Power: India, 2 (ministry data)

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What Is the Difference Between Power and Energy? The Staff of QUEST explains:

The word “energy” is used to describe many different things—how we heat and cool our homes, how we fuel cars. Energy isn’t something that can be seen or felt, but you can see and feel the effects when energy is transferred from one place to another.

Energy is what makes change happen and can be transferred form one object to another. Energy can also be transformed from one form to another.

Power is the rate at which energy is transferred. It is not energy but is often confused with energy. The watt is the most commonly used unit of measure for power. It measures the rate of energy transfer.

A watt equals a joule per second. If a smart phone uses five joules of energy every second, then the power of the phone is five joules per second, or five watts.

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Power: India, 2 (ministry data)

This article has been sourced from an authoritative, official
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After the formal launch of their online archival encyclopædia,
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The main source of this article

INDIA 2012


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Power development in India commenced at the end of the 19th century with the commissioning of electricity supply in Darjeeling during 1897, followed by the commissioning of a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902. In the pre-Independence era, the power supply was mainly in the private sector, that too restricted to the urban areas. With the formation of State Electricity Boards during Five-Year Plans, a significant step was taken in bringing about a systematic growth of power supply industry all over the country. A number of multi-purpose projects came into being, and with the setting up of thermal, hydro and nuclear power stations, power generation started increasing significantly.

The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of electrical energy in the country. The Ministry is concerned with perspective planning, policy formulation, processing of projects for investment decisions, monitoring of the implementation of power projects, training and man-power development and the administration and enactment of legislation with regard to thermal and hydro power generation, transmission and distribution. In all technical matters, the Ministry of Power is assisted by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA).

The construction and operation of generation and transmission projects in the Central sector are entrusted to Central Sector Power Corporations, viz.,

the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC),

the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC),

the North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO), and

the Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL).

The Power Grid is responsible for all the existing and future transmission projects in the Central Sector and also for the formation of the National Power Grid.

Two joint-venture power corporations, namely, Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVN) (formerly known as NJPC) and Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC) are responsible for the execution of the Nathpa Jhakri Power Project in Himachal Pradesh and Projects of Tehri Hydro Power Complex in Uttarakhand respectively.

Three statutory bodies, i.e., the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), the Bhakra-Beas Management Board (BBMB) and Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), are also under the administrative control of the Ministry of Power.

Programmes of rural electrification are provided financial assistance by the Rural Electrification Corporation (REC).

The Power Finance Corporation (PFC) provides term-finance to projects in the power sector.

The autonomous bodies (societies), namely, Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) and the National Power Training Institute (NPTI) are also under the administrative control of the Ministry of Power.

A Power Trading Corporation has also been incorporated primarily to support the Mega Power Projects in private sector by acting as a single entity to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs).

Capacity Addition

Based on the 10th Plan actual capacity addition of 21,180 MW and preparedness of projects, the Planning Commission had initially fixed a capacity addition target of 78,700 MW during the 11th Plan to meet the power requirement of the country. This comprised hydro, thermal and nuclear capacity of 15,627 MW, 59,693 MW and 3,380 MW respectively. The Central Sector was to contribute 36,874 MW (Thermal 24,840 MW), the State Sector 26,783 MW (Thermal 23,301 MW) and Private Sector 15,043 MW (Thermal 11, 552 MW) in the 11th Plan. Keeping in view the stage and pace of construction of power generation projects and their likelihood of commissioning during the remaining period of the 11th Plan, this has been revised to 62,374 MW by the Planning Commission at the time of Mid-Term Appraisal comprising 8, 237 MW Hydro, 50,757 MW Thermal and 3,380 MW Nuclear projects with 21,222 MW in Central Sector, 21,355 MW in State Sector and 19,797 MW in Private Sector.

Up to 31st May, 2011, 35,747 MW of capacity has been added in the 11th Plan comprising 10,450 MW in Central Sector, 12,971 MW in State Sector and 12,326 MW in Private Sector. This is 169% of the total capacity added during the 10th Five Year Plan.

The installed power generation capacity has increased from about 1,400 MW in 1947 to 1,74,361 MW as on 30.04.2011 comprising 37,567 MW hydro, 1,13,559 MW thermal including gas and diesel, 4780 MW Neclear based power plants and 18,455 MW from renewable energy sources including wind.

Power Generation

Power generation during 2010-11 was 811.14 BU comprising 665.01 BU Thermal, 114.26 BU from Hydro, 26.27 BU from Nuclear and 5.61 BU import from Bhutan. The target of power generation for the year 2010-11 was fixed at 855 BU. The Plant Load Factor (PLF) has shown a steady improvement over the years and has improved from 52.8 per cent in 1990-91 to 77.53 per cent in 2009-10 and reduced to 75.08% in 2010-11.

50,000 MW Hydro Electric Initiative

Under the 50,000 MW Initiative launched by the Government in 2003-04, 162 hydroelectric projects spread in 16 states for the purpose of preparation of Preliminary Feasibility Reports (PFRs) were taken up by CEA as nodal agency. The PFRs were completed in September 2004 for all these projects with an installation of 47,930 MW.

As a follow up of preparation of PFRs, preparation of DPRs for these schemes had been taken up, thereby providing a shelf of projects for execution in the near future.

Out of 162 schemes (47930 MW), DPRs for 28 schemes (10093 MW/Revised capacity 9594 MW) have already been prepared (upto April,2011). The work of Survey & Investigation is under progress for another 31 schemes (17093 MW).

Hydro Capacity Addition during 12th Plan

To meet the requirement of additional capacity during the 12th Plan (2012-17), a shelf of 87 candid hydro projects having aggregate capacity of 20334 MW (excluding slippages from 11th Plan) was prepared. The no. of projects have been reduced due to merger and deletion of some projects and change in installed capacity during S&I and preparation of DPR. With the incorporation of the above changes, 83 projects (22011 MW, excluding slippages from 11th Plan) have been identified as candidate projects for benefits during 12th Plan.

Setting up of Ultra Mega Power Project

Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) are being promoted with a view to providing power to all at a reasonable rate and ensuring fast capacity addition by the Central Government as an initiative facilitating the development of Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPP) of 4000 MW capacity each under tariff based international competitive bidding route. Project specific Shell Companies (Special Purpose Vehicles) as 100% subsidiries of Power Finance Corporation Limited have been created for carrying out developmental work consisting of the tie up of inputs/ clearances and the bidding process for selection of developers for the UMPPs.

So far, four UMPPs, namely, Sasan in M.P., Mundra in Gujarat, Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Tilaiya in Jharkhand have been awarded and transferred to the developers selected through tariff based competitive bidding. Two units of 800 MW each of Mundra UMPP are expected to be commissioned in 11th Plan. The request for Qualification (RFQ) bids have been issued for the UMPPs proposed in Chhattisgarh and Odisha. In regard to UMPP in Tamil Nadu and second UMPP of Andhra Pradesh, the sites have been finalized and the project development work is in advanced stage.


