Bio-diversity in Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh: Status Of Biodiversity In J&K

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Bio-diversity in Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh

By the Department of Forests, Government of Jammu and Kashmir

Bio-diversity in Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh: Status Of Biodiversity In J&K

Broadly speaking, Biodiversity of J&K can be categorized into following types of Ecosystems:

1. Biodiversity of Agricultural Ecosystems.

2. Biodiversity of Fresh Water Ecosystems

3. Biodiversity of Forest Ecosystems

4. Biodiversity of Cold Desert Ecosystems.

Wild Biodiversity

All plants and animal forms including microscopic organisms which originated or colonized the available habitats on their own and are thriving without man’s assistance come under the category of Wild Biodiversity. Such life forms are more adopted to local conditions and have the inner resilience to cope with the changing environmental pressures.

Wild Flora of J&K

The perusal of literature on the floristic studies of J&K reveals that Victor Jacquemont (1803-82) was the first botanist to enter the picturesque valley of Kashmir to undertake the floristic study of that time. He collected a large number of plants and his collections were studied by J. Cambessedes & F. Decaisne (1845). W. Morrcraft was the first European to study the plants of Ladakh region.

He also studied the plants of Kashmir valley from 1822 onwards. Godfrey Thomas Vigne (1835) collected 99 specimens from Kashmir and neighbourhood. Falconer, another famous plant collector also made notable collections from Kashmir in 1839. John Forbes Royle sent many collectors to Kashmir during 1833-1839 and published an illustrated account of Kashmir plants in 1839. Thomas Thomson (1848) collected several plants from different parts of the state and data was published in London Journal of Botany Vol. 1 : 68, 1849. Other botanists who ventured into the floristic studies of the Kashmir included Schlagint weit (1855-1877), William Hay (1862), J.L. Stewart (1868) and Handerson & Hume (1873). C.B. Clarke visited Kashmir in 1876 and collected a number of specimens. Duthie (1893-1894) recorded his floristic observations in the Records of Botanical Survey of India.

The first half of the present century witnessed the publication of two important books, B.O. Coventry’s, “Wild Flowers of Kashmir”(1923-30) and E. Blatter’s “Beautiful Flowers of Kashmir” (1927-28). Both these books were known better for their contribution in promotion of popular knowledge than their taxonomic value.

Other notable additions to the floristc studies of the period include the work of Meebold (1909), Keshavanand IFS (1906-08), Steward (1916-1945), Lambert (1933), Blatter(1927), Bamber(1919), Mukerji(1940) and Pennell(1943). Hooker(1872-1897) also described plants of Kashmir in his book, “Flora of British India”. Lambert (1935) listed the forest trees and shrubs of J&K State.

After the reorganization of the Botanical Survey of India, T.A. Rao in 1960 made the first botanical exploration in some parts of the state and account is published in the records of Botanical Survey of India. The explorers of recent times include Kapoor et al (1963, 1986) Y.K. Sarin (1971), Singh and Kachroo (1976) Dhar and Kachroo (1983), Brij Mohan Sharma (1981) who have made contribution towards documentation of various floras of different parts of the State. The recent flora entitled “Flowers of the Himalaya”, by Polunin & Stantion (1984), “Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighborhood” by B.M. Sharma & P Kachroo (1981), Flora of Trikuta Hills by S.K. Kapoor and Y.K. Sarin (1989), “Flora of Udhampur” (1998) by Ajai Swami & B.K. Gupta and Wild and Cultivated Plants of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh by Om. Prakash Vidharthi, IFS (1997) has also contributed towards floristic studies of this State. Some of the notable works in this field are:

Forest Flora of Srinagar and plants of neighborhood by G. Singh & P. Kachroo (1987). 1. The flora of Ladakh by Stewart R.R. (1916-17). 2. Flora of upper Lidder valleys of Kashmir Himalayas by B.M. Sharma & P.S. Jamwal Vol I & Vol II. 3. Flora of Jammu and plants of neighborhood by B.M. Sharma & P. Kachroo (1981). 4. Flora of District Doda of Bachan Lal Whellum & Rani Mangotra (Ph.D. work). 5. In addition to these works in the field of higher plants, exploration and documentation of lower group of plants has also been attempted by various workers and notable works are:

1. Algal Flora of Ladakh by Shashi Kant & Pushp Gupta. (1998).

2. Diversity of Macro fungi of Bhaderwah by Rajkumar Rampal

3. Floristic studies in Bryophytes of Kashmir Himalaya by F.A. Bandey (1997).

4. Taxonomic studies on Hepatic Flora of District Jammu by Sarika Gupta (2002)

5. Hepaticae & Anthocerotae of Jammu Division by Mohd. Tanwir & Anima Langar (Unpublished work).

6. The Hepaticae of Kashmir Valley by S.C. Srivastava (1979).

Based on¬¬ available data (Published and Unpublished) diversity of various plant groups in J&K is represented as under:


Table 26: Plant group wise number of species reported

Group

Sub Group

No. of Species reported

<st1:City w:st="on">Jammu</st1:City> Region

<st1:place w:st="on">Kashmir Region

Ladakh Region

J&K

Algae

Cyanophyta

Chlorophyta

Chrysophyta

Bacillariophyta

Xanthophyta

Dinophyta

Euglenophyta

Cryptophyta

Rhodophyta

Charophyta

Sub-Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

400

054

170

002

163

002

002

013

-

-

-

406

171

440

008

175

015

018

018

001

002

-

848

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

900

Fungi

Phycomycetes

Ascomycetes

Basidiomycetes

Deuteromycetes

Sub Total

 

 

 

 

300

023

084

175

140

422

 

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

 

450

Bryophytes

Liverworts

Hornworts

Mosses

Sub Total

66

4

13

83

48

-

162

210

9

-

-

9

 

 

 

250

Pteridophytes

Ferns

93

93

-

100

Gymnosperms

Cupressaceae

Ephedracere

Ginkgoaceae

Pinaceae

Taxodiaceae

Sub Total

 

 

 

 

 

11

04

01

 

06

01

13

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

13

Angiosperms

Dicots

Monocots

Sub Total

 

 

1300

1590

410

2000

880

-

880

2403

0651

3054

Source: <st1:PlaceType ">University of Jammu & University of Kashmir (Ph.D. & other research documents consulted)

 

Fossil records

The Pleistocene flora of Kashmir stands described by Puri (1945 to 48) and Mittre (1964). This flora represented 128 modern species spread over 69 genera & 34 families of angiosperms. Three distinct types of flora identified in the valley are:

1. The Liddermarg Flora: This flora comprised mainly of Quercus leucotrichophora and Quercus glauca which are today totally absent in the area. The other prominent species were those of Pinus, Cedrus, Mallotus, Ficus, Acer, Litsaea, Cinnamomum, Machilus, Phoebe, Buxus, Skimmia, Toddalia, Pittosporum, Rhamnus, Berchemia, Myrsine, Syringa, Wendlandia, Pyrus, Cotoneaster, Alnus, Berberis, Cornus, Parrotiopsis, Dermodium, Inula, Acorus, Scirpus, Cyperus, etc. (Puri, 1960, Miltre, 1964).

2. Laredura Flora: In this type of flora both tropical & temperate elements were discovered but tropical species were predominant. Main tropical species recorded are Woodfordia fruticosa, Mallotus philippenensis, Engelhardtia colebrookiana, Odina woodier & Olea cuspidata.

3.Temperate species include Ulmus wallichiana, Quercus semicarpifolia, Quercus dilatata, Quercus ilex, Betula alnoides, Betula utilis, Acer caesium, Acer villosum, Berberis lycium and Conifer Genera like Pinus, Cedrus & Abies (Puri & Mittre, 1960, 64) Temperate species are still existing in the valley but sub-tropical Geneva like Mallotus, Woodfordia, Myrsine, Engelhardtia & Olea are non-existent today and this supports the view that Liddermarg flora developed under tropical conditions.

3. Ningal Nullah Flora: This flora was usually represented by forms like poplars, willows, cherries, walnuts, maples, elms, elders with an abundance of spruce, silver fir, pine & cedar (Puri et al 1983). Various `modern representatives of these plants still flourish in the Valley and occupy an altitudinal zone between 2100 m & 3000 m on the Northern side of the Pir-Panjal. This indicates that at least in this part of Kashmir, there persisted temperate climate during the pleistocene.

4.The earliest flora reported from J&K is from Early Carboniferous of Kashmir (Liddar Valley, Banihal) to late pleistocene (Siwalik Strata of Jammu), Karewas of Kashmir. The state of J&K is endowed with rich fauna ranging in age from Cambrian to recent fauna include both invertebrates and vertebrates.

A number of publications reporting fauna and flora from the state are available in the records of Geological Society of India and Professional Research Journals of National and International status. The records and research journals are available with GSI and Geology Department, University of Jammu, Jammu. The Departments hosts a record of research publications of last 150 years.

Status of bio diversity.PNG


Source: Dr. G.M. Bhat, Deptt. Of Geography, Field guide North West Himalayn Successions along Jammu-Srinagar Transect, 1999

Recent contribution on invertebrate fauna from the state is those of GSI workers, University of Jammu and Wadia institute of Himalayan Geology. The vertebrate fauna reported from the state is mostly from Shiwalik and Karewas strata. The contributions include those of D.N. Wadia, GSI workers, Scientists of Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, ONGC and University of Jammu.

Bhat and his co-workers have also reported flora from Lidder valley and Margan pass which is the earliest known flora from the Himalaya (early carboniforous may be U. Silurian). Other reports on flora from J&K state are those of Gangomopteris and Glossoopteris from Zewan and Nishatbagh beds of Kashmir.

Most important vertebrate faunal localities include Ram Nagar (Udhampur), Uttarbani area in Jammu. Karewa beds at Pampore, Shopian, Hirpura, Pattan, etc. These localities have a great potential for fossil fauna and need to be explored.

The type localities for fossil flora include Lidder valley Banihal area, Gulabgarh pass and Nishatbagh and Zewan beds. Siwalik and karewa beds also yield micro fauna and flora. Faculty of the Departments of Geology, University of Jammu is actively engaged in its exploration. They include Prof. G.R. Prasad (micro vertebrates), Dr. M.A. Malik (Micro-invertebrate fauna), Bhat, G.M. and co-workers (micro flora).

Cambrian fossils of Kashmir: Trilobites and Brachiopods, pteropod hyolithes and cysted eucystites.

Ordovician-Silurian fauna: Brachiopods and crinoids, corals and strophomenids. Carboniferous fossils: Brachiopods, Bryozoans, Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, (Flora: Pteridophytes, Gangomopteris beds, Glossopteris,) Amphibian, Archegosaurus ornatus and Fishes - Amblypterus kashmirensis and A. symmetricus.

Fossil Plants: These have been obtained from Liddar valley, Gulabgarh pass, Gulmarg, Khunamuh and Resin Spores, Nagmerg, Bryozoa, Corals and Brachiopods.

