Immunisation: India

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(Growth of immunisation)
 
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Between 2014 and 2018, India’s annual immunisation growth rate has risen to 4% from 1% previously.
 
Between 2014 and 2018, India’s annual immunisation growth rate has risen to 4% from 1% previously.
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==2017-18: 60% full immunisation according to NSO==
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[https://epaper.timesgroup.com/Olive/ODN/TimesOfIndia/shared/ShowArticle.aspx?doc=TOIDEL%2F2019%2F12%2F03&entity=Ar00401&sk=8FFEE9B5&mode=text  Rema Nagarajan, Full immunisation: Govt says 83%, NSO survey shows 60%, December 3, 2019: ''The Times of India'']
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[[File: Immunisation in India in 2017-18..jpg|Immunisation in India in 2017-18. <br/> From: [https://epaper.timesgroup.com/Olive/ODN/TimesOfIndia/shared/ShowArticle.aspx?doc=TOIDEL%2F2019%2F12%2F03&entity=Ar00401&sk=8FFEE9B5&mode=text  Rema Nagarajan, Full immunisation: Govt says 83%, NSO survey shows 60%, December 3, 2019: ''The Times of India'']|frame|500px]]
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''2017-18 Data Points To Inadequacies In Coverage Of Under-5 Children Despite 90% Of All Deliveries Now Happening In Institutions''
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Though well over 90% of children in India are born in an “institution” — a government or private facility — the proportion of children up to five years who have been fully immunised stagnates below 60%, according to the latest survey by the National Statistical Office. This highlights the health system’s failure to track children born in hospitals to ensure their full immunisation.
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The data was revealed in an NSO survey conducted from July 2017 to June 2018 whose findings were released over the weekend. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) done in 2015-16 showed a similar level of immunisation coverage (62%), indicating a lack of progress in the two intervening years.
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The data also runs counter to the government claim that the health ministry’s internal data on immunisation coverage till November 2018 showed it had touched 83% with just 2% of children getting no vaccination at all. While the data on unimmunised children ties in with the NSO survey, the data on coverage does not match.
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According to the NSO, the proportion of fully immunised children was just 58.4% in rural India and 61.7% in urban areas. Moreover, in states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, which account for the highest number of children being born, the coverage is just 48% and 55%, respectively (see graphic).
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The NSO survey covered almost 1.2 lakh households across India and the NFHS-IV conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 covered over 6 lakh households. Mission Indradhanush, meant to propel India towards 90% full immunisation coverage, was launched on December 25, 2014. Full immunisation means that children under five years should receive all eight doses of prescribed vaccines — BCG to prevent tuberculosis, three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), three doses of DPT or vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis or whooping cough and measles vaccine.
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NFHS-IV, which recorded almost 89% institutional births, showed that about 92% of the children received BCG vaccine given as a single dose at birth. The NSO survey, too, shows that the percentage of children who received any vaccination was over 97%. This is not surprising with over 96% institutional childbirths in urban areas and over 90% in rural areas since BCG and one OPV dose are given at birth.
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As part of Mission Indradhanush, children were also given meningitis and Hepatitis B vaccines. In selected states, children were also given vaccines for Japanese encephalitis and haemophilus influenza type B. In 2016, the health ministry added more vaccines against rubella, rotavirus and an injectable polio vaccine. In 2017, the mission added pneumococcal conjugate vaccine meant to prevent pneumonia to the universal immunisation programme. While more vaccines have been added to the immunisation programme and funds deployed to purchase them, survey data indicates that coverage has been stagnant.
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On October 8, 2017, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush with a special drive to reach those not covered by the routine immunisation programme by focusing on select districts and cities to achieve over 90% full immunisation coverage by December 2018. Earlier, the target of the mission was to achieve this by 2020.
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According to a health ministry statement in October 2017, while the increase in full immunisation coverage was 1% per year earlier, this had shot up to 6.7% per year through the first two phases of Mission Indradhanush. Considering that the mission was launched in December 2014, the NSO survey should have shown over 82% coverage. However, even in the best performing states such as Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, the coverage was just 74% and 73% respectively in the NSO survey.
  