Central Electricity Authority (CEA), a statutory organisation constituted under Section 3(1) of the Electricity Supply Act, 1948 which has been superseded by Section 70 (1) of Electricity Act, 2003, plays an important role in formulating policies and programmes for power development in the country and in planning and coordinating various development activities in the Power Sector. The CEA advises the Central Government on matters relating to the National Electricity Policy, formulates short-term and perspective plans for development of the electricity system and coordinates the activities of the planning agencies for optimal utilisation of resources to subserve the interests of national economy and to provide reliable and affordable electricity for all consumers.

Under the Electricity Act, 2003, the CEA makes regulations/standards on matters such as construction of electrical plants, electric lines and connectivity to the grid, installation and operation of meters, concurrence of hydro-electric schemes, safety and grid standards. It also specifies measures relating to safety with respect to electricity supply. This will inculcate higher efficiency in all fields of the power sector.

The CEA is responsible for the concurrence of hydro power development schemes of the Central, State and Private sectors taking into consideration the best ultimate development of the river or its tributaries for power generation, consistent with the requirement of drinking water, irrigation, navigation, flood control or for other public purposes. It also makes studies for the optimum location of dams and other river works keeping in view the norms regarding dam design and safety.

It promotes and assists in the timely completion of schemes and projects for improving and augmenting the electricity system by carrying out a close monitoring of the construction of generation and transmission projects to ensure their timely completion by identifying bottlenecks and problem areas and initiating remedial measures/actions. It lays stress on improving the performance of existing power stations through better O&M practices, renovation and modernisation and life extension programmes. It is also charged with the responsibility of monitoring schemes/projects for their timely completion.

Collection and recording the data concerning the generation, transmission, trading, distribution and utilisation of electricity and carrying out studies relating to cost, efficiency, competitiveness, etc., are important functions of the CEA. It makes public from time to time information secured under the Electricity Act, 2003 and provides for the publication of reports and investigations.

The CEA advises Central Government, State governments and Regulatory Commissions on all technical matters relating to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It also advises State Governments, licensees or generating companies on such matters which shall enable them to operate and maintain the electricity system under their ownership or control in an improved manner and where necessary, in coordination with any other Government, licensee or the generating company owning or controlling another electricity system.

The CEA plays a lead role in promoting an integrated operation of Regional Grid systems and the evolution of a National Grid. The Eastern, North-Eastern and Western regions have been integrated and are operating in a synchronous mode. The Eastern Region is connected with the Northern as well as the Southern Region through HVDC back-to-back links. Similarly, the Western Region is also connected with the Northern and the Southern Regions through the same arrangements. The CEA facilitates exchange of power within the country from surplus to deficit regions and with neighbouring countries for mutual benefits.

It promotes research in matters affecting the generation, transmission, distribution and trading of electricity; carries out, or causes to be carried out, any investigation for the purposes of generating or transmitting or distributing electricity and promotes measures for advancing the skills of persons engaged in the electricity industry. It actively participates in power supply restoration process in case of occurrence of unfortunate incidents of destruction caused due to drought/cyclone/ floods/tsunami, etc., in various parts of the country.

The CEA makes a significant contribution to a number of professional fora in India as well as abroad like the Conference International Des Grands Research Electriques (CIGRE), the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBI&P), etc. The CEA renders consultancy services in the planning and design of hydro, thermal and transmission projects.


The provisions of this Act have been brought into force with effect from 10 June 2003 (with this, the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948 and the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998 stand repealed). The main features of the Act are as follows:

(i) Generation has been delicensed and captive generation freely permitted. Hydro projects would, however, need concurrence from the Central Electricity Authority.

(ii) No licence required for generation and distribution in rural areas.

(iii) Transmission Utility at the Central as well as State level, to be a government company – with responsibility for planned and coordinated development of the transmission network. Provision for private licensees in transmission.

(iv) Open access in transmission with provision for surcharge for taking care of current level of cross subsidy with the surcharge being gradually phased out.

(v) Distributing licensees would be free to undertake generation, and generating companies would be free to take up distribution.

(vi) The State Governments are required to unbundle the SEBs. However, they may continue with them as distribution licensees and State Transmission Utilities.

(vii) Setting up of the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) made mandatory.

(viii) An Appellate Tribunal to hear appeals against the decision of the CERC and SERCs.

(ix) The SERCs are required to permit open access in distribution in phases with surcharge for current level of cross subsidy to be gradually phased out along with cross subsidies and obligation to supply.

(x) Metering of electricity supplied made mandatory.

(xi) Provisions relating to theft of electricity made more stringent.

(xii) Trading as a distinct activity recognised with the safeguard of the Regulatory Commissions being authorised to fix ceilings on trading margins, if necessary.

(xiii) For rural and remote areas, stand-alone systems for generation and distribution permitted.

(xiv) Thrust to complete rural electrification and provide for management of rural distribution by panchayats, cooperative societies, non-government organizations, franchisees, etc.

(xv) The Central Government to prepare a National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy.

(xvi) The Central Electricity Authority to prepare a National Electricity Plan. Appellate Tribunal for Electricity

The Central Government established Appellate Tribunal for Electricity under the Section, 110 of the Electricity Act, 2003 on 7 April 2004. The headquarters of the Appellate Tribunal is at Delhi. The Appellate Tribunal will hear appeals against orders of the Regulatory Commissions/ Adjudicating Officers.

National Electricity Policy

The National Electricity Policy has been notified by the Government under the Act. Competitive bidding guidelines have been issued by the Government. The Tariff Policy has been notified.

Anti-Theft Legislation

The States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat, Bihar, and Punjab have passed/drafted antitheft laws.

As per the provisions of Section 153 of the Electricity Act, 2003, special courts dealing with power theft have been set up in the States of Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand,West Bengal and Delhi.

Redressal of Grievances of Consumers and Appointment of an Ombudsman

As per the provisions of the Electricity Act, 2003, every distribution licensee shall have to establish a forum for redressal of grievances of the Consumers in accordance with the guidelines as specified by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission. Consumer Grievances Redressal Forums have been established in 24 States by the

Distribution Companies as per Section 42 (5) of the Act. Every State Electricity Regulatory Commission shall appoint or designate an Ombudsman as per Section 42(6) of the Act. Any consumer who is aggrieved by the non-redressal of his grievances may make a representation for the redressal of his grievances to the Ombudsman. So far, 24 State Electricity Regulatory Commissions have appointed or designated an Ombudsman.