Triassic fossils of Kashmir: Ammonoids, (Meekoceras, ophioceras, otoceras,) Lamellibranchs, Brachiopods.

Jurassic: Ammonites, Beleminites, Lamellibranch and Brachiopods.

Cretaceous: Foraminifera, Gastropods and Corals.

Tertiery: Karewas: Representatives of Molluscs and some plants, Elephas, Rhinoceras, Bovids and Mammothus. Birds, Fish and Plants.

Siwalik: Representatives of Equidae, Rhinoceratidae, Suidae, Giraffidae, Bovidae, proboscidea, Anthracotheridae, Hippopotamidae, Primates, stand reported.

The Muree structural formation which is exposed around Patnitop-Batote area represents sandstones, slates, shales and claystones. A bed found in this belt called Larea bed is lenticular with a Palkhai Syncline. The fauna collected consist of 2 fragments of ridge crest of Probo-scidean molar and a dozen species of Lammelli-branches (Khan et al, 1971) which include Nucula, Acila, Nuculana, Mytilus, Unio, Tellina, Apolymetis, Solecurtus, Venus, Meretrix, Pitar, Pholadomya, Lyonsia sp. & Thracia species.

Microflora obtained from Nagrota formation i.e. upper Shivalik sediments exposed at Bantalab-Jammu Byepass road reveals a total of 24 genera and 30 species of Gymnospermous and angiospermous pollen, pteridophytic spores, fungal spores & conidia (Sarkar & Bhat, 1998).

Status of bio diversity1.PNG

The distributional pattern of spores & pollen grains in the Bantalab upper Shivalik Succession indicates the presence of stagnant fresh water conditions in view of high incidence of Zygospores of Zygnema and Spirogyra.

The presence of Microthyraceous ascostromata indicates a warm and humid climate having rain forest type of vegetation. Occurrence of aquatic pollen grains belonging to Lotus & Typha family as well as pteriodophytic spore Striattriletes suggest a swampy environment in the area.The geological history of the Kashmir Valley has experienced the upliftment of the present Pir Panjal range by about 2000 m to keep the mansoon influences away from present Kashmir (Wadia, 1961). The pre-historic Satisar lake silted up and water was drained off leaving behind remanants in the form of present day lakes like Dal, Manasbal and the Wular. The Karewas lie in isolated tracts and at depths below 300 m having remains of pleistocene age. During ice-age valley experienced several periods of extreme cold alternating with warm periods culminating into the temperate flora of the Kashmir valley.

The Pleistocene flora of Kashmir stands described by Puri (1945 to 48) and Mittre (1964). This flora represented 128 modern species spread over 69 genera & 34 families of angiosperms. Three distinct types of flora identified in the valley are:

4. The Liddermarg Flora: This flora comprised mainly of Quercus leucotrichophora and Quercus glauca which are today totally absent in the area. The other prominent species were those of Pinus, Cedrus, Mallotus, Ficus, Acer, Litsaea, Cinnamomum, Machilus, Phoebe, Buxus, Skimmia, Toddalia, Pittosporum, Rhamnus, Berchemia, Myrsine, Syringa, Wendlandia, Pyrus, Cotoneaster, Alnus, Berberis, Cornus, Parrotiopsis, Desmodium, Inula, Acorus, Scirpus, Cyperus, etc. (Puri, 1960, Mittre, 1964).


Status of bio diversity2.PNG

Fig. 57: Plant fossil reported from Arbal near Banihal. Source: Dr. G.M. Bhat, Deptt. Of Geography, Field guide North West Himalayn Successions along Jammu-Srinagar Transect, 1999

5.Laredura Flora: In this type of flora both tropical & temperate elements were discovered but tropical species were predominant. Main tropical species recorded are Woodfordia fruticosa, Mallpic otus philippensis, Engelhardti, Colebrookia, Odina woodier & Olea cuspidata. Temperate species include Ulmus wallichiana, Quercus semicarpefolia, Quercus dilatata, Quercus itex, Betula alnoides, Betula utilis, Acer caesium, Acer villosum, Berberis lycium and Conifer Genera like Pinus, Cedrus & Abies (Puri & Mittre, 1960, 64) Temperate species are still existing in the valley but sub-tropical Geneva like Mallotus, Woodfordia, Myrsine, Engelhardtia & Olea are non-existent today and this supports the view that Liddermarg flora developed under tropical conditions.

6.Ningal Nullah Flora: This flora was usually represented by forms like poplars, willows, cherries, walnuts, maples, elms, elders with an abundance of spruce, silver fir, pine & cedar (Puri et al 1983). Various `modern representatives of these plants still flourish in the Valley and occupy an altitudinal zone between 2100 m & 3000 m on the Northern side of the Pir-Panjal. This indicates that at least in this part of Kashmir, there persisted temperate climate during the pleistocene.

7.Thus during the successive stages in the phytogeographical evalution of Kashmir valley since early quaternary as a result of repeated cooling & warming of climate in the pleistocene times together with a cycle of organic movements, the original vegetation got transformed from a sub-tropical type with typical Oak-Laurel community to the present temperate type with pine-deodar-silver fir-cherry-horse-chestnut community and in the process Oak, laurel-chir communities vanished.

Existing Floristic diversity

Algal flora – Algal taxonomic studies in J&K state can be traced back to 1930, when Bhatia initiated the study on freshwater Rhizopods and Flagellates from Kashmir followed by Bharadwaja (1936), Mishra (1937) and Randhwa (1942, 1948) who also contributed towards algal taxonomy in this part of the country. Subba Raju’s notable contribution about the algal flora of Kashmir came in 1963. Saxena & Venkateswarlu (1968) also contributed significantly regarding Desmids of Kashmir. Subsequent efforts by Kant & Kachroo (1971 to 1977), Kachroo (1983), Kant & Anand (1978), Khan & Zutshi (1979), Zutshi & Vass (1977), Kant & Raina (1985) and Kant & Sodhi (1976) also contributed towards documentation of algal elements in the state.

Available records reflects that about 800 species of algae stand reported from various region of state. The Chlorophyceae i.e. green algae forms the largest groups with over 440 species and the Rhodophyceae i.e. red algae is the smallest group with only two representatives in this state. Diatoms and blue-green algal forms are also predominantly represented in various waterbodies having 266 and 171 species respectively (Kant & Vohra, Kant & Gupta).

Work on Charophytes started with the discovery of Lychnothamnus barbatus from Surinsar lake by Kant & Sodhi (1976). During the subsequent explorations regarding the occurrence of Charophytes in Jammu region, V.K. Anand & Gayatry Langer recorded 13 species of Charophytes belonging to 3 genera of Nitella (4), Lychnothamnus (1) and Chara (8). The algae of Ladakh has been extensively studied by Shashi Kant & Pushp Gupta and the findings stand incorporated in their book, “Algal Flora of Ladakh” 1998. In this book, total number of 848 species stand described. Classwise record of new species, varieties, forms and combinations are tabulated as under :-

Table 27: New species, varieties, forms & combinations of Algae reported from Ladakh

S. No.

Class

Species

Varieties

Forma

Combinations

1.

Blue green algae

1

2.

Green algae

16

22

2

6

3.

Diatoms

14

10

4.

Red algae

1

 

Total

32

32

2

6

Source: Algal Flora of  Ladakh by S. Kant & Pushp Gupta.

 

Detailed list of the new species is given under the heading “New records of plants in Jammu & Kashmir”. The detailed list of algal species is at Annexure-II

Mycoflora : Notable contributions in the field of fungal-floral of J&K stand made by D. Ganguly & V.R. Pandotra (1962, 1963, 1964, 1966), T.N. Koul (1957, 1959, 1960, 1961 & 1962), B.B. Mundkar (1944), G.N. Qasba & A.M. Shah (1979, 1980, 1981, 1982), L.E. Wehmeyer (1963, 1964), Raj Kumar Rampaul, Yash Paul Singh & Geeta Sumbli (1998) and Y.P. Sharma (1999-2000). More than 400 species of microscopic and macroscopic fungi stands documented by various workers.

Studies on mycoflora associated with pre-harvest and post-harvest of various rosaceous fruits like quince (Cydonia oblonga), Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana), sweet cherry (Prunus aviurn), plum (Prunus domestica), apple (Malus pumila), crab apple (Docynia indica) and pear (Pyrus communis) stand carried out in Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany in Jammu University by various workers like Geeta Sumbli, Yash Paul Sharma (1977), Yash Paul Singh (2001), Rozy Bamba (2001), Kusum Badyal, Suresh Sharma, Shallu Samyal etc. Sanjana Kaul & Geeta Sumbli (1997 & 2000) has also worked on Keratinophilic fungi collected from poultry farm soils and Indian poultry birds in Jammu. These workers have reported many new records of mycopathogens from different pome fruits. Detail is given in the table as under:

Table 28:                New records of mycopathogens found in stored pome fruits at <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Jammu</st1:City> Wholesale Market (Yash Paul Singh & Geeta Sumbli, 2000).

Pome fruits

Mycopathogens reported

Apple

Aspergillus niveus

A. sydowi

Emericella nidulans

Fusarium proliferatum

Penicillium chrysogenum

P. citrinum

P. crustosum

P. miniotuteum

P. purpurogenum

Trichoderma pseudokoningii

Pear

Fusarium verticellioides

Pencillium chrysogenum

P. citrinum

P. minioluteum

P. pinophilum

Crab apple

Alternaria alternata

Botrytis cineraea

Exosporiella fungosum

Fusarium proliferatum

Fusarium verticillioides

Geotrichum candidum

Penicillium chrysogenum

Rhizopus stolonifer

Trichothecium roseum

Source: Dr. Geeta Sumbli, Pathology laboratory, Deptt. Of Botany, Univ. of Jammu.

 

Earlier workers who have contributed towards exploration and documentation of macro fungi in J&K are Murill (1924), Kaul & Kachroo (1974), Kaul et al. (1978), Abraham et al. (1980, 1981, 1984), Watling (1980), Watling & Gregory (1980) and Watling & Abraham (1986).

Status of bio diversity3.PNG

Raj Kumar Rampal in his Ph.D. thesis titled, “Ecological Studies on the Macrofungi of Bhaderwah Forests, Jammu (J&K)” submitted to University of Jammu, has enlisted 80 species of macro-fungi growing in different ecological sites under high altitude coniferous forests of Bhaderwah. Detail of various species alongwith habit, altitude and edibility is given in the table :

Table 29: Habitat and distribution of Macro fungii reported from Bhaderwah

             Name

Habit

Altitude

Distribution

Remarks

A. macrosporus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

Agrocybe pediades

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Amanita flavoconia

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

A. pantherina

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

A. vaginata

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Asterophora lycoperdioides

Parasitic

6000-6500

Bhaderwah

---

Astraeus hygrometricus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Bolbitus vitellinus

Coprophilous

6000-6500

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Bovista plumbea

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Calvatia caelata

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

C. elata

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Cantharellus cibarius

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

C. infundibuliformis

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Chalciporus piperatus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

Clavaria vermicularis

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Coltricea montegneii

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

C. perennis

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Conocybe pilosella

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

C. tenera

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Copelandia cyanescens

Coprophilous

6000-6500

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Coprinus atramentarius

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

C. comatus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

C. plicatilis

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Crucibulum leave

Lignicolous

6500-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Fomes sp.

