.83. Those stats would have been worse had he not scored that buccanneering 93 in Centurion.
Murali Vijay (102 runs, average 17), Cheteshwar Pujara (100 runs, avg 16.66) and Bhuvaneshwar Kumar (101 runs, avg 33.66) were the only batsmen to get past the 100-run mark.
While the wickets in Tests were expectedly spicy and afforded generous help to the batsmen, the same cannot be said about the One-dayers.
In four matches so far, Kohli, with two tons, a 75 and a 46 not out has aggregated 393 runs at a stratospheric average of 196.50. Rohit Sharma, who came a cropper in the Tests and who was expected to come into his own in coloured clothing as he has earned a reputation of being an All Time Great in white ball cricket with three double hundreds, has been in abysmal touch scoring just 40 runs at a poor average of 10. His faulty technique has meant that he only has scores like 20, 15, 0 and 5 to show for his effort or lack of it.
Dhawan though has been prolific scoring two half-centuries and a sublime ton in Johannesburg. His contributions have been far more productive as he has got scores of 35, 51 not out, 76 and 109. Even at the Wanderers, he was the one who energised the innings with a fast start.
Ajinkya Rahane scored a dazzling 79 in the first ODI, but has not made use of his chances in the other games despite India being in good positions and him getting overs to bat.
Hardik Pandya, despite ear ning a promotion in the batting order, has not done well and it is too early to judge Shreyas Iyer based on what he did in just one game.
Dhoni too has remained unbeaten in two of the three innings he has played in which he has scored 56 runs. But his 43 on Saturday was laborious and reinforced the belief that many have harboured that his hitting skills are on the wane.
In the mid and late 90s, especially when India played overseas, the opposition always felt you could get India if you could get Sachin Tendulkar for a relatively modest score or get him on a decent individual score but with overs to spare. A similar situation panned out in the Champions Trophy last June. With the World Cup scheduled in 16 months from now, the Indian captain could do well with more support from his other mates.
 TV, digital rights
 Star pays ₹6138 cr
Star Consolidates TV & Digital Hold After Having Bought IPL Rights Earlier
Topping up on the $2.55b (Rs 16,347.5 cr) investment made in Indian cricket to bag exclusive global rights for the Indian Premier League (IPL) for the next five years only six months ago, Disney’s newly-acquired India arm, Star India Pvt Ltd, cut another cheque of $944m (Rs 6138 cr) on Thursday to bag the consolidated bilateral rights for Indian cricket during the same period.
In doing so, Star India has now committed a massive $3.36b (Rs 22,485.5 cr) to Indian cricket between now and FY 2022-23. In what turned out to be a fierce online bidding process with its closest rival Sony Pictures Network (SPN), Star eventually bid Rs 19.41 cr more to take home the BCCI rights. The former Rupert Murdoch’s Foxled India arm – which has now been taken over by Walt Disney following a $54b deal in late 2017 – will pay BCCI a little in excess of Rs 60 cr (Rs 60.176 cr to be precise) per match. SPN and Reliance Jio Infocomm were the other bidders in the fray.
From a world cricket standpoint, the England Cricket Board’s (ECB) five-year deal – the second costliest after this one – stands at $287m. In the first year of the deal, Star will pay BCCI Rs 1083.16 cr, Rs 1564.57 cr in year two, Rs 842.46 in year three and Rs 1323.87 in years four and five.
BCCI CEO Rahul Johri, the man at the helm as Indian cricket goes about raking in moolah like never before, sounded ecstatic. “Indian cricket sets the trend for global cricket and today’s result shows are a testimony to the global leadership of BCCI,” he said.
Johri has lead BCCI through the last four big-ticket deals: title rights, jersey rights, IPL and now the bilateral series rights. The break-up of the year-wise payment is based on the allocation of 102 bilateral matches falling under the newly drafted Future Tour Program (FTP) of the International Cricket Council (ICC), which is inclusive of all formats. The 102 matches are divided as follows: 18 matches in year one, 26 in year two, 14 in year three and 22 each in year four and five.
Star listed the per match value for each of the five years of the deal as follows: Rs 46 cr (per match in year one), 47 cr (year two), 46.5 cr (year three), 77.4 cr (year four) and 78.9 cr (year five) respectively. To give an idea of what this investment may mean from a global perspective, Major League Baseball (MLB) – one of the world’s biggest sports properties – pays close to 52 cr per game. “BCCI rights come expensive, but then good things have a price. Star and BCCI can transform the sporting experience ,” Star India chairman Uday Shankar said.
 SL ODI series levelled 2-2
Spinners Ayush Badoni and Harsh Tyagi shared six wickets after a collective batting show by the visitors as India Under-19 team mauled Sri Lanka U-19 by a comprehensive 135-run margin in the fourth Youth ODI to level the series 2-2, here today. Electing to bat, the Indian batsmen put on board a decent 278 for six with Devdutt Padikkal (71), skipper Aryan Juyal (60) and Yash Rathod (56) scoring half-centuries. After early fall of Atharwa Taide (20), Padikkal and Pawan Shah (36) added 74 runs for the second wicket before Sandun Mendis broke the stand by scalping the latter. The next batsmen used the platform to post the highest score of the series. PTI
Brief scores: India U-19 278/6 (D Padikkal 71, A Juyal 60) bt SL U-19 143 in 37.2 ovs (A Badoni 3/35, H Tyagi 3/37)
 U-19 World Cup
 India beats Australia
India beat Australia in U-19 World Cup
In domestic cricket Rishabh Pant scored the fastest century by an Indian
 How the Indians reached the finals
The Indian U-19 team’s journey to the World Cup finals
 India’s key players
KEY PLAYERS FOR INDIA
The Mumbai lad shot into prominence as a 14-year old when he smashed 546 off 330 balls in an inter-school match In September last year, at 17, Shaw became the youngest to score a century on Duleep Trophy debut, a record previously held by Sachin Tendulkar. The captain of India’s U-19 team, Shaw has been consistent as an opener and has led the side with maturity and balance. During the tournament, he was bought by Delhi Daredevils for Rs 1.2 crore at the IPL auction. Took two fine catches at gully during the semis against Pakistan.