In order to improve sub-transmission and distribution system including reduction of Transmission & Distribution losses, Central Government had given support in the 10th plan in the form of APDRP scheme. There were two components of the scheme—investment component to support capital investment and an incentive component for actual cash loss reduction. Upto November 2009, total investment component of Rs 7675.51 crore and total incentive component of Rs 2879.73 crore has been released under APDRP.

The present status of restructured APDRP for 11th Plan is as follows:

Re-structured APDRP for 11th Plan

Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved the 'Restructured APDRP' for11th Plan as a Central Sector Scheme in its meeting held on 31 July 2008.

The focus of the programme is on actual, demonstrable performance in terms of AT&C loss reduction. The aim of the scheme is to reduce the AT&C losses up to 15 per cent in project areas.

Projects under the scheme to be taken up in two parts.

Part-A is the projects for establishment of baseline data and IT applications for energy accounting/ Auditing & IT based consumer service centres and

Part-B is regular distribution strengthening projects.

The programme size is Rs51,577 crore. Expected investment in Part-A (Baseline System) would be Rs10,000 crore and that in Part-B would be Rs 40,000 crore. Power Finance Corporation (PFC) is the nodal agency for operationalising the programme.

To facilitate the state utilities for expediting the implementation of R-APDRP, Ministry finalized the model DPRs, empanelled the IT Consultants, IT implementing Agencies, finalized the model Request of Proposal (RFP) for appointment of above consultants and agencies.

Present Status of R-APDRP

Under Part-A of R-APDRP, 1403 projects at an Est cost of Rs 5167.87 crore have been approved for 29-States/UTs and Rs. 1450.11 Crore have been disbursed till date. Part-A SCADA projects for 28 towns of 6 states have also been sanctioned at an Est. Cost of Rs. 669.10 crore and Rs. 154.52 crore have been disbursed.

Under Part-B of R-APDRP, 832 projects at the cost of Rs. 15974.56 crore have been approved for 14 States and Rs. 2236 crores have been disbursed. (Source : RAPDRP web site)

Selection of Sites for Thermal Power Projects

In the context of the need to set up additional thermal power stations to meet the power requirements of the country up to the year 2012, and beyond, the CEA had, in September 2001, constituted a committee under the Chairmanship of Member (Thermal) and consisting of members from different Ministries/Deptts./SEBs, etc., for selection of sites for large coastal/Pithead and other Thermal Power Stations. As the process of selection of sites is of continuous nature, the above mentioned Committee has been converted into a Standing Committee.

Teams consisting of the members of the Committee from the CEA, Planning Commission, MoE&F, CMPDI, Railways, etc., are being constituted for visiting from time to time the sites tentatively identified by the State agencies. These teams also interact with various State/Central departments for assessing the availability of various inputs like land, water, fuel, etc.

Based on the site visits of the Site Selection Committee and also reports obtained by CEA with assistance of CMPDI/NRSA through satellite mapping, a large shelf of potential sites has been created. Many sites from this shelf have been identified for benefits during the 11th Plan.


Hydro Power Policy, 2008 lays emphasis on increasing private investment in power development. The State Governments have offered a number of hydro-electric schemes for development in private sector. The present status (as on 30.04.2011) of participation of private sector in hydro power development (H.E. Projects having installed capacity above 25 MW) is as under:



With the enactment of Electricity Act, 2003, a whole new system was evolved where private players were invited to be an active participant in the power sector. The Electricity Act, 2003 has created a legal framework for development of electricity supply industry through liberalized generation, market development and providing non-discriminatory open access to the generators and consumers. In order to achieve these objectives, the Government has issued National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy. In order to facilitate procurement of power through competitive bidding, the Government has issued guidelines for tariff based competitive bidding.

The Standard Bid Documents for procurement of power under long term and medium term PPAs have been notified for Case I and Case II bidding. The Government has also set up Special Purpose Vehicle under Power Finance Corporation (PFC) for collective procurement of power on behalf of the distribution utilities by inviting tariff based bids for supplying power from ultra mega power projects. Procurement of power through tariff based bidding does not require any upfront capital investment by the Government and the responsibility of mobilizing financial resources and technical resources for operating generating facilities rests with the projects developer/independent power producer.

The private sector has responded enthusiastically to the opening up of the power market and a substantial amount of generating capacity is coming up through IPPs in coal, lignite, gas and hydro power projects. Government of India is making its best efforts to facilitate this process to help the independent power producers to overcome various challenges in the way of project implementation. The private sector contributed 2,670 MW to generation capacity during period 2002-07. Since then, capacity of 11041 MW has been commissioned till 31.3.11 and another about 9253 MW capacity is under construction and likely to be commissioned by 2012.

The private sector is likely to contribute substantial generating capacity during 12th Plan period (2012-17).

Transmission Sector

Efforts are being made to bring competition in development of inter-State transmission system through private sector participation. In this direction, two schemes namely - 'Western Region System Strengthening-II-B' and 'Western Region System Strengthening II-C' were taken up for implementation through 100 per cent private participation. The process of selection of the private sector company was coordinated by PGCIL under directions of CERC. The Transmission Service Agreement (TSA) for the schemes have been signed and the schemes are being implemented by Reliance Power Transmission Limited.

For encouraging and streamlining the process of private sector participation, Government of India brought out 'Guidelines for encouraging competition in development of Transmission projects', 'Guidelines for Tariff based Competitive bidding for Transmission services', Standard Request for Qualification (RFQ) document for selection of transmission Service provider, and TSA. An Empowered Committee for selection of projects and monitoring their implementation was also constituted.

Power Finance Corporation (PFC) and Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) have been nominated as nodal agencies to act as Bid Process Coordinators (BPC) for the selection of Transmission Service Providers.

LoIs have been issued to the successful bidders for :

l Transmission system enabling import of NER/ER Surplus power by NR.

l North Karanpura Transmission System.

l Talchar-II Transmission scheme.

RFQs have been issued for three transmission projects, namely :

l System Strengthening for WR.

l System Strengthening Commission for WR & NR, and

l Transmission system associated with Krishnapattanam - UMPP -

Synchronous inter connection between SR & WR.

Revised Mega Power Policy

Mega Power Policy was introduced in November 1995 for providing impetus to development of large size (mega) power projects in the country and derive benefit from economies of scale. These guidelines were modified in 1998 and 2002 and were last amended in April 2006 to encourage power development in Jammu & Kashmir and the North-Eastern region.

However, in the wake of several important statutory and policy level changes in the power sector, Ministry of Power revisited some of the provisions of the Mega Power policy in December 2009.

The modified policy seeks to rationalize the procedure for grant of mega certificate and facilitate quicker capacity addition. The mega power policy would have positive impact in the form of lower generation cost and resultant cost of power purchased by distribution utilities and has liberalized many provisions including aligning the requirements of PPA as per National Electricity Policy and National Tariff Policy.