Humicolous

6000-7000

---

---

F. ulmarius

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Gamoderma lucidium

Lignicolous

6000-7000

---

---

G. resinaceum

Lignicolous

6000-7000

---

---

Geastrum drummondii

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

G. fimbriatum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

G. pectinatum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

G. triplex

Humicolous

6500-7000

Bhaderwah

---

G. velutinum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Geopora arenicola

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Geopyxis catinus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Helvella atra

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

H. crispa

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

H. elastic

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

Hohenbuehelia petaloides

Lignicolous

6000-6500

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

Hydnum repandum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Innocybe cinnatula

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

I. fastigiata

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

I.  lanuginosa

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

Lactarius deterrimus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Lentius lepideus

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Leucopaxillus giganteus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Lycoperdon perlatum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

L. pusillum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Lycoperdon pyriforme

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

L. pusillum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Lycopesdon pysiforma

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

L. umbrinum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

Macrolepiota gracilenta

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

Morchella conica

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

M. deleciosa

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

M. esculenta

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

M. hybrida

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Otidea leporina

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

Paneolus ater

Coprophilous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Paxillus penioides

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Phellodon tomentosus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Pholiota squarrosa

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Polyprus arcularia

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Psathyrella candolleana

 

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Psilocybe corprophila

Coprophilious

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Ramaria apiculata

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

R. flavo-brunnescens

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

R. stricta

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

R. vermicularis

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Rhizopogon luteolus

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Rhizopogon rubescens

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Russula foetens

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

R. krombhozii

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

R. pseudodalica

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

R. quelletii

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

R. xeremphalina

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Schizophyllum commune

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Scleroderma geaster

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

S. verrucosum

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible & new for J&K

Sepultaria arenosa

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for J&K

Sparassis crispa

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Sparassis radiata

Humicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

Edible

Strobilinus stephanocystis

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

Tramates scabrosa

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

Trichatum abiotinum

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

---

Tyromyces fragilis

Lignicolous

6000-7000

Bhaderwah

New for <st1:country-region w:st="on">India

Source: Dr. Raj Kumar Rampal, Deptt. Of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu.

 


Five species of macrosopic ascomycetes has been reported by Shashi Kant & Raj Kumar Rampal (1990) as new records for J&K and they are Geopyxis catinus, Helvella atra, Helvella elastica, Otidea leporina and Septularia arenosa.

Five new records of clavariace reported from Bhaderwah forests (J&K) are Clavaria vermicularis, Ramaria apiculata, Ramaria flavobrunnescens, Ramaria stricta and Sparassis crispa (Shashi Kant & Raj Kumar Rampal, 1991). The detailed list of Fungal Taxa is given in Annexure-III

Bryophytic flora : Among five bryogeographically rich units of Indian sub-continent, Himalayan region is one of the richest area as far as bryophytic wealth is concerned. West Himalayan territory being comparatively more dry has less bryophytic diversity as compared to East Himalayas but this part of region has also a good number of endemics. Various taxa endemic to this region are Radula (4 sp.), Frullania (6 sp.), Cryptomitrium himalayensis, Aitchinsoniella himalayensis, Cyathodium indicum, C. flabellatum, Geocalyx graveolens, Exormotheca tuberifera, Stephensoniella brevipendiculata, P. himalayensis etc. (Srivastava, 1998). This region is also the centre of distribution of Chiloscyphus as maximum diversity exists here.

Status of bio diversity4.PNG


Out of three regions of the state, only Kashmir has attracted the attention of earlier bryologists like Stephani (1900-1924), Kashyap (1929-1932), Robinson (1965), Kaul & Dhar (1968) and Srivastava (1979). Recently Bandey (1997) has explored the bryophytes of Gulmarg and adjacent regions like Khillanmarg, Tangmarg, Ferozpur, Khagh, Arizal, Poshkaur and Beerwah of Kashmir and collected 63 species including 14 liverworts and 49 mosses. Of these 6 liverworts are new records for Kashmir valley and they include Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Lophocolea bidentata, Marchantia nepalensis, Plagiochila ferruginea, P. spinulosa and Riccardia pinguis. Later, Bandey et al. (1998) enlisted 48 liverworts from Kashmir valley including 25 foliose and 23 thallose forms and reported total absence of hornworts in the valley.

Status of bio diversity5.PNG

Bryo explorations in Jammu region were started by Om Prakash (1983-84) and he reported 27 liverworts, 2 hornworts and 13 mosses from Jammu plains and Udhampur hills (data unpublished). Mohd. Tanwir (2000) carried extensive survey in tehsil Mendhar of Poonch district and collected 38 taxa of bryophytes (19 foliose and 19 thallose liverworts and 1 hornwort). Tanwir & Langer (2002) added more hepatic taxa to thsi list and now the total number of hepatics from Jammu region has gone upto 70 (data unpublished). Out of this, 13 species reported are rare and endemic to the region and are enumerated as under :-


S. No.

Name of Taxa

Status

1.

Metzgeria himalayensis

Endemic

2.

M. conjugata

Extremely rare

3.

Jungermannia gollani

Endemic

4.

Plagiochila woronofii

Endemic

5.

Astrella angusta

Endemic

6.

A. reticulata

Rare

7.

Athalamia pinguis

Rare & Endemic

8.

A. pusilla

Rare & Endemic

9.

Marchantia kashyapii

Endemic

10.

Targionia indica

Endemic

11.

Wisnerella denudata

Rare

12.

Stephensoniella brevipendiculata

Rare & Endemic

13.

Anthoceros bharadwajii

Endemic

(Source : After Aneema Langar & Mohd. Tanwir)

 

Pant (1983) reported a hepatic species as disappearing fast from Nainital. Out of these nine sp. six stand reported from Jammu and these are Athalamia pinguis, Dumortiera hirsuta, Reboulia hemispherica, Stephensoniella brevipendiculata, Wiesnerella denudata and Conocephalum conicum. Other three species reported by Pant from Nainital are Cryptomitrium himalayensis, Fossombronia himalayensis and Sewardiella tuberifera and these awaits discovery from this region. The detailed list of Bryophytes is given in Annexure-IV. Pteridophytic flora : Many workers including Clarke (1880), Hope (1903), Stewart (1945, 1957, 1982), Bir (1964), Bir & Trikha (1968, 1976), Bir et al. (1980, 1985), Dhir (1980), Dixit (1984), Dixit & Das (1979), Gupta (1962), Khullar & Sharma (1980), Mahabale (1962), Satija et al. (1983) and Fraser Jankeins (1984) have made notable contributions in the field of pteridophytic flora of India including Jammu & Kashmir. In Jammu & Kashmir, Javeid (1965) explored ferns and fern allies of Srinagar and Kapoor & Sarin (1977, 1982) made some contribution with regard to ferns of Jammu particularly Trikuta Hills. Kiran & Sharma (1976) and Kiran & Singh (1981) have dealt with ferns of Poonch district, Kant & Kaushal (1996) and Kant & Anil Raina (1988) made some documentation of Patnitop and Bhaderwah area of Doda district.

As per available published record, 93 species of pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies) stand reported by different workers from Jammu region and maximum pteridophytic diversity exists in Poonch, Bhaderwah and Basohli areas of Jammu. The detailed list of Pteridophytes is given in Annexure-V Gymnospermic flora : Although, the gymnospermic diversity is not rich in the state, yet gymnosperms form the dominant component of high altitude forests called Coniferous Forests. Dhar (1966,68) was probably the first worker to provide a concise account of the distribution of conifers in India including J&K.

In the state of J&K, about 14 species of different Gymnosperms grow wild in different areas, 4 species belonging to cupressaceae; 2 species of Ephedraceae ; 7 species of Pinaceae; 1 species of Taxaceae and their list is as under:- 1. Cupressus torulosa

2. Juniperus communis

3. Juniperus semiglobosa

4. Juniperus squamata

5. Ephedra gerardiana

6. Ephedra intermedia

7. Abies pindrow

8. Abies spectabilis

9. Cedrus deodara

10. Picea smithiana

11. Pinus gerardiana

12. Pinus roxburghii

13. Pinus wallichiana

14. Taxus wallichiana.

Status of bio diversity6.PNG

Source: Sh. Ravi Kesar, IFS, SFRI, Jammu.

About twenty four gymnosperm species are also seen under cultivation in the state and they are:-

1. Cupressurs arizonica

2. Cupressus cashmeriana


3. Cupressus corneyana

4. Cupressus glabra


5. Cupressus guadalupensis

6. Cupressus sempervirens


7. Juniperus chinensis

8. Thuja orientali

9. Ginkgo biloba

10. Pinus canariensis

11. Pinus halepensis 12. Pinus radiata

13. Crypromeria japonica

14. Sequiodendron giganteum (Only one tree seen at Tangmarg)

15. Taxodium distichum (Only one tree seen at Jammu)

16. Podocarpus wallichianus

17. Agathis robusta (only in Jammu)

18. Araucaria bidwillii

19. Araucaria cookii

20. Araucaria heterophylla

21. Cycas revoluta

22. Cycas circinalis (Only in Cactus garden, University of Jammu)

23. Zamia furfuracea

24. Ephedra foliata (Only one plant at Jammu)

The detailed list of Gymnospermes is given in Annexure-VI

Angiospermic Diversity : Different workers have contributed towards floristic studies from different areas of Jammu & Kashmir. Floristic explorations in J&K started with W. Moorcraft’s collections from Ladakh (1821 onwards). Jacquemont collected samples from Rajouri, Thanamandi, Bhimber and parts of Kashmir (1838-1840). Royle’s Flora of Cashmere was published in 1839. Hooker’s Flora appeared between 1872 and 1897. This work made a passing reference to the Jammu plants. Stewart’s Ladakh Flora was published in 1916-1917. Duthie (1894), Meebold (1909), Blatter (1927-1928), Coventry (1923-1930) also made extensive collections from Kashmir. Plants of Jammu received attention in Bamber’s Flora of Punjab (1916). Lambert (1933) gave a list of trees and shrubs of Jammu Forest Circle. Rao (1960-1961) also described the vegetation of Jammu & Kashmir provinces. In the first volume on “Flora of Upper Lidder Valleys of Kashmir Himalaya” by B.M. Sharma & P.S. Jamwal (1988), 295 species were documented and described which included 6 species of Gymnosperms, whereas in the 2nd vol. (1998) which dealt with the remaining families (not included in 1st vol.) 463 species were described. In all, enumeration of 758 species were given in two volumes, for the area under survey.