Matches: 5, Runs: 232, HS: 94, Avg: 77.33, SR: 98.72.
With 341 runs under his belt in five games, this Punjab batsman has been the topscorer for India in this World Cup. He has an uncanny similarity with India captain Virat Kohli in the way he plays his shots. Gill, who belongs to Chak Khere Wala village in Punjab’s Fazilka district, started wielding the willow at the age of four. His father Lakhwinder is a farmer and land owner. Shubman was picked by Kolkata Knight Riders for a handsome Rs 1.8 crore in the IPL auction last Saturday. A consistently high-scorer in domestic age-group cricket, Gill will be a thorn in Australia’s side if he stays at the wicket for a while.
Matches: 5, Runs: 341, HS: 102*, Avg: 170.50, SR: 113.28.
The speed-guns in New Zealand have been clocking Nagarkoti consistently at 145 plus, which is unheard of at this level. Nagarkoti has been one of the most talked-about teenagers in New Zealand over the last two weeks, with everyone from Ian Bishop to Sourav Ganguly raving about his raw pace, athleticism and attitude. The wiry right-arm pacer became the most expensive buy in the current U-19 team when he was bought by KKR in the 2018 IPL auction for Rs 3.2 crore. The Rajasthan pacer’s father was a subedar in the Indian Army who spent his retirement corpus to buy a one-bedroom apartment in Jaipur so his son could learn to play cricket.
Matches: 5, Wickets: 7, Best Bowling: 3-18, Avg: 15.14, Eco: 3.19
Like his pace colleague Nagarkoti, Mavi caught the cricketing world’s attention when one of his deliveries touched 146kph on the speed gun, in India’s opening match against Australia. Has flattened the stumps of many batsmen, especially with the older ball, with his deadly yorker. Apparently, much like his idol, South African pace ace Dale Steyn, the lad from Noida hates being hit even in the nets. Interestingly, Mavi comes from an area near Meerut which is known to produce swing bowlers rather than genuine quicks.
Switched to Uttar Pradesh after being rejected by Delhi for their U-16 team.
Matches: 5, Wickets: 8, Best Bowling: 3-45, Avg: 15.50, Eco: 3.77.
This left-arm spinner hails from Samastipur, a small town in northern Bihar. After playing tennisball tournaments there, he moved to Jamshedpur in pursuit of serious cricket. Interestingly, he came into the World Cup straight out of legnthy period of injury rehabilitation. He bowled for hours together at India’s pre-tournament camp in Bengaluru. In a side packed with spinners (there are four others capable of bowling 10 overs), Roy has stood out by being the top wickettaker (12 firstname.lastname@example.org) for India. He is also handy with the bat. No wonder, his idol is Ravindra Jadeja.
Matches: 5, Wickets: 12, Best Bowling: 5-14, Avg: 7.91, Eco: 3.65.
 Manjot century brings India its fourth WC
2000, 2008, 2012 and now 2018. India pulled off a sensational eight-wicket win over Australia in the big final of the ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup to become the only side in history to lift the coveted title for a record fourth time. A clinical bowling performance by India saw them restrict Australia to 216, a total that Prithvi Shaw and his men gunned down comfortably in the end - with 67 balls remaining - to etch their name in history books.
The platform for the big win was laid by, first, the bowlers, who staged a terrific comeback to remove the last six Australian wickets for just 33 runs, and later by opener Manjot Kalra, who struck a 101-ball century to lead India to victory. Kalra got vital partnerships going with each batsman he batted with - 71 with Shaw, 60 with Shubman Gill and an unbeaten 89 with Harvik Desai and formed the fulcrum around which the chase revolved.
Considering the kind of form India's batting was in, getting 217 was never going to be much of a hassle, and that's exactly how things panned out. Kalra and Shaw provided India a brisk start, putting on 71 inside 12 overs despite a slight intervention due to rain. Even as play resumed, the openers went about scoring at over six and saw through the first period. Shaw spanked thunderous back-to-back cover drives for four that brought up India's fifty in quick time.
Shaw's short but solid knock of 29 ended when he played down the wrong line to Will Sutherland and was bowled. But there was nothing stopping Kalra, who inflicted a brutal carnage on Australia. Once he tonked Zak Evans for a six off a free hit, the left-hander looked in complete control of his innings. He brought up his fifty off 47 balls. The impact of his knock can be gauged by the fact that his partners - Shaw and Gill seemed content playing second fiddle. He played shots all round the ground and smoked three colossal sixes during his knock.
 See also
Cricket, India: A history (2016) and other individual years
Cricket, India: A history (2018)
 ...and also
World Cup (cricket): history <>World Cup (cricket): 1975 <>World Cup (cricket): 1979 <>World Cup (cricket): 1983 <>World Cup (cricket): 1987 <>World Cup (cricket): 1992 <>World Cup (cricket): 1996 <>World Cup (cricket): 1999 <>World Cup (cricket): 2003 <>World Cup (cricket): 2007 <>World Cup (cricket): 2011 <>World Cup (cricket): 2015 <>World Cup (cricket): 2019