Automatic approval for FDI

Automatic approval (RBI route) for 100 per cent foreign equity is permitted in generation, transmission, and distribution and trading in power sector without any upper ceiling on the quantum of investment.

As per information received from Central Electricity Authority (CEA), power projects totalling to 15043 MW (Thermal: 11552 MW and Hydro : 3491 MW) in private sector have been targeted for commissioning during the 11th Plan. Out of the above, a thermal capacity addition of about 5920 MW has been achieved till 1 April, 2010.


National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd.

NHPC Limited (earlier known as National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd.) is a Schedule "A" Mini Ratna enterprise of the Government of India with an authorised share capital of Rs 15,000 crore and an investment base of more than Rs 36,250 crore. NHPC was set up in 1975 and has now become the largest organization for hydro power development in India, with capabilities to undertake all the activities from conceptualization to commissioning of Hydro Projects.

The main objects of NHPC include, to plan, promote and organize an integrated and efficient development of power in all its aspects through conventional and non-conventional Sources in India and abroad and transmission, distribution, trading and sale of power generated at stations. The Company is also listed with the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange. NHPC has signed an MoU with Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd. (REC) for accelerated electrification of one lakh villages and provide connection to one crore households and with the Ministry of Rural Development for development and maintenance of rural access roads in six districts of Bihar. Works are in progress on these schemes.

NHPC has so far commissioned 13 hydroelectric projects with an aggregate installed capacity of 5,175 MW which includes 2 projects with total installed capacity of 1,520 MW in Joint Ventue with Govt. of Madhya Pradesh. In addition to above, NHPC has commissioned 3 projects namely Kalpong (5.25 MW) in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Sippi (4 MW) and Kambang (6 MW) in Arunachal Pradesh on turnkey deposit basis. NHPC has also commissioned 2 projects, viz. Devighat in Nepal with a capacity of 14.1 MW and Kurichu in Bhutan with a capacity of 60 MW the aggregate capacity of 74.1 MW on deposit / turnkey basis.


The NTPC Ltd. (formerly National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.) was incorporated in November 1975 with the objective of planning, promoting and organising an integrated development of thermal power in the country. The company has now been renamed as NTPC Ltd. In line with the changes taking place in the business portfolio of the company that transformed the company into an integrated Power Company, it has now a presence across the entire energy value chain. NTPC Limited, a schedule 'A' Navratna company of the Government of India, is the single largest power generator in India with comprehensive in-house capabilities in building and operating power projects.

NTPC generation capacity was 18.82 per cent of country's installed capacity as on 31 March 2009. NTPC accounted for 28.60 per cent of the entire electricity generated in the country during the year 2008-09. Current operating capacity of NTPC is 30644 MW comprising 25209 MW coal based stations and 5,435 MW gas based stations. This capacity also includes 2,294 MW under joint ventures. Another 17930 MW generating capacity is under construction, including 3 hydro projects. During the year 2009-10 (up to 30 November 2009), a record generation of 1,40,831 million units was achieved, registering an increase of 7.25 per cent over generation of 1,31,312 million units during same period in 2008-09.

During the year 2009-10 (up to 30 November 2009) thirteen NTPC coal stations achieved more than 85 per cent PLF, including eight above 90 per cent and two above 95 per cent; Dadri (Coal) (98.91 per cent), Korba (95.89 per cent), Unchahar (94.61 per cent), Simhadri (94.34 per cent), Vindhyachal (94.14 per cent), Tanda (92.24 per cent), Rihand (92.05 per cent), Ramagundam (91.67 per cent), Sipat (89.92 per cent), Singrauli (88.58 per cent), Badarpur (87.51 per cent), Talcher (Kaniha) (85.67 per cent) and Talcher (Thermal) (85.92 per cent).

During the year 2009-10 (April to September 2009), NTPC recorded a total income of Rs 24302.75 crore(audited), and net profit after tax of Rs 4,345.57 crore (audited), registering an increase of 17.62 per cent and 13.25 per cent respectively over the same period last year. During the year 2009-10 (till November 2009), 500 MW generation capacity was commissioned comprising one unit of 500 MW (unit No. 7) at Kahalgaon-II. The company is at present implementing eighteen power projects with a capacity of 17930 MW.

An MOU has been signed amongst NTPC and the Govt. of Chattisgarh for setting up 4000 MW Lara Power Project in the State of Chattisgarh as a regional power project of NTPC. An MoU has been signed amongst NTPC Ltd., Govt. of Madhya Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh Power Trading Co. Ltd. for setting up 2,640 MW Gadarwara Power Project in Narsinghpur District of MP as a Regional Power Project of NTPC. Mining Plan for Dulanga (7 MTPA) coal blocks has been approved by MOC whereas for Talaipalli coal block (18 MTPA), the same has been submitted to MOC for approval.

Twenty Year Fuel Supply Agreements (FSAs) have been signed with subsidiary coal companies of Coal India Limited (CIL) for long term coal supply to NTPC coal based power stations. Joint venture Agreement (JVA) has been signed between NTPC and CIL for promotion of one or more JV(s) for jointly undertaking the Development, Operation & Maintanance of Coal Blocks (Brahmini and Chichro- Patsimal in Jharkhand) and integrated Power Projects.

Government of India has allotted 4.46 MMSCMD of KG D6 gas for its existing gas-based power plants in NCR. NTPC has also sought allocation of 35.5 MMSCMD of KG D6 gas for setting up 7000 MW of expansion/new gas based power stations. This is in addition to 12 MMSCMD of gas at USD 2.34/ MMBTU sought by NTPC for taking up expansion of Kawas and Gandhar projects. As per provisional results of NELP-VIII bidding of GOI declared by DGH, NTPC along with ONGC and other consortium partners have won 3 petroleum blocks.

NTPC has also won a Block in the Cambay basin with 100 per cent participating interest as Operator. During the year 2009-10 (till November 2009), NVHN has traded 3201 MUs of power and has transacted business with more than 30 State/ Distribution Utilities.

Joint Venture Company National High Power Test Laboratory Ltd. (NHPTL), with PGCIL, NHPC and DVC, has been formed for setting up a High Power Test Laboratory for short circuit testing. Joint venture company Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), with PFC, PGCIL and REC, has been formed to carry on and promote the business of energy efficiency and climate change including manufacture and supply of energy efficiency services and products.


"RGGVY - scheme of Rural Electricity Infrastructure and Household Electrification" was launched in March 2005 with approved capital subsidy of Rs. 5000 cr during the 10th plan for implementation of Phase I of the scheme. The scheme was further continued in 11th Plan for attaining the goal of providing access to electricity to all households, electrification of about 1.15 lakh un-electrified and electricity connections to 2.34 cr BPL households, with approved capital subsidy of Rs. 28000 cr.