In the subsequent effort, “Weed Flora of Kashmir Valley” was prepared by M.K. Kaul (1985) wherein description of 401 weed species was incorporated having 223 native and 178 introduced species. In “Forest Flora of Srinagar” 1976 by Gurbachan Singh & P. Kachroo, a total of 661 species in 376 genera of angiosperms stands dealt with (in contrast to 2104 species under 750 genera reported from Kashmir). It deals exclusively with the flora of Dachigam National Park. “Flora of Ladakh” by G. Singh & P. Kachroo, the “Alpine Flora of Kashmir Himalaya” 1983 by Dhar & Kachroo, M.K. Kaul (1986) recorded 401 species of Flowering weeds in the Kashmir Valley, “Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighbourhood” 1987 by B.M. Sharma & P. Kachroo, exhaustive floristic account of flowering plants stands documented.

In “Flora of Upper Lidder Valley of Kashmir Himalaya” Vol. 1 (1988) Sharma and Jamwal have described 301 species belonging to 130 genera under 35 families and in Vo, 2 published in 1988 same Authors have described a total of 463 species under 211 genera and 51 families. The “Ara et al 1995 listed 295 species of indegenious and exotic species from Kashmir. “Wild & Cultivated Plants of Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh” 1997 by O.P. Vidyarthi listed 2300 species which however includes many ornamental exotics, both herbaceous as well as woody. More than 300 species stand reported from Ladakh by different workers.

The work done by O.P. Chaurasia in the Defence Research Laboratory, Leh under the Ministry of Defence is more exhaustic and comprehensive in dealing with Cold Desert Plants of Ladakh. He has enumerated about 350 species from various regions of Ladakh. ‘The Flora of Udhampur District’ was completed by Ajai Swami & B.K. Gupta (1997) under the Botanical Survey of India’s scheme titled, “India District Flora Scheme”. In this flora, a systematic analysis of 807 species belonging to 495 genera stands given. Another work relates to Flora of Trikuta Hills by Kapur & Sarin. A Ph.D. work done by Bachan Lal Whellum deals with Flora of District Doda wherein 400 species stands systematically analysed.

Status of bio diversity7.PNG

Fig. 62: Species diversity within Genus Torilis

Top left: T. arvensis; Top right: T. japonica Middle left: T. leptophylla; Middle right: T. nodosa; Bottom: T. stocksiana Source: Dr. Irshad Ahmad Hamal, Deptt. of Botany, Univ. of Jammu.

According to Virjee et al. (1989) state of Jammu & Kashmir has 3054 species of higher plants. Out of total species, 2403 are Dicots and 651 are Monocots (P. Kachroo, 1993).

Extent of endemism is about 39% for Dicots and 19% for Monocots (Dhar & Kachroo, 1983). The families with highest percentage of endemism in alpine and sub-alpine Himalayas are enumerated as under

Table 30: Families having maximum endemism in Kashmir Himalaya

S. No.

Name of Family

Extent of Endemism

1.

Adoxaceae

100%

2.

Balsaminaceae

66%

3.

Berberidaceae

64%

4.

Fumariaceae

55%

5.

Violaceae

54%

6.

Apiaceae

54%

7.

Gentianaceae

54%

8.

Saxifragaceae

53%

9.

Asteraceae

52%

10.

Scrophulariaceae

52%

11.

Celastraceae

50%

12.

Aceraceae

50%

13.

Valerianaceae

50%

14.

Dipsacaceae

50%

15.

Campanulaceae

50%

16.

Fabaceae

49%

Source: Dhar & Kachroo, 1983

Extent of endemism in various families of Kashmir Himalaya is given in the table:

 

Table 31: Endemism in different families of flowering plants of Kashmir Himalaya</p <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'> 

% Endemism

Family

% of Total taxa

50% or more

Saxifragacae

53.57

 

Fumariaceae

52.00

 

Violaceae

50.00

 

Rutaceae

50.00

 

Valerianaceae

50.00

 

Dipsacaceae

50.00

 

Campanulaceae

50.00

30-50%

Gentianaceae

49.09

 

Apiaceae

45.16

 

Scrophulariaceae

44.71

 

Balsaminaceae

42.86

 

Asteraceae

39.82

 

Primulaceae

39.53

 

Fabaceae

39.20

 

Berberidaceae

38.89

 

Aceraceae

33.33

 

Parnassiceae

31.34

10-30%

Ranunculaceae

29.35

 

Caprifoliaceae

29.17

 

Asclepiadaceae

28.57

 

Euphorbiaceae

28.57

 

Lamiaceae

27.16

 

Chenopodiaceae

26.32

 

Brassicaceae

25.77

 

Acanthaceae

25.16

 

Orobanchaceae

25.00

 

Urticaceae

25.00

 

Crassulaceae

21.74

 

Polygonaceae

20.63

 

Tamaricaceae

20.00

 

Ericaceae

20.00

 

Caryophyllaceae

19.44

 

Rubiaceae

19.05

 

Rosaceae

18.27

 

Onagraceae

17.39

 

Papaveraceae

16.67

 

Solanaceae

14.29

 

Plantaginaceae

14.29

 

Salicaceae

14.29

Source: Kachroo, 1993.

 

Table 32: Extent of endemism in Kashmir

 

 

Dicots

Monocots

Total taxa

2403

651

Short range endemics

(Kashmir + <st1:country-region w:st="on">Afghanistan)

326 (13.56%)

37 (5.68%)

Broad range endemic

(Afghanistan to north Burma)

518 (24.93%)

86 (14.00%)

Total endemic taxa

844 (35.12%)

123 (18.89%)

Source: Kachroo, 1993

 

 


 Table 33: Endemic taxa of legumes

 

Taxa

West Himalaya

Trans Himalaya

Abus fruticulosus

+

 

Acacia pseudoeburnea

+

 

Astragalus gilgitensis

+

 

Astragalus imitensis

+

 

Astragalus kashmirensis

+

 

Astragalus maddenianus

+

 

Astragalus malaccophyllus

+

+

Astragalus maxwellii

+

 

Astragalus multiceps

+

 

Astragalus pindeerensis

+

 

Cassia davidsonii

+

 

Hedysarum astragaloides

+

 

Hedysarum falconeri var. cachemirianum

 

+

Hedysarum microcalyx

+

 

Hedysarum pseudomicrocalyx

+

+

Indigofera cedrorum

+

 

Indigofera gangetica

+

 

Indigofera hamiltonii

+

 

Indigofera himalayensis

+

 

MeizOtteropis pellita

+

 

Oxytropis shivai

 

+

Trigonella podperae

+

 

Source: Rao & Husain, 1993

 


Table 34: Comparison of the First 10 large families of angiosperms in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.

S.No.

Jammu

Kashmir

Ladakh

1.

Leguminosae (79/36)

Asteraceae (260/72)

Asteraceae (125/38)

2.

Poaceae (71/54)

Poaceae (160/73)

Poaceae (101/33)

3.

Asteraceae (52/39)

Brassicaceae (115/44)

Brassicaceae (64/31)

4.

Cyperaceae (38/7)

Rosaceae (98/32)

Papllionaceae (55/12)

5.

Scrophulariaceae (23/14)

Lamiaceae (88/32)

Cyperaceae (50/5)

6.

Lamiaceae (22/17)

Papilionaceae (84/34)

Scrophulariaceae (45/8)

7.

Euphorbiaceae (22/14)

Cyperaceae (81/9)

Ranunculaceae (43/12)

8.

Acanthaceae (18/14)

Scrophulariaceae (77/19)

Boraginaceae (35/15)

9.

Amaranthaceae (12/9)

Ranunculaceae (70/17)

Caryophyllaceae (35/12)

10.

Brassicaceae (10/9)

Apiaceae (68/37)

Lamiaceae (32/13)

Source: Biodiversity of the Kashmir Himalaya, G.H. Dar, R.C. Bhagat, M.A. Khan, Univ. of Kashmir, 2002.

 

Table 35: List of Plants used by locals as vegetables in J&K

Herb

Plant part1

Common name

Use2

Alternanthera sessilis L.

L

Khan chari (Jammu)

C

Amaranthus polygamous L

L

Leesa (Kashmir)

C

Amaranthus speciosus L

L

Chilari (Jammu)

C

Amaranthus spinosus L

L

Kantiwala Chotai (Jammu)

C

Amaranthus tricolour L

L

Lal cholia (Jammu)

C

Atriplex crassifolia Camb.

L

Vasta hak (Kashmir)

C

Atriplex hortense L. var. rubra.

L

Vasta hak (Kashmir)

C

Barbarea vulgaris Br.

L

Cress (Kashmir)

C

Basella rubra L.

L

Poi, Lalbachola (Jammu)

C

Capselia bursa-pastoris Medic

TS

Krai mund (Kashmir)

DRC

Centurea calcitrapa L.

L

Krech (Kashmir)

B

Chenopodium album L

L

Bathura (Jammu)

C

Chenopodium blitum, Hook. 1

L

Bathura (Jammu)

C

Chenopodium murale L

L

Karoon (Jammu)

C

Commelina oblique Buch-ham

L

Kunjana (Jammu)

C

Campanula latifolia L.

L

Chari hak (Kashmir)

B

Coronopus didymus L.

L

Jangli alian

C

Crataeva religiosa Frost

L

Varuna; Tikasag (Jammu)

C

Cucurbita maxima Duch.

TS

Al-kaanji (Kashmir)

C

Diplazium esculentum sw.

YF

Kasrot (Jammu)

C

Dipsacus inermis Wall.

L

Wupulhak (Kashmir)

BD

Dipsacus mitis D. Don.

L

Wupulhak (Kashmir)

BD

Eremurus himalicus

L

Hoal saag (Jammu)

BD

Eremurus persicus Boisa

L

Hoal saag (Jammu)

B

Eruca sativa Mall.

L

Taribed (Kashmir)

CR

Gagea stipitata Merkl.

L

Dudal (Kishtwar)

C

Gagea dashungarica Rgl.

L

Dudal (Kishtwar)

C

Gagea elegans Wall

L

Dudal (Kishtwar)

C

Gagea kashmiriensis Turll

L

Dudal (Kishtwar)

C

Gagea gagepodes (Zucc) Wad

YF

Paneej (Kashmir)

C

Girardinia diversifolia L

TL

Bichua (Jammu)

B

Lactuca spp.

L

Salad (Kashmir)

R

Lactuca serriola L.

L

Khav (Ladakh)

B

 

 

Dudi (Jammi)

B

Lamium amplexicaule L.

L

Neul-hakh (Jammu)

B

Lepidum latifolium L

L

Crosa (English)

RD

 

 

Gonyuch (Ladakh)

RD

Lepidium sativum L.

L

Garden cress (English)

R

Malva rotundifolia L.

LT

Sonchal (Kashmir)

CD

Malva sylvestris L

LTS

Sonchal (Kashmir)

C

Malva verticillata L.

L

Sonchal (Kashmir)

 

Medicago hispida Gaerin

TL

Sridi (Jammu)

C

Medicago polymorpha L.