 
=Immunisation and literacy=
 
=Immunisation and literacy=

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Contents

[edit] Growth of immunisation

[edit] 2014-18 growth> and vaccine hesitancy

Sushmi Dey, Vaccine refusal among top 10 threats to public health: WHO, January 24, 2019: The Times of India

Refusal or hesitation to get vaccination against deadly diseases despite availability of vaccines is seen as one of the top threats to public health, according to World Health Organisation (WHO). The UN agency recently released a list of what it considers the top 10 threats to global health for 2019, which include air pollution, obesity and antibiotic resistance.

This is the first time that vaccine hesitancy has made it to the UN agency’s list of ten biggest threats to world health. “Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding disease — it currently prevents 2-3 million deaths a year, and a further 1.5 million could be avoided if global coverage of vaccination improved,” it said.

In India, lack of awareness and information coupled with apprehension of adverse event following immunisation are seen as the major reasons for children not getting vaccinated. The two factors together account for around 65% of the children not getting vaccine coverage, as per government estimates.

Between 2014 and 2018, India’s annual immunisation growth rate has risen to 4% from 1% previously.

[edit] 2017-18: 60% full immunisation according to NSO

Rema Nagarajan, Full immunisation: Govt says 83%, NSO survey shows 60%, December 3, 2019: The Times of India


2017-18 Data Points To Inadequacies In Coverage Of Under-5 Children Despite 90% Of All Deliveries Now Happening In Institutions

Though well over 90% of children in India are born in an “institution” — a government or private facility — the proportion of children up to five years who have been fully immunised stagnates below 60%, according to the latest survey by the National Statistical Office. This highlights the health system’s failure to track children born in hospitals to ensure their full immunisation.

The data was revealed in an NSO survey conducted from July 2017 to June 2018 whose findings were released over the weekend. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) done in 2015-16 showed a similar level of immunisation coverage (62%), indicating a lack of progress in the two intervening years.

The data also runs counter to the government claim that the health ministry’s internal data on immunisation coverage till November 2018 showed it had touched 83% with just 2% of children getting no vaccination at all. While the data on unimmunised children ties in with the NSO survey, the data on coverage does not match.

According to the NSO, the proportion of fully immunised children was just 58.4% in rural India and 61.7% in urban areas. Moreover, in states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, which account for the highest number of children being born, the coverage is just 48% and 55%, respectively (see graphic).

The NSO survey covered almost 1.2 lakh households across India and the NFHS-IV conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 covered over 6 lakh households. Mission Indradhanush, meant to propel India towards 90% full immunisation coverage, was launched on December 25, 2014. Full immunisation means that children under five years should receive all eight doses of prescribed vaccines — BCG to prevent tuberculosis, three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV), three doses of DPT or vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis or whooping cough and measles vaccine.

NFHS-IV, which recorded almost 89% institutional births, showed that about 92% of the children received BCG vaccine given as a single dose at birth. The NSO survey, too, shows that the percentage of children who received any vaccination was over 97%. This is not surprising with over 96% institutional childbirths in urban areas and over 90% in rural areas since BCG and one OPV dose are given at birth.

As part of Mission Indradhanush, children were also given meningitis and Hepatitis B vaccines. In selected states, children were also given vaccines for Japanese encephalitis and haemophilus influenza type B. In 2016, the health ministry added more vaccines against rubella, rotavirus and an injectable polio vaccine. In 2017, the mission added pneumococcal conjugate vaccine meant to prevent pneumonia to the universal immunisation programme. While more vaccines have been added to the immunisation programme and funds deployed to purchase them, survey data indicates that coverage has been stagnant.

On October 8, 2017, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush with a special drive to reach those not covered by the routine immunisation programme by focusing on select districts and cities to achieve over 90% full immunisation coverage by December 2018. Earlier, the target of the mission was to achieve this by 2020.

According to a health ministry statement in October 2017, while the increase in full immunisation coverage was 1% per year earlier, this had shot up to 6.7% per year through the first two phases of Mission Indradhanush. Considering that the mission was launched in December 2014, the NSO survey should have shown over 82% coverage. However, even in the best performing states such as Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, the coverage was just 74% and 73% respectively in the NSO survey.

[edit] Immunisation and literacy

Immunisation and literacy. Chart: The Times of India

See graphic

Immunisation and literacy. Chart

[edit] See also

Infant mortality: India

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