The scheme merges erstwhile "Accelerated Electrification of one lakh Villages and One Crore Households" and "Minimum Needs Programme" for rural electrification.

Highlights of the Scheme

• Ninety per cent capital subsidy is provided for overall cost of the projects under the scheme.

• The States will finalize their Rural Electrification Plans in consultation with Ministry of Power and notify the same within six months. Rural Electrification Plan will be a road map for Generation, Transmission, Sub-Transmission and Distribution of electricity in the State which will ensure the achievement of objective of the scheme.

• The scheme would be implemented through the Rural Electrification Corporation (REC).

• For projects to be eligible for capital subsidy under the scheme, prior commitment of the States would also be obtained before sanction of projects under the scheme for:

• Deployment of franchisees for the management of rural distribution in projects financed under the scheme, and

• Guarantee by State Govt. for a minimum daily supply of 6-8 hours of electricity in the RGGVY network with the assurance of meeting any deficit in this context by supplying electricity at subsidized tariff as required under the Electricity Act, 2003.

Scope of the Scheme

Under the scheme, projects could be financed with capital subsidy for provision of:-

• Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB) Provision of 33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV) sub-stations of adequate capacity and lines in blocks where these do not exist.

• Creation of Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI)

- Electrification of un-electrified villages.

- Electrification of un-electrified habitations with a population of above 100.

- Provision of distribution transformers of appropriate capacity in electrified villages/habitation(s).

• Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) and Supply

Decentralized distribution-cum-generation from conventional or renewable or non-conventional sources for villages where grid connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective.

• Remote villages covered for financing under MNRE not included.

• Rural Household Electrification of Below Poverty Line Households:

- Electrification of un-electrified Below Poverty Line (BPL) households would be financed with 100% capital subsidy as per norms of Kutir Jyoti Programme in all rural habitations.

- Households above poverty line would be paying for their connections at prescribed connection charges and no subsidy would be available for this purpose.


In order to maintain the infrastructure being created and to provide uninterrupted quality power, deployment of franchisee system has been made mandatory in the scheme.

Management of rural distribution will be through franchisee, who can be Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), user associations, cooperatives or individual entrepreneurs. The Panchayats will be associated. Panchayati Raj institutions will have an important role of overseeing in advisory capacity, the delivery of services by the franchisees according to their identified responsibilities. The state governments can also consider giving the responsibility of franchisees to the Panchayati Raj institutions.

All the states have been asked to have input based franchisee system. In case of the input based franchisee, the input energy into the area covered by the franchisee is measured by the utility and the target for revenue collection are set based on the collections made as a percentage of the input energy supplied to the consumers beyond the point of metering by the utility. Input based franchisee will make franchisee accountable for loss reduction and will therefore try to reduce theft in the system. A major achievement of the scheme is that for the first time, commercial aspect is being considered and fully addressed.

Revenue Sustainability

Based on the consumer mix and the prevailing consumer tariff and likely load, the Bulk Supply Tariff (BST) for the franchisee would be determined after ensuring commercial viability of the franchisee. Wherever feasible, bidding may be attempted for determining the BST. This BST will be fully factored into the submissions of the state Utilities to the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) for their revenue requirements and tariff determination.

The State Government under the Electricity Act is required to provide the requisite revenue subsidies to the State Utilities if it would like tariff for any category of consumers to be lower that the tariff determined by thee SERC.

While administering the scheme, prior commitments may be taken from the State Government regarding-

- Determination of bulk supply tariff for franchisees in a manner that ensures their commercial viability.

- Provision of requisite revenue subsidy by the State Government to the State Utilities as required under the Electricity Act.

Release of Capital Subsidy

The capital subsidy for eligible projects under the scheme would be given through REC and projects shall be implemented fulfilling the conditionality. In the event projects are not implemented satisfactorily in accordance with the conditionalities of RGGVY, the capital subsidy could be converted into interest bearing loans. CPSU's Services

With a view to augment the implementation capacities for the programme, REC has entered into MOUs with NTPC, POWERGRID, NHPC and DVC to make available CPSUs' project management expertise and capabilities to states wishing to use their services.


Upto 1 per cent of the total subsidy under the scheme would be used for associated works/efforts of the programme.

Project approved

Based on the DPRs received from States, the Monitoring Committee on RGGVY in the MOP has accorded approval to 235 projects for execution during 10th plan and 338 projects for execution during Phase-I of 11th plan.


i) Three tier quality control mechanism under RGGVY

The Project under RGGVY scheme is subjected to a three-tier quality control mechanism.

The first tier of quality assurance is achieved by Project Implementing Agency (PIA). The PIA will engage a third party inspection agency who will ensure that all the materials to be utilized and the workmanship conform to the proscribed specification. The inspection will cover approximately 50% villages on random sample basis for each project.

The 2nd tier of quality control is ensured by REC, the nodal agency of RGGVY scheme by appointing the REC quality monitors (RQM) who will conduct quality check at pre-shipment stage at the vendors' outlets of major material and 10% villages on random sample basis.

The final tier of quality control will be assured by engagement of independent evaluators by MOP for evaluation, at random, of supply erection under the programme. These independent evaluators, designated as National Quality Monitor (NQM) will cover 1% of the villages.

ii) Target for the year 2011-12

The target for electrification of villages is 14,500 un-electrified villages and release of connections to 52 lakh BPL households during the year 2011-12. The targets for electrification of 2010-11 was 17,500 un-electrified villages and release of connections to 47 lakh BPL households and against these targets, the achievement was electrification of 18,306 un-electrified villages and release of connections to 58.83 lakh BPL households.

ii) Electrification Progress achieved

As a result of regular review and follow up, village electrification programme has gained momentum in the country. During the year, as on 31.5.2011, 1016 un-electrified villages have been electrified and connections to 4.24 lakh BPL households have been released.

Cumulatively, under RGGVY, electrification works in 97578 un-electrified villages have been completed and free electricity connections to 164.04 lakhs BPL households have been released as on 31.5.2011..

iv) Disbursement of funds

As on 31.5.2011, Rs. 25448.7 crore which include 10% loan component of REC, have been released to the States/Implementing Agencies.


Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC) was incorporated as a company under Companies Act, 1956 in 1969 with the main objective of financing rural electrification schemes in the country. The expanded mandate of REC includes financing of all projects including transmission and generation without any restriction on population, geographical location or size. REC is a public financial institution under Section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956. REC is also registered as a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) under Section 45 IA of the RBI Act, 1934. REC is a "Navratna" company.