TL

Sridi (Jammu)

C

Medicago sativa L.

TL

Chinori bhaji (Jammu)3

C

Melilotus alba Medikus

LS

Senji (Jammu)

C

Melilotus indica All

L

Senji (Jammu)

C

Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

L

Brahmisag (Jammu)

C

 

 

Watercress (English)

C

Ophioglossum vulgatum L.

F

Chanchur (Kashmir)

C

Oxalls acetosella L.

L

Sorrel (English)

C

 

 

Khate meethi (Jammu)

C

Oxalis corniculata L.

L

She bargi (Kashmir)

C

Oxyria digyana Hill

L

Chok hak (Kashmir)

C

Papaver rhoeas L.

TL

Gulal trayal (Kashmir)

C

Pimpinella diversifolia (Wall) D.C.

TL

Zenuch (Ladakh)

C

Plantago lanceolata L.

TL

Gulla (Kashmir)

C

Polygonum alpinum All.

LTS

Chok ladder (Kashmir)

C

Polygonum polystachym Wall.

LTS

Chok ladder (Kashmir)

C

Polygonum aviculare L.

L

Dreb (Kashmir)

C

Polygonum plebejum R. Br.

L

Dreb (Kashmir)

C

Polygonum rumicifolium Royle ex. Bab

L

Rumekh (Kashmir)

C

Portulaca oleracea L.

L

Nunar (Kashmir)

C

Pteridium aqulinium Kuhn

F

Ded (Kashmir)

C

Ranunculus arveneis L.

L

Charmula (Jammu)

BC

Ranunculus muricatus L.

L

Tohtub (Kashmir)

BC

 

 

Tilpheri (Jammu)

BC

Rheum emodi Wall ex. Melsen

L

Pumb hak (Kashmir)

C

Rumex acetosa L.

L

Obudge (Kashmir)

C

Rumex hastatus L.

L

Beddi ammi (Jammu)

C

Rumex nepelense Sprong.

L

Obuge (Kashmir)

C

Scandix pectin venaris L.

L

Kachi-Dani

RC

Silene cucubalis Wiebel.

L

Walkrem (Jammu)

BC

Sisymbrium loeselli L.

L

Dand Hakh (Kashmir)

B

Sisymbrium vulgeris (Moench) Glesche

LTS

Vettrein (Kashmir)

C

Silene conoidea L.

L

Chotta-Takla (Jammu)

C

Stellaria media L. Vill

H

Koku (Jammu)

B

Taraxacum officinale L.

L

Hund (Kashmir)

B

Trianthema portulacastrurn L.

L

Lal subuni (Jammi)3

B

Trigonella foenumgraecum L.

L

Meethi (Kashmir)

BD

Urtica hyperborea Jadq. Ex. Wedd

YL

Boly (Kashmir)

B

 

YL

Zaohut (Ladakh)

B

.Source: A.K. Dhar & Saproo (R.R.L., Jammu)

 

Table 36: Medicinal plants of Jammu and Kashmir.

 

No.

Scientific name

Local Name

Trade name

Ethnomedicinal use/part used

Therapeutic use

1.

Achyranthes aspera

Purkanda

Apamarg

Used in fever and tooth troubles

 

2.

Aconitum deinorrhizum

Patees

Meetha telia

Used in fevers

 

3.

Aconitum heterophyllum

Patis

Atis

Expels intestinal worms, used in diarhoea, dysentery, high fever, anti-rheumatic/root

Febrifuge, bitter tonic

4.

Acorus calamus

Bariyan

Vach

Used in Asthma,other resperatre troubles and stomach disorders

 

5.

Aegle marmelos

Bill

 

Used in diabetes

 

6.

Aloe barbadensis

Kunwar Gandal

 

Used in skin troubles and liver disorders

 

7.

Angelica glauca

Choru

 

Used against snakes

 

8.

Arnebia benthamii

Kahzaban

Gaozaban

Fever, heart ailment/leaves

Against fever

9.

Artemisia absinthium

Tethwan

Tethwan

Vermifuge, various fevers, inset repellent/whole herb

Anthelmintic

10.

Artemisia brevifolia

Murin

Seski

Stomach cramps, worm infestation/ leaf extract

Anthelmintic

11.

Atropa acuminata

Brand

Brand

Rheumatic pain, asthma/ root paste, leaf extract

 

12.

Barleria prionitis

Kali barenkar

 

Used against tooth troubles

 

13.

Berberis lycium

Kaoduch

Daruharidra

 

Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory

14.

Bergenia ligulata

Palpout, Zakhmihayat

Pashan Bed

Wounds/ root paste

 

15.

Boerhaavia diffusa

Itt sitt

Punar nava

Used in ayurvedic drugs to cure eye diseases and liver ailments

 

16.

Caesalpinia bonduc

 

Karanj

Used against fevers

 

17.

Cardiospermum helicacabum

Kanphuti

 

Used in ear ailments and cardiac disorders

 

18.

Celastrus paniculata

Malkangni

 

Used in stomach troubles and mental disorders

 

19.

Centella asiatica

Ghodsumbi

Brahmi

Used as brain tonic

 

20.

Cleome gynandra

Neoli

Ugargandha

 

 

21.

Colchicum luteum

Suranjan talakh

 

Used in folk medicine

 

22.

Corydalis govaniana

Bhutkesi

 

Used in stomach troubles

 

23.

Costus speciosus

Chamrgatha

Kue

Used in skin troubles

 

24.

Cryptolepis buchanani

Kaliterni

 

Used in skin troubles

 

25.

Dactylorhiza hatagirea

Salam panja

 

Used as aphrodisiac

 

26.

Datura stramonium

Datur

Datur

Skin eruptions, wound, asthma/ peTibetan Argalis decoction, leaf poultice

Anti-spasmodic, sedative, anti- chlinergic

27.

Digitalis purpurea

Tilpushpi

 

Used in heart ailments

 

28.

Dioscorea deltoidea

Krinch

Shingli Mingli

Used for washing woolens and as source of cortico steroid homones

Anti-inflammatory, hormonal, anti-fertility

29.

Diplocyclos palmatus

Shivlingi

 

Used in folk medicines

 

30.

Emblica officinalis

Amla

 

Used in pickles and hair oils

 

31.

Ephedra gerardiana

Chepat/Thayon /Cheldymb

Ephedra

Cough, asthma, rheumation in hepatic diseases, as blood purifier and cleaning of teeth/leaves, root, stem, wood.

 

32.

Equisetum arvense

Rugosika/sehet bund Brahmgund

Sehat Band

Dropsy, acidity and dyspepsia; urinary irritations, antidiabetic/ whole herb

 

33.

Fritillaria roylei

Sheethkar

Sheethkar

Cardiac ailments, used as folk medicine in many ailments/ bulb

 

34.

Fumaria indica

Patpapri

 

Used in fever

 

35.

Gentiana kurroo

Karu

Traiman

Used in fever

 

36.

Heracleum candicans

 

Krendel

Used for extraction of xanthotoxin

 

37.

Holarrhaena pubescens

Kogar

 

Used in dysentery

 

38.

Inula racemosa

Manu/ Manerpatter Poshkar

Pushkar

Rheumatism, various gastrointestinal complaints; purify blood/ root, leaf

 

39.

Lavatera cashmeriana

Sazposh

Sazumal

Urinary irritation/ roots extract

Anti-phlogistic

40.

Nardostachys grandiflora

Jata masi

 

Used in stomach troubles

 

41.

Onosma hispidum

Ratanjot

 

Used in coloring food stuffs

 

42.

Physochlaina praelata

Lang Tang

Lang Tang

Ulcers/ leaves

 

43.

Picrorhiza kurrooa

Chobi-I-Kor Hanglang/Kour

Kutki

Stomachic, liver protectant, purgative, used in fever/ root

Stomachic, liver protectant

44.

Pistacia khinjuk

Kakad singhi

 

Used in respiratory troubles

 

45.

Plumbago zeytanica

Chitra

Chitrak

Used in female problems

 

46.

Podophyllum hexandrum

Ban kakri

 

Used in cancer

 

47.

Prunella vulgaris

Kalvauth

 

Used in heart ailments

 

48.

Psoralea corylifolia

Babchi

 

Used in skin troubles

 

49.

Rauvolfia serpentina

Sarpgandha

 

Used in hyprtension and snake bite

 

50.

Rheum australe

Pambachalan

Rhubarb

Theumatic pain, wounds/ root paste, root powder

Cooling, against burns

51.

Ricinus communis

Airan

Arandi

Used in skin ailments and as purgative

 

52.

Saussurea costus

Kuth

Kuth

Stomach cramps, dysentery and joint pains/ root extract

 

53.

Selinum vaginatum

Bhutkesi

 

Used in folk medicines

 

54.

Taxus wallichiana

Posthal

Himalayan Yew

High fever, asthma/ tea

 

55

Sida cordifolia

Bala

 

Used in ayurveda

 

56.

Swertia chirayita

Chirata

 

Used in fever

 

57.

Tribulus terrestris

Meticher Kund

Meticher Kund

Urinary infections, diuretic lithontriptic, in painful micuturation and other kidney diseases/ fruit

Diuretic

58.

Terminalia bellerica

Behera

 

Used in stomach troubles

 

59.

Terminalia chebula

Harad

Haritaki

Used in triphala

 

60.

Tinospora cordifolia

Glioe

 

Used in liver troubles

 

61.

Uraria picta

Prishanparni

 

Used in skin troubles

 

62.

Valeriana wallichii

Mushki bala

Mushkibala

Sedative, nervous dibility/ root

 

63.

Viola odorata

Banafasha

 

Used in respiratory troubles

 

64.

Withania somnifera

Ashwagandha

 

Used in sexual troubles

 

65.

Woodfordia fruticosa

Dhataki

 

Used in diabeties

 

Source : M.K. Koul  1997 and O.P. Vidyarthi, 2000.

 

 

Table 37: Group wise number of Animal Species reported in J&K

Group

Sub Group

No. of Species reported

Jammu Region

Kashmir Region

Ladakh Region

J&K

Protozoa

 

70

128

-

198

Rotifers

 

55

120

-

175

Sponges

 

 

5

-

-

5

Coelenterates

 

 

 

2

-

-

2

Annelids

 

 

10

22

 

28

Nematodes

 

16

35

 

50

Butterflies

Daniadae

Erycinidae

Hesperiidae

Lycaenidae

Nymphalidae

Papilionidae

Satyridae

Sub Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

03

01

03

05

12

08

20

61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

Entomophagous insects

Coleoptera

Diptera

Hemiptera

Hymenoptera

Neuroptera

Sub-Total

 

25

13

3

9

2

 

 

Aquatic insects

Aquatic Beetles

Aquatic Bugs

Aquatic Dipterms

Caddisflies

Dranonflies & Damselflies

 

Mayflies

Stone flies

Sub Total

 

36

14

31

23

35

32

 

14

185

 

 

 

Crustaceans

Cladocerans

Copepods

Ostracods

Sub Total

 

63

53

 

 

Molluscs

 

21

20

 

46

Fishes

 

114

42

120

 

Amphibians

 

9

7

 

13

Reptiles

 

49

22

 

70

Birds

Breeding Birds

Non-breeding birds

Sub Total

 

187

022

209

418

 

 

 

 

358

Mammals

Insectivores

Bats

Primates

Lagomorphs

Rodents

Carnivores

Ungulates

Sub Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58

14

14

02

03

27

17

09

76

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

83

Source: Directorate of Animal Husbandry.

