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Note: National, provincial and district boundaries have changed considerably since 1908. Typically, old states, ‘divisions’ and districts have been broken into smaller units, units, and many tahsils upgraded to districts.Many units have since been renamed. Therefore, this article is being posted mainly for its historical value.


(Armeghon, Annngam). — Village in the Gudur taluk of Nellore District, Madras, situated in 13 59' N. and 8o° 10' E., on the Bay of Bengal. The place is now sometimes called Monapalem, from a neighbouring village with a lighthouse, and sometimes Dugarazu- patnam, from another village where open communication with the sea can be maintained. It is said to be named after one Arumuga Mudaliyar, by whose assistance one of the earliest English settlements on the Coromandel coast, consisting of a factory defended by twelve pieces of cannon, was established in 1625.

A lighthouse is maintained at Monapalem in 13 53' N. and 8o° 8' E., which gives a flash every 20 seconds visible 14 miles away, and warns vessels off the Armagon shoal, 6 miles from shore. The shoal is about 10 miles long, and the shallowest patch on it has if fathoms of water, and lies from 3^ to 5^ miles east-by-north of the lighthouse. The still water inside the shoal is called Blackwood's Harbour, after Sir Henry Blackwood, once admiral on this coast, who had it charted, and suggested that it would make a practicable harbour. Seven miles north of Armagon lighthouse is Dugarazupatnam, a small village of 2,388 inhabitants on the Buck- ingham Canal. Being at the mouth of an entrance to the sea from the backwater in front of which Armagon stands, it was apparently the port of Armagon, and the two places are often spoken of as identical. Near by are the remains of an old fort built by the East India Company.

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