REC has grown over the years to be a leading financial institution in power sector. Besides attending to its core objectives of financing schemes for extending and improving the rural electricity infrastructure, REC is presently funding large/ mega generation projects, and transmission and distribution projects, which are critical to the projected addition of installed capacity during the Tenth and Eleventh Plans. REC is also the Nodal Agency for implementation of Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana—a scheme of Rural Electricity infrastructure and Household Electrification launched by the Government of India in April 2005, for attainment of the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) goal of providing access to electricity to all households in five years.

In the Annual MOU signed with Ministry of Power, REC has been consistently rated as "Excellent" in performance from the fiscal 1994 to 2008.

The Authorised and Paid-up Share Capital of the Company are Rs 1200 crore and Rs 858.66 crore respectively as on 31 March 2009. The amount mobilized from the market during the year 2008-09 was Rs 14894.89 crore. The domestic debt instruments of REC continued to enjoy "AAA" rating—the highest rating assigned by CRISIL, CARE ICRA, and FITCH. REC also enjoys International Credit rating equivalent to sovereign rating of India from International Credit Rating Agency Moody's and FITCH which is "Baa3" and "BBB" respectively.


The Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID) was incorporated as a Government enterprise on 23 October, 1989 for establishment of operation of regional and national power grids to facilitate transfer of power within and across the regions with reliability, security and economy and on sound commercial principles. POWERGRID was notified as the Central Transmission Utility (CTU) of the country w.e.f. 1998. Further, Government of India conferred the status of 'Navratna" on POWERGRID w.e.f. 1 May 2008.


Progress of Rural Electrification

Villages Electrified

(Cumulata ive)

The year 2008-09 has been year of impressive financial performance. Gross Turnover for the year grew by about 38 per cent to Rs 7,029 crore. Similarly, Profit after Tax during the year increased to Rs 1,691 crore from Rs 1,448 crore in FY 2007-08, thereby registering a growth of about 17 per cent. The company's gross asset base at the end of the financial year 2008-09 stood at Rs 40,319 crore as against Rs 35,417 crore at the end of last financial year, an increase of about 14 per cent. At the end of FY 2008-09, the company has a net worth of Rs 14,618 crore and capital employed of Rs 28,430 crore. There has been an impressive growth in the earning potential of the company, which is reflected by the steady growth of return on Net Worth from the level of 5.63 per cent in 1992-93 to 11.57 per cent in 2008-09. During FY 2009-10 till September 2009, POWERGRID achieved a turnover of about Rs 3, 646 crore (provisional) and Net Profit of Rs 1,007 crore (Provisional). Total fixed assets of the company have grown to Rs 41,036 crore (Provisional) till September 2009.


A national power grid in the country is being developed in a phased manner. All the regional grids have already been inter-connected and total transmission capacity of inter-regional transmission system, as on 31-03-2011 was 20750 MW. At present, except Southern Region, all the other four regions are inter-connected in synchronous mode and are operating in parallel.

Total inter-regional transmission capacity by the end of 9th Plan was 5750 MW. During 10th Plan, i.e., 2002-07, a total of 8300 MW of inter-regional capacities were added. Thus, total inter-regional transmission capacity by the end of 10th Plan was 14050 MW.

During 11th Plan, i.e., 2007-12, inter-regional transmission systems of 17600 MW capacity have been planned and it is expected that, by end of 11th Plan, total inter-regional transmission capacity of the National Power grid would be increased to 31650 MW. Out of the programme for 11th Plan, 2400 MW capacity was added during 2007-08, 3300 MW during 2008-09 and 1000 MW during 2009-10. Barh-Balia 400 kv D/C line of 1600 MW capacity has been completed during 2010-11, but is yet to be commissioned.


The Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC) is a leading Power Sector Financial Institution and a Non-Banking Financial Company, providing fund and non-fund based support for the development of the Indian Power Sector. Occupying a key position in the Government of India's plan for the power sector, PFC performs a major role in channelizing investment into the power sector and functions as a dedicated agency for its development.

PFC is a Schedule-A, Navratna CPSE in the Financial Services Sector, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Power, with 89.78 per cent shareholding of the Government of India. Its registered and corporate offices are at New Delhi. PFC was incorporated on 16 July 1986, under the Companies Act, 1956, as part of Government of India's initiative to enhance funding of power projects in India, with an objective to provide financial resources and encourage flow of investments to the power and associated sectors, to work as a catalyst to bring about institutional improvements in streamlining the functions of its borrowers in financial, technical and managerial areas to ensure optimum utilization of available resources, to mobilize various resources from domestic and international sources at competitive rates, to strive for upgradation of skills for effective and efficient growth of the sector, and to maximize the rate of return through efficient operations and introduction of innovative financial instruments and services for the power sector.

PFC draws upon its vast knowledge of the power sector and its financing expertise to provide tailor-made products and services to its clients. In addition, PFC provides technical, management advisory and consultancy services related activities through its subsidiary company, namely, PFC Consulting Limited. PFC's clients include the Power Utilities of State, Central and Private Sector. These clients are involved in various aspects of the Power Sector in India, including generation, transmission and distribution, and other related activities.

PFC's priorities include not only accelerating the pace of existing business of funding generation, transmission and distribution projects, but also to explore the new opportunities available in the sector. With this philosophy, PFC has around half-a-dozen strategic business units, focusing on different business segments— conventional lending to generation, transmission and distribution projects; consortium lending to generation, transmission and distribution projects; lending to power equipment manufacturers and fuel producers and suppliers, renewable energy and CDM, equity funding through Power Equity Capital Advisor Pvt Ltd. (PECAP).

PFC's long term borrowings programme has been rated at 'Baa3' by Moody's, 'BBB' by Standard & Poor's and 'BBB-' by FITCH which is at par with India's Sovereign Rating. Further, CRISIL and ICRA have assigned 'AAA' and LAAA' rating respectively to PFC.

Performance Highlights

PFC issued sanctions for Rs 37,065 crore of loans and grants during the financial year 2009-10 up to 30 November 2009, as compared to Rs 28,660 crore sanctioned during similar period of the last year (2008-09). An amount of Rs 12,672 crore was disbursed during the same period to State, Central and Private Sector entities, compared to Rs 12,062 crore disbursed during similar period last year (2008-09). With this, cumulative sanction of Rs 2,56,613 crore and Disbursement of Rs 1,25,792 crore of loans and grants have been made by the Company as on 30 November 2009.

Nodal Agency for Government Schemes

PFC is a key agency in various Government of India Power Sector schemes and programmes and has implemented and/or is implementing schemes like Restructured Accelerated Power Development & Reform Program (R-APDRP), Accelerated Generation & Supply Programme (AG&SP), Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) and Delivery through decentralized Management (DDM).