 

Fossil Records

The state of J&K is endowed with rich fauna ranging in age from Cambrian to recent fauna include both invertebrates and vertebrates. The earliest flora reported from J&K is from Early Carboniferous of Kashmir (Lidar Valley, Banihal) to late ptiestocene (Siwalik Strata of Jammu), Karewas of Kashmir.

A number of publications reporting fauna and flora from the state are available in the records of Geological Society of India and Professional Research Journals of National and International status. The rcards and research journals are available with GSI and Geology Department, University of Jammu, Jammu. The Departments hosts a record of research publication of last 150 years. Recent contribution on invertebrate fauna from the state is those of GSI workers, University of Jammu and Wadia institute of Himalayan Geology. The vertibrate fauna reported from the state is mostly from Siwalik and Karewas strata. The contributions include those of D.N. Wadia, GSI workers, Scientists of Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, ONGC and University of Jammu.

Recently, Bhat, G.M. and his co-workers reported the skull of a mommothus from learewa beds of Galauder Pampore, which is perhaps the largest ever known probeseidiam reported from the world.

It is also the first ever known fassil of mammothus from Sourth Asia, whose age is Lower-Middle pliestocene. This fossil was found associated with palaothic tools indicate human activity in the area in this period.

Bhat and his co-workers have also reported flora from Lidder valley and Margan pass which is the earliest known flora from the Himalaya (early early carboniforous - may be U. Silvirian). Other reports on flora from J&K state are those of gangomopteris and Ghssoopleru from Zewan and Nishatbagh beds of Kashmir.

Most important vertebrate faunal localities include Ram Nagar (Udhampur), Uttarbani area Jammu. Karewa beds at Pampore, Shopian, Hirpura, Pattan, etc. These localities have a great potential for these fauna and need to be explored. The type localities for fossil flora include Lidder valley Banihal area, Gulabgarh pass and Mishatbagh and Zewan beds. Shiwalik and karewa beds also yield micro fauna and flora. Faculty of the Departments of Geology, University of Jammu is actively engaged in its exploration. They include Prof. G.R. Prasad (micro vertebrates), Dr. M.A. Malik (Micro-invertebrate fauna), Bhat, G.M. and co-workers (micro flora).

Cambrian fossils of Kashmir Trolpbotes amd Brachiopods, pteropod hyolithes and cysted eucystites.

Ordovician-Silurian fauna: Brachtio pods and crinoids, corals and strophomenids.

Carboni ferokus: Bracteopods, Bryozoaris, Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Flora: Pteridophytes, Gangomopteris beds, Glossopteris, Amphitrian, Archegosaurus orantus and Fishes - Amblypterus kashmirensis and A. symmetricus. Gulmarg, Khunamuh and Resin Spuos, Nagmerg, Bayozoa, Corals and Brachiopods.

Triassic of Kashmir: Ammonoids, Meekoseras, optroceras, otoceras, Lamellibranchs, Braeticpods.

Jurassic Fauna: Ammonites, Beleminites, Lamellibranch and Brictropods. Cretaceous Fauna:

Foraminifera, Gastro pods and Corals.

Tertiery: Karewas: mollusesand some plants, Elephants, Rhinoceras and Mammothus. Birds, Fish and Plants.

Shiwalik: Equidae, Rhinoceratidae, Suidae, Giraffidae, Boclidae, Proboscidea, Anthracothesidae, Hippopotamidae, Primates. The geological history of the Kashmir Valley has experienced the upliftment of the present Pir Panjal range by about 2000 m to keep the mansoon influences away from present Kashmir (Wadia, 1961). The pre-historic Satisar lake silted up and water was drained off leaving behind remanants in the form of present day lakes like Dal, Manasbal and the Wular. The Karewas lie in isolated tracts and at depths below 300 m having remains of pleistocene age. During ice-age valley experienced several periods of extreme cold alternating with warm periods culminating into the temperate flora of the Kashmir valley.

Recently, Bhat, G.M. and his co-workers reported the skull of a Mammothus from karewa beds of Galander Pampore, which is perhaps the largest ever known proboscidian reported from the world. It is also the first ever known fossil of Mammothus from South Asia, whose age is Lower-Middle pleistocene. This fossil was found associated with paleolithic tools indicate human activity in the area in this period.

Status of bio diversity12.PNG

Fig. 67: Skull of a Mammothus from karewa beds of Galander Pampore, Kashmir Source: Dr. G.M. Bhat, Deptt. Of Geography, Field guide North West Himalayn Successions along Jammu-Srinagar Transect, 1999

Invertebrate Diversity

Protozoa This primitive and simplest group of microscopic animalcules constitutes an important component of biodiversity in the aquatic environment whether lentic or lotic. They live as wanderers or drifters and are referred as planktons. Earlier report of any work on protozoans in Jammu waters is that of S.P.S. Dutta (1983) who during the limnological investigations of Gadigarh stream (Miran Sahib) described for the frist time eleven species of Rhizopod protozoans from the family Arcellidae. Later S.P.S. Dutta et al. (1990) while studying the ecology of protozoans from some Jammu pools, raised the list to 21. Later, Balbir Singh & K.K. Sharma (1998) reported 32 species of protozoans from Jammu. Recently, Jyoti Sharma (1999) in her thesis entitled, “Effect of Industrial Wastes and Sewage of Abiotic and Biotic Components of Behlol Nallah (Jammu)” reported 43 protozoan taxa from the industrial wastes and 48 from the sewage water samples and many species were common to both. About 60 species of protozoa stands repored thus far. Detailed list of various protozoans is given in Annexure-VIII.

Status of bio diversity24.PNG

Rotifera

Rotifers constitute the group Rotifera. These animals popularly called as wheel animalcules forms an important part of Zooplanktonic component of biodiversity in the aquatic ecosystem. Edmondson & Hutchinson (1934) enumerated 99 species of this group from 52 localities in Punjab and N.W.F.P. and 15 localities were of Kashmir region. Dar & Peer (1971) made a survey of Kashmir with new records. Jyoti & Sehgal (1979) made comprehensive study on distribution and taxonomy of rotifers and recorded 17 species from the lake of Surinsar. Gupta & Sudan (1985) recorded 20 species of rotifers from 4 fresh water ponds of Jammu. Yousuf & Quadri (1986) studied the seasonal changes in the distribution of Polyartha vulgaris and revealed that this rotifer was perennial in lake Manasbal. Sharma & Srivastava (1986) recorded 42 species of rotifers from a pond of Jammu region. Kumar et al. (1991) and Malhotra et al. (1995) have also carried out studies on rotifers in Jammu waters and have reported 28 and 19 species respectively. Jyoti Sharma & K.K. Sharma (1999) while working on the industrial wastes of Behlol Nallah reported 36 species of rotifers. The detailed list of Rotifers is given in Annexure -IX

Status of bio diversity25.PNG


Sponges (Porifera) Sponges is a unique group of animals which lead a sedentary lifestyle in the aquatic environment. Most sponges are marine but some fresh water species are also available. They act as water filters while allowing water currents to pass through their body pores in a regular fashion. Y.R. Malhotra et al. pioneered the study on this group of animals in Jammu & Kashmir when he reported the first ever existence of a fresh water sponge called Spongilla lacustris (1973). Subsequently, M.K. Jyoti, S.P.S. Dutta and their students of Jammu University carried out an extensive survey in and around Jammu and made a startling discovery of 4 more sponges. Newly reported sponges are Dosilia plumosa, Ephydatia meynii, Eunapius carteri and Spongilla proliferens thus raising the total number of sponges reported so far to five. Presence of sponges in the Kunjwani pond was a matter of delight for these workers till recently but due to neglect and ignorance of the people around this pond has now dried up and the sponges have vanished unmourned.


Status of bio diversity26.PNG


Status of bio diversity27.PNG

Arthropoda

Earliest reports of work on arthropods pertain to order Odonata. Calvert (1898), Laidlow (1922) & Fraser (1934, 36) contributed towards the study of dragonflies & damselflies in the J&K. Singh & Baijal (1954) & Kumar & Prasad (1981) have also carried out studies of Odonates of Kashmir. In Jammu region, significant contributions towards taxonomic studies of Odonates have been carried out by Baldev Sharma & Neeru Dalla.

Work on mayflies of Kashmir (Ephemeroptera) has been carried out by workers like Ulmer (1935), Traver (1939) & Braasch (1986). Aubert (1959) reported 3 species of Stoneflies (Plecoptera) from different parts of Kashmir. Later Kawai (1963) & Zwick & Sivee (1980) added 4 more species, thus raising the total number of Stoneflies to 7.

Pioneering work on leafhoppers (Homoptera) of Jammu region was carried out by Baldev Sharma (1976) wherein he reported 75 species of leafhoppers belonging to the Family Cicadellidae. The detailed list is given in Annexure-X-A. Several new species were also reported in this monumental work. A new sub-genus Ushamenona under the Genus Aphelion was reported from Jammu (1974) and about 13 new taxa to science were also reported. Species namely of Litura bharatiensis; Farynala malhotri, Agnesiella swaraji, Agnesiella (draberiella) jammuensis, Agnesiella(D) alni, Chlorita (Eremochlorita) curvidentata, Ribautiana trifurcata, Typhlocyba piariae, Typhlocyba irenae, Empoasca kishtwarensis, Uzelina thaloriensis, Tricentrus an anthasubramaniani and T. sissoo have been described from the Jammu region as new texa to science. Prem Badan in her Ph.D. work described 20 species of Treehoppers (Homoptera) infesting Shisham plants in Jammu forests including eleven new species as new taxa to science. The work on aquatic beetles (Coleoptera) of Kashmir has earlier been carried by Vazirani(1971). Who also described a new taxa under the names of Amphizoa laboratory of Jammu University, diversity of Coleoptera has been studied in detail and about 250 species under 17 families have been recorded from Jammu (Unpublished work)

Investigations on aquatic Diptera have been carried out by Reiss (1977) and Bhat & Kulkarni (1983) for the Kashmir region. Chawdhary & Dass (1970) conducted a detailed survey of various aquatic insects of Kashmir. Das et al (1969, 70), Vass et al(1989) and M.S.Mani have described insect species occurring in high altitude areas of J&K state, many new taxa stand described from Jammu & Kashmir, some of which are of, Phimodera rupshunsis, Onthophagus tibetanus, Pseudo halerus kashmirus, Papilio machaon ladakensis, Papilio acco, Papilio delphius delphius, Papilio d. rupshuana, Colias ladakensis, Colias stoliczkanus, Argynnis aglaia mackinnoni, A, hegemone, Erebia mani, Vanessa ladakensis, Deuterophlebia mirabilis, Sarcophaya melanura, Proisotoma ladaki, Sminthurides hamtaensis etc. belonging to various orders.