In addition, Government of India has designated PFC as the nodal agency to develop Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPPs) based on tariff based competitive bidding process, each project having a capacity of around 4000 MW and requiring an investment of about Rs 20,000 crore. In this regard, PFC has successfully awarded 4 UMPPs through tariff based competitive bidding process. PFC has also been designated as the nodal agency for development of Independent Transmission Project (ITP) based on tariff based competitive bidding process and is presently handling ITP.

Power Lenders' Club

PFC has also established the 'Power Lenders' Club' which consists of 18 banks and includes major financial institutions like HUDCO and LIC.

Power Exchange

In 2008-09, PFC had participated in the equity of Power Exchange India Limited (PXI), a company promoted by NSE and NCDEX. PFC has became Professional Clearing Member (PCM) of Power Exchange to support the activities of trading members. PFC, NTPC, NHPC and TCS have promoted "National Power Exchange Limited", a company incorporated under The Companies Act, 1956, with an authorized capital of Rs 50 crore.


The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited-SJVN (formerly NJPC) was established on 24 May 1988 as a joint venture of the Government of India (GOI) and the Government of Himachal Pradesh (GOHP) with equity participation in the ratio of 75:25 respectively, to plan, investigate, organize, execute, operate and maintain Hydroelectric power projects. SJVN is a "Schedule-A" Mini Ratna company. The present authorized share capital of SJVN is Rs 4500 crore.

SJVN is committed for generating reliable and eco-friendly power by means of state -of-the-art technology, excellence in engineering and continued improvement in quality management. SJVN, an IT savvy corporation, has established and is following sound business, financial and regulatory policies.

SJVN having commissioned the 1500 MW Nathpa Jhakri HE Project, is endowed not only with the state-of-the-art technology and know-how to tackle the Himalayan Geology but has also developed the requisite knowledge and capability to conceptualize, optimize and develop the power potential of hydro-power development schemes of all sizes.

In pursuit to expansion of the Corporation by acquiring new projects for development, the Corporation expanded its base from a single project to a multi project and thereafter from presence in a single state to a pan-Indian Corporation and established its footprint in the neighbouring countries of Nepal and Bhutan.

The Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Power Station - NJHPS (1500 MW) was the first project undertaken by SJVN for execution, and all its six units of 250 MW each were commissioned and are under commercial operation since 18 May 2004. Since its commissioning, NJHEPS has generated total of 35432.37 MUs (Gross Energy Generation) up to 31 December 2009 and SJVN has paid a total dividend of Rs 1181.59 crore.

The corporation proposes to develop Rampur HE Project as CDM Project for obtaining Carbon Finance. The preliminary estimates show that the execution of this Project shall result into Emission Reductions (ERs) of 1.4 million per annum resulting in saving of 1.4 million tonnes of CO2 per year.

SJVN has been fully aware of the importance of both environmental, resettlement and rehabilitation issues. SJVN has adopted an environment, resettlement and rehabilitation policy which reiterates the company's commitment to sustainable development which is within the carrying capacity of the eco-system and which also promotes the improvement of the quality of life.

For its outstanding contribution to environment protection SJVN has been awarded with Green Tech Award, Golden Peacock Eco Innovation Award, etc. Consultancy Services

SJVN has experience of corporate and project planning, design, engineering, construction management, erection and commissioning, contracts management, project management, human resource management, financial management and commercial management of India's largest hydro-electric project. To effectively utilize the in-house expertise and the experience gained, a dedicated consultancy division has been established for providing consultancy services to national and international organizations.


National Power Training Institute (NPTI), a registered society under Ministry of Power, Government of India is committed to the development of Human Resources in power sector for the past four decades.

NPTI with its corporate centre at Faridabad operates eight institutes all over the country. It has five regional institutes located at Neyveli (Tamil Nadu), Durgapur (West Bengal), Badarpur (New Delhi), Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Guwahati (Assam) and two specialized centres viz., Power Systems Training Institute (PSTI) & Hot Line Training Centre (HLTC) at Bengaluru, Centre for Advanced Management and Power Studies (CAMPS) at Faridabad (Haryana). NPTI (NE-R) is at present operating from temporary site at Narangi complex of ASEB, Guwahati, and the full-fledged training institute, as sanctioned by the Government of India at a cost of Rs 18.29 crore, is in the advanced stage of completion at Kahilipara, Guwahati. The Government of India has also sanctioned a scheme for setting up of Hydro Power Training Centre at Nangal at an estimated cost of Rs 14.75 crore which is under implementation.

The Institutes of NPTI are will equipped with Hi-Tech infrastructural facilities for conducting different courses on technical as well as management subjects covering the needs of thermal, hydro and nuclear power plants, Transmission & Distribution Systems, and Energy related fields of the Indian Power and allied energy sectors. It has high fidelity, real-time full scope 500 MW & 210 MW Fossil Fuel Fired Power Plant Training Simulators at its various institutes imparting off-job specialized skills to operation personnel across the country. Also a 430 MW CCGT Replica Simulator has been commissioned at NPTI Corporate Office, Faridabad.

A Geographical Information System (GIS) Resource Centre for training and consultancy in the areas of GIS based electricity Distribution Network Planning and Management has been set up at NPTI Corporate Office, Faridabad. A facility has been created at NPTI's Hot Line Training Centre, Bengaluru for Live Line Maintenance of Transmission Lines upto 400 KV (first of its kind in Asia) which enables trained personnel to attend to maintenance requirements without power interruptions.

Several long-term and short-term training programs in the areas of thermal, hydro, transmission & distribution and management etc. are being conducted in the various institutes of NPTL. Besides conducting refresher training for working engineers/supervisors, NPTI conducts a large number of job-oriented educational programmes also such as MBA in Power Management, B.Tech (Power) and Post Graduate Diploma in Thermal Power Plant Engineering.


The Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), a Society registered under the Societies Registration Act under the Ministry of Power, serves as National Laboratory to carry out applied research in Electrical Power Engineering. It also functions as an independent National Testing and Certification Authority for Electrical Equipment for ensuring their reliability.

The Institute, with its existence of over four decades has built sophisticated facilities, both in the areas of research and testing. The important facilities include 2500 MVA Short Circuit Testing with Synthetic Testing Facility at Bengaluru, Ultra High Voltage Research Laboratory at Hyderabad, Short Circuit Testing Facility at Bhopal, Thermal Research Centre at Koradi, Nagpur and Regional Testing Laboratory at Noida, Kolkata and Guwahati.

Over the years, CPRI has built up expertise in the areas of transmission and distribution systems, power quality, energy metering, energy auditing, transmission line, tower design, conductor vibration studies, power systems studies, energy conservation studies, transformer oil reclamation and testing, diagnostic and condition monitoring and estimation of remaining life of equipment, new material for power system application, Ultra High Voltage testing, short circuit testing, High Voltage testing and other related fields. The Institute has set up and commissioned the state- of-the-art seismic testing facility and a Real Time Digital Simulation facility. CPRI offers consultancy services in these areas.

The CPRI’s laboratories are accredited under the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration of Laboratories (NABL), which is the national body for accreditation of laboratories. CPRI has been given the membership status in the group of Short Circuit Testing Liaison (STL) of Europe. CPRI laboratories are approved for certain products like communication cables, LT capacitors etc., by Underwriters Laboratories and Canadian Standard Association. The Institute has been accredited by INTERTEKASTA, UK for testing of Low Voltage and Medium Voltage equipment, Power Transformers and Power Cables.

The Research and Consultancy activities have been certified for ISO-9001- 2000 by NVT, KEMA. CPRI Laboratories have been recognized as Approved Test House by Electrical Directorate, Kingdom of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. The certification is widely accepted in the countries of Middle-East, South-East, Far- East Asia and countries of Africa.

The Institute works as a nodal agency for national level power system research. Among the new ventures of the CPRI, the Centre for Collaborative and Advanced Research (CCAR) has been established for creating infrastructure for the visiting Scientists/Technologists to carry out research in the areas related to power sector. A centre has been set up for utilization of industrial solid wastes to useful valueadded products for the benefit of industry.

The Institute has established Regional Testing Laboratories at Kolkata and Guwahati to cater to testing requirements in the Eastern and North-Eastern States of the country. The Institute has also established the Refrigerator & Air Conditioners testing laboratory under the Standards & Labelling Programme.

CPRI has served as Advisor-cum-Consultant under APDRP-I for three southern states viz., Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. Pioneering work has been done for total of 9 distribution circles and 256 towns in three states. CPRI is now empanelled as IT consultant for R - APDRP and is also Third Party Inspection Agency for Karnataka and Kerala under the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana Scheme (RGGVY).

The Institute also offers Third Party Inspection Services and customized Training Programmes to utilities and Industry.


With a need to develop the huge power potential, the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO) was incorporated on 2 April 1976 as a wholly owned Government Enterprise under the Ministry of Power to plan, promote, investigate, survey, design, construct, generate, operate and maintain power stations in the N.E. region. The authorised share capital of the Corporation presently stands at Rs 3,500 crore. The installed capacity of the NEEPCO is 1,130 MW comprising 755 MW of hydro power and 375 MW of gas based power. The Corporation currently meets more than 60 per cent of the energy requirement of the North Eastern Region. It is an ISO:9001:2000(Quality) ISO 14001:1996(Environment) and OHSAS- 18001:1999 (Safety) Company with its Corporate Office at Shillong.

The Corporation plans to add power of 107.50 MW during 11th Five Year Plan. Presently, two hydro projects of 710 MW (Kameng 600 MW and Pare 110 MW) and one gas based project (Tripura gas based power project, 100 MW nominal 20 per cent) are under execution by NEEPCO.


Bhakra-Nangal Project was taken up as a joint venture of the states of erstwhile Punjab and Rajasthan. On re-organisation of erstwhile Punjab State in 1966 'Bhakra Management Board' was constituted on 1st October, 1967 under Section 79 of Punjab Re-Organisation Act, 1966 for the administration, maintenance and operation of Bhakra Nangal Project. Beas Construction Board was constituted under the Punjab Re-Organisation Act, 1966 for construction of Beas Project. 'Bhakra Management Board' was renamed as 'Bhakra Beas Management Board' (BBMB) w.e.f. 15 May 1976 after transfer of Beas Project on its completion by Beas Construction Board. Main functions of BBMB are as under:-

i) The regulation of the supply of water for irrigation from Bhakra Nangal and Beas Projects to the States of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and also drinking water supply to Delhi and Chandigarh.

ii) The regulation of the supply of power generated at BBMB Power Houses to Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, HP, Chandigarh and some Common Pool consumers like old HP, National Fertilizers Limited, Nangal, etc.

iii) In the year 1999, BBMB has been entrusted with additional function of providing and performing engineering and related technical and consultancy services to states and other utilities.

The installed capacity of BBMB power plants is 2864.73 MW. The power generation of BBMB Power Houses is being evacuated through BBMB power evacuation system running into 3706 km length of 400 KV, 220 KV, 132 KV transmission lines and 24 EHV sub-stations.

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) was set up in March 2002 within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 with the objective to spearhead the improvement of energy efficiency in the economy through various regulatory and promotional instruments.

BEE is therefore engaged in institutionalizing energy efficiency services, promote energy efficiency delivery mechanisms, and provide leadership for improvement of energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy.

The current programmes of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency focuses on achieving energy savings that will result in avoided power generation capacity of 10,000 MW during the 11th Plan period.

With the success of mandatory labeling on the four products under the Standards and Labeling scheme, BEE's several other initiatives such as the Energy Conservation Building Code, Bachat Lamp Yojana. Agriculture and Municipal DSM programmes, Designated Consumers and SME's, India is estimated to have saved 5,000 MW in the first three years of the 11th Five Year Plan period, between 2007 and 2010.

It is estimated that the avoided generation capacity will go beyond 10,000 MW by the end of 11th Plan, which is the target for the plan period. Through implementation of its various schemes, the verified savings achieved by BEE during the year 2009-10 is 2868.01 MW of avoided generation and 8720.83 MU of electricity saved.

The Ministry of Power and Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) have prepared the implementation framework for the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) as one of the eight national missions under the National Action Plan of Climate Change (NAPCC) with the aim that this mission upscales the efforts to create and sustain market for energy efficiency to unlock investment of around Rs. 74,000 crores.

The mission by 2014-15, is likely to achieve about 23 million tonnes oilequivalent of fuel savings-in coal, gas, and petroleum products, along with an expected avoided capacity addition of over 19,000 MW. The carbon dioxide emission reduction is estimated to be 98.55 million tons annually. Eight energy intensive industrial sectors having about 462 designated consumers would be covered under innovative scheme called Perform, Achieve & Trade (PAT). Targets to reduce specific energy consumption (SEC) from the baseline value would be assigned to each designated consumer which is to be achieved by March 2014.

This scheme, alone would result in a saving of about 8.97 million tons of oil equivalent by 2013-14. Apart from this, demand side management (DSM), development of Super Efficient Equipment Program, Promotion of ESCOs and creation of Partial Risk Guarantee fund and venture capital fund would be made operational under various components of NMEEE.

See also

Power: India, 1

Power: India, 2 (ministry data)

Energy: India

Coal: India

Green (renewable) energy: India, 1

Green (renewable) energy: India, 2 (ministry data)

Petroleum, diesel, natural gas, India: I

Petroleum, diesel, natural gas, India, II (ministry data)

Electricity, supply of: India

Water: Drinking water and its availability, India

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