In Jammu province, nearly 20 species of butterflies (Sarabjit kaur), 25 species of Grasshoppers (Neeraj Gupta), 12 species of aquatic Hemiptera (Renu Salaria) stand described in various M.Phil dissertations but complete inventorisation is yet to be finalised. Pioneering work on Chironomids of Jammu region has been carried out by Pragya Khanna (2002) in her Ph.D. work and she has reported the presence of Chironomus circumdatus, C. plumosus form A, C. plumousus from B, Cryptochironomous sp. & Stictochironomous Sp. from Jammu region. She has also carried out the chromosomal studies of these dipterans under the Ph.D. work, “studies on the Chromosomes of Chronomids of Jammu region”. Cytogenetic studies on some species of Grasshoppers (Raj kumar Santhal) & Butterflies (A.V.Rasheeja) also stand worked out under Ph.D. programmes.

Status of bio diversity28.PNG

Engblom and Lingdel (1999) have contributed significantly towards enumeration of aquatic insects of river Jhelum and associated water bodies of Kashmir. They have recorded 23 species of Mayflies (including 3 New texa to science); 15 species of beetles (Coleoptera), 10 species of Caddisflies, (Trichoptera), 3 species of bugs (Hemiptera) and 2 species of Stoneflies (Plecoptera). Detailed list of aquatic insects is given in Annexure-X-B.

As per various studies conducted on the aquatic insects of Kashmir, 36 species of aquatic beetles, 32 species of Mayflies, 31 species of Dipterans, 35 species of dragonflies & damselflies, 23 species of Caddisflies, 14 species of aquatic bugs and 14 species of Stoneflies stand reported.

Hilaludin (1997) reported existence of 225 species belonging to 136 genera & 35 families but actual number of species runs into thousands and detailed explorations need to be carried out. Among Butterflies, 61 species from Kashmir and 30 species from Jammu stand reported till date. Detailed list of Butterflies in given in the Annexure-X-C

Among Plecopteran insectes, species of Amphinemura, Capnia manii, C. pedestris, Chloroperla, Megaleuctra, Mesonemoura skaridui, Nemoura ampulla, N. Cordata, N. lilami, N. polystigma, N. punctata, N. punjabensis, N. rahlae, Neoperla, Paracapnia, Xanthaperla acuta, Xanthoperla kishanganga & Xanthoperla stand reported by Kawai(1996), M.S.Mani & others.

Order Collembola stand surveyed by Arora & Singh 1962 ; Bhagat et al, 1988 and M. S. Mani. High altitude insects of this group reported to exist in Ladakh & Kashmir belong to various Genera like Hypogastrura, Onychiurus, Proisotoma, Isotoma, Isotomurus, Entomobrya, Bourletiella, Drepanoseira, Orcherella, Podura, Sminthuriedes etc. Orchesalla boraoi and Prosotoma ladaki form Ladakh and Sminthurides hamtaensis from Pirpanjal stand reported by M. S. Mani. Workers like Lone & Bhagat, 1984, 1986, Bhagat & Lone (1991) & M. S. Mani have contributed towards order Thysanoptera. Various Thrips reported from Kashmir are Frankliniella instosa, F. schultzei, Taeniothrips alis T.major, T.carthami, Aeolothrips meridionalis A.distinctus A.collaris, Melanothrips affluens. Thrips tabaci, Thrips alatus, Thrips carthami, T. flavus T. flvidulus, T. billichi, T. corydalis, Megaluthrips pecularis, Hadatothrips, Microcephalothrips abdominalis, Hydatothrips proximus, Phibalothrips sp., Anaphothrips obscurus, Aptinothrips fulvus, Caphalothrips monilicornis, Ctenothrips smilax etc.

Among high altitude Orthopteran insects, Aularches punctatus, Bryodema luctuosa, Catantops humilis, Gomphomastix antennatus, Oedipoda himalayana, Conophyma mitchelli, Dicranophyma hingstoni, D. babaulti & Hyphinomos fasciata stand reported by M.S.Mani.

Order Neuropteran has been poorly studied in the state. Some work has been done by Ahmad Dar (1978) and Bhagat & Masoodi(1986) while working on family Chrysopidae of this order. Chrysopa carpea and C. orestes have been reported as predators of Weevil Myllocerus fotedari and Aphids Aphis gossypii & A. pomi in Kashmir. Among high altitude Neuropteran fauna, M.S.Mani has reported the existence of Myrmecaelurus punctulatus from Leh. Antlions are also reported from Ladakh but details are lacking.

Order Trichoptera has been studied by Engblom & Lingdell (1999), Who have reported the existence of various Genera like Apatania, Archtopsche, Drachycentrus, Cheumatopsyche, Chimasrha, Diplectroma, Ecnomus, Glossosoma, Hydropsyche, Hydroptila, Limnephilus, Rhyacophila, Secodes, Steriopsyche, Triaenodes but identification at the level of species is lacking. Mani , M.S. & Santokh Singh has reported few high altitude insects of this group like Prendohalesus kashmirus, Predostenophylax micraulax, Rhyacophila. No studies on this group have been carried out in Jammu. Insects belonging to order Hymenoptera have been studied by Stary & Bhagat, 1978, Takada & Rishi, 1980. Matta & Bhagat (2000) have studied the diversity of 9 species of ants belonging to 3 families, 2-e Formicidae, Myromicidac & Dolichoderinae. Among high altitude hymenopteran insects, Formica picea (Endemic), Bombus longiceps, Bombuos, atrocinctus, Megachlie vigilons stand reported (Mani & Singh). Das & Verma (1965) reported 7 species of Hymenopterans having Palaerctic affinities. Honeybees have been studied in great detail by Shah (1996) Apis cerana indica has been reported as a typical Kashmir strain.

High altitude Heteropteran insects stand surveyed by M.S.Mani. He has reported the existence of species like Tibetocornis margaretae, Nysius ericae, Dolmacoris deterrana, Blanchiella adelungi phimodera rupshuensis, Stictopleurus, Lamprodema harvathiana, Chlamydatus pachycerus, Dicyphus physochlaenae, D.montanus, Chiloxanthus alticola, Gerris sahlbergi , Branchinecta orientalis, Ectemnus paradoxus etc. from this part of India. Among aquatic bugs of this group, various genera like Apelocheirus, Cataractoerosis, Corixa, Gerris, Hydrometra, Laccodytes, Laccornis, Nepa, Notonecta, Plea, Ranatra, Sigora & Velia stand reported by various workers. Caporiacco (1934) did some pioneering work on high altitude Spiders (Arachnida) of the Kashmir. Himalayas have also been surveyed by Mani(1959) & Beier(1977). Tikadar & Bal (1981) have reported 3 new orb-weaving Spiders of the Genus Araneus. Rather (1987) have worked on mites of Kashmir. Among arachnids, Araneus indicus, Heteropoda ventaroria, Buthus tamulus, Lychas nigristernis, Scorpio montanus, Palamneus swammerdami, P. bengalensis, Chaerilus insignis (Ladakh) stand reported from J&K.

High altitude lakes of Kashmir have earlier been explored by Edmondson & Hutchinson (1934) and Kiefer (1939). Ostracodes of Kashmir stand explored by Bhatia & Singh (1970). Das & Akhter (1970), Qadri & Yousuf (1977, 1979) and Yousuf et al. (1982) have also contributed towards study of Crustaceans in Kashmir. Y.R. Malhotra & P.L. Duda (1970) described a new fairy shrimp, Brachinecta acanthopenes n.sp. (Anostraca). Malhotra & Dutta (1977) studied decapod Crustaceans of Jammu and later also worked on Macrobrachium dayanum, M. lamarei (1979). Malhotra & Jyoti (1972) worked on a new Copepod parasite, Lerenaea kashmirensis n.sp. infesting a stone loach in Kashmir. Prof. S.P.S Dutta, (1978) in his Ph. D. thesis on “Limnology of Gadigarh Stream” (Miran Sahib) with special reference to consumers inhabiting the stream has mentioned another genus of Prawn, Caridina sp. and a Crab Paratelpheusa mansoniana. Dr. Seema Langer has reported another taxa, Macrobrachium kistensis from Jammu.

Status of bio diversity29.PNG

S. Nath (1985) worked on the taxonomic status of Apus kashmirensis and in 1988 reported the occurrence of the amphipod Gammarus pulex in Kashmir. M.Y. Qadri & A.R. Yousuf (1977) reported some new records of Crustacea from Kashmir. A.R. Yousuf (1988) worked on Copepod plankton of Manasbal lake and Cladoceran communities of Anchar lake in Kashmir.

Rana Angrez Singh (1988) and Balbir Singh (1998) have also worked on Zooplanktonic crustaceans in the Jammu region. Detailed list of Cladocerans is given in Annexure-XI and that of Copepodes is given in Annexure-XII

Platyhelminthes

Fothedar (1965) was the first worker to initiate studies on Platyhelminthes particularly on trematodes. He reported occurrence of larval stages of Brachylaemid trematode from the snail Bulliminus dextrosinsterous from Kashmir. Singh (1979) described transversotrematid larva from a fish from Jammu. Khar (1984) reported few molluscan species to harbor cercarial larvae of different species. Sudan (1979) made a faunistic survey of trematodes of the fishes, amphibians and reptiles from the Jammu province when he persued his Ph.d work under the stewardship of Prof. P.L.Duda. Verma (1988) made ecological and seasonal variation studies on a Gall bladder Fluke of Lizards. B.R.Pandoh in his Ph.D work, “Ecological studies of Trematodes of some Aquatic vertex rates of Jammu provenience”. (1992), made a detailed investigation of trematodes of various fish, amphibian and reptilian creatures.

Trematodes of Fishes: New trematode taxa reported by Sudan & Pandoh are Polylekithum mansari (on Puntius conchonius); Emoleptalea trichogasteri (on Trichogaster fasciatus); Pseudodiplodiscus fasciatusi (on Channa gachua); Phyllodistomum mansari (Channa punctatus & Channa gachua), Gauhatiana Guptia (Trichogaster sp), Isoparorchis mastaxi. He also reported Allocreadium cyprini, A.Kawi & Genarchopsis piscicola species of trematodes. Among larval forms, existence of Clinostomum giganteum, C.Schizothoraxi, Euclinostrmum reticulatum & E. jammuensis stand reported. Trematodes of Amphibians: Kaw (1950) reported new trematodes as Loxogenes kashmirensis and Ganeo srinagarensis. Jammu workers have reported Megalo discus indicus (from Rana cyanophlyctis in Bag-e-Bahu) and Loxogenes jammuensis as new species to Science. In addition to these various other trematodes reported are Loxogenes liberum, Diplodiscus mehrai (from Bhaderwah), Haematoloechus almorai (from Bhaderwah), Plagiorchis himalayii, Ganeo tigrinus, Prosotocus himalayii, Indopleurogenes yamagutii, Gorgoderina elliptica & Mehraorchis ranurum.

Trematodes of Reptiles: Sudan (1979) and Pandoh (1992) have described many trematode parasites from Jammu region. New species reported are Cardiotrema enteriticum, Kachugatrema elongatum, Orientodiscus lissemysia and Glossimetre mehrai. Other trematodes surveyed & described are Neopronocephalus triangularis, Xenopharynx solus, Telorchis pellucidus & T.Longicirrus.

Parampistomum skrjabini a trematode reported by H.S. Bali & D.N. Fotedar as new record from J&K. Another new trematode Astiotrema fotedari stands reported by R.L. Dhar from Poonch. Allocreadium foredari stands reported by Dhar & Kachroo. The detail of various other nematodes reported as new records from J&K is given in the Annexure-XIV In addition to these species of Flatworms, existence of Planaria, Fasciola, Taenia & Schistosoma species are also reported but scientific survey to establish complete species diversity is lacking. Bipalium kewense, a land planarian stands reported by B.D. Sharma & Tej Sharma from J&K. The detailed list of Platyhelminths is given in Annexure-XIII. 4.2.2.f Nematoda: First report on plant nematoda in J&K, Carcinoma laetrile now called Neolobocriconema was made by Khan & Siddique in 1963. This was followed by Siddique’s work on tylenchorhynchus rugosus from soil around the roots of weeping willow in Srinagar. Later, Jairajpuri (1964,65) recorded Pratylenchoides crenicauda from Gulmarg and a new species Basiria Kashmirensis associated with roots of Apple. Mathur & Prasad (1971) reported Hirschmanniella oryzae & Hirschmanniella mucronata infesting paddy crop in both Jammu as well as Kashmir.

Fotedar & Mahajan (1971) established a parasitological lab in the Deptt of Zoology, University of Kashmir to study soil & plant nematodes. Their studies were supplemented by the work of Handoo (1977), V.Kaul (1980) Systematic work on Plant Nematotlgy is presently in progress only at S.K. University of Agricultural Science & Technology where Virender Kaul is heading the Division and pursuing the research.


J&K till 1998

S.No

Aspect

No of publications

1

Morphology & Taxonomy

20

2

Ecology

09

3

Crop loss assessment

01

4

Management

01

 

Total

31

 

 

Many new species and few new genera of Nematodes stand reported by various workers like Fotedar & Handoo (1975), Fotedar & Mahajan (1971, 72, 73, 74)

Table 39: Nematode species reported from J&K.

S.No

Nemotode Species

Host

Year of reporting

1

Basiria haki

Brassica

1972

2

Basiria kashmirensis

Lady finger

1965

3

Helicotylenchus haki

Brinjal

1974

4

Helicotylenchus trapezoidicaudatus

Brinjal

1985

5

Nathotylenchus srina gerensis

Brassica

1972

6

Tylenchorhynchus haki

Tomato

1971

7

Tylenchorhynchus Kashirensis

Lady finger

1972

8

Tylenchus andrassyi

Tomato

1983

9

Helicotylenchus hazratbalensis

Peach

1974

10

Helicotylenchus kashmirensis

Peach

1974

11

Helicotylenchus papillocauda

Apple

1987

12

Paratylenchus juglansi

Walnut

1989

13

Basiria tritici

Wheat

1973

14

Aerotylenchus safroni

Saffron

1977

15

Boledorus cynodoni

Dhoob grass

1972

16

Helicotylenchus graminiphilus

Grass

1974

17

Helicotylenchus pteracercusoides

Maize

1985

18

Helicotylenchus steineri

Maize

1974

19

Pratylenchus minimus

Maize

1987

Source: V. Kaul, SKUAST, Jammu, 2002

 

Animal nematode species reported as parasites on various animals have been studied by Prof. R.L. Dhar (Kashmir University) and Dr. Ranvijay Singh (Jammu University). Nematodirus fotedari a new nematode species stands reported by H.S. Bali (1972) from Kashmir. Another new animal nematode, Camallanus salmonae stand reported by G.K. Chakareorti (1942). M.Z.Chishti reported another nematode, Syngamus trachea occurring as perasite on crow. D.N. Fotedar reported Pseudonymus multiannulta, Oswaldocruzia kashmirensis, Diplotriaena buckleyi, Contracaecus kashmirensis, Kalicephalus kashmirensis, Polydelphis fotedari, Capillaria kashmirensis etc. as new species of Nematodes from Jammu and Kashmir. Detail of plant and animal Nematodes reported from J&K is given in the Annexure –XIV & XV.

Annelida  : This group of small animals comprising of Earthworms, Leashes & Oligochaetes stand partially explored in the State. Various workers like Moore (1924), Harding & Moore (1927), Bhatia (1930, 34, 39), Soota (1959), Chandra (1982), Dutta, Jyoti and Sharma have contributed towards explorations of these animals. Engblom & Lingdell (1999) have reported 14 species of leeches from various parts of Kashmir. The leech fauna of Jammu has been explored by Jyoti & Sehgal.

Family : lymnidae : 1. Lymnea abrussca

2. Lymnea acuminata

3. Lymnea auricularia

4. Lymnea brevicauda

5. Lymnea columella

6. Lymnea lagotis

7. Lymnea luteola

8. Lymnea megasoma

9. Lymnea peroger

10. Lymnea stagnailis

11. Lymnea truncata


Family : Planorbidae :


12. Gyraulus convexiusculus

13. Gyraulus pankongensis

14. Hipoeutis fontanus

15. Indoplanorbis exustus

16. Planorbis carinatus

17. Planorbis planorbis

18. Planorbis rotundatus

19. Promentrus exacuous

20. Segmentina calatha

Family : Viviparidae :

21. Vivipara bengalensis

22. Virapara dissimlis

23. Virapara variatus

24. Amnicola lignosa

Famliy : Bithynidae :

25. Bitynia tentaculata

26. Bithynia troscheli

27. Digoniostoma pulchella


Family : Melanideae : 28. Acrostoma variabilis

29. Melanoides tuberculata

30. Poludomus tanschaurica

Family : Valvatidae : 31. Valvata piscinalis

32. Valvata stoliczkana


Family: Succincidae:

33. Succinea ducina

34. Succinea indica

35. Succinea pfeifferi

36. Succinea putris

37. Succinea stoliczkana

Family : Aeriphantidae

38. Bensonia monticola

39. Bensonia jammuensis

40. Syama splendens

41. Euanstenia monticola

42. Ena sp

Family : Helicellidae:

43. Anadenus altivagus

44. Planispira sp.

Family: Limacidae:

45. Limax sp.

Family: Veronicellidae:

46. Laevicaulis alte

The detailed list of Molluscs reported is given in Annexure-XVII.

Vertebrate Diversity

The animals with back bone also exhibit considerable diversity in J&K.

Fish diversity  :Preliminary studies on the fish fauna of J&K state has been carried out by various workers like S.M. Dass (1965, 1966, 1971), S.P.S. Dutta (1978, 1984, 1991), M.K. Jyoti & S.C. Gupta (1978), Y.R. Malhotra et al. (1971, 1975,1976, 1980), S. Nath (1973, 1981), B.D. Sharma (1973, 1974), Vass et al. (1977), Dutta & Kour (1988, 1999), Zutshi (1992) and K.K. Sharma (1998).

Trout fish was introduced into Kashmir waters long ago and they are thriving well in many temperate areas of J&K. Various other fishes like silver carp, carp, mrigal, grass carp, kalbosa, rohu and catla also stand introduced by the J&K Fisheries Department. Introductions of these exotic species has however made an adverse impact on the native fish fauna.

Status of bio diversity32.PNG

Studies have been carried out on composite fish culture of three carps (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus carpio and C. mrigala), food and feeding habits of different fishes (Schizothorax richardsonii, Lepidocephalichthys guntea, Nemachilus botia, Danio rerio, Heteropneustes fossilis), different kinds of deformities in fishes (Schizothorax richardsonii, Trichogaster fasciatus, Labeo rohita, L. dyocheilus, Barilius vagra, Tor tor, Heteropneustes fossilis, Chela cachius, Puntius conchonius, Gara lamta, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Salmo gairdneri etc.) in J&K.

More than 125 fish species are reported to inhabit various aquatic habitats in J&K. Dutta et al. (2001), in their studies on river Basantar (Samba, Jammu) have reported 59 species of different native and introduced fishes. H. Kour in her Ph.D. work reported the existence of 114 species from Jammu waters alone.

Dutta et al. while working on fish fauna of the river Chenab, reported existence of 26 species namely, Schizothorax richardsonii, Schizothoraichthys progastus, S. esocinus, Tor tor, Tor putitora, Labeo dyocheilus, L. pangusia, Gara gotyla, G. lamta, Barilius bandelisis, B. vagra, Puntius sophore, Esomus danricus, Acanthocobitis botia, Nemacheilus corica, Triplophysa yasinensism, Wallago attu, Eutropiichthys muris, Clupisome garua, Glyptothorax kashmirensis, G. telchitta, G. garhwali, Glyptosternon reticulatum, Bagarius bagarius and Xenentodon cancila. Maximum fish diversity is noticed during monsoon season when fishes enter from various tributaries into the main river. Poor fish diversity in river Chenab as compared to river Basantar is attributed to former’s torrential flow, turbid and cold water, low diversity and density of plankton and macrophytes. Detailed list of fishes for the state is given in Annexur-XVIII.

Amphibia  : Earlier workers like Gunther (1864), Anderson (1871), Stoliczka (1872), Theobald (1876), Fenton (1910) and Smith (1931, 1935, 1943) have mentioned about amphibians present in this region of India. Das, Malhotra & Duda (1964) also added some literature on the amphibians and they reported 7 species of amphibians showing palearctic affinities. Waltner (1976) recorded the presence of 9 amphibians from Kashmir and Ladakh. Latest explorations conducted by D.N. Sahi (1979 onwards) in different areas of J&K highlighted the presence of 13 animals of this group. The detail is given in the Annexure-XIX.

Reptiles  : Gunther (1864) was pioneer to work in the field of reptiles. His records were however based on the collections and reports made earlier by Gray, Blyth, Russel and others. Subsequent workers, namely Anderson (1871), Stoliczka (1872), Theobald (1876), Boulenger (1896, 1919), Fenton (1910) and Annandale (1914) also contributed towards reptilian fauna before the more comprehensive publication on “Fauna of British India” series by Smith (1931, 1935, 1943). Jammu fauna shows affinities with Oriental region whereas Kashmir and Ladakh region has affinities with Palearctic type of fauna. Fenton (1910) made first contribution towards herptelogy of Kashmir and recorded vernacular names for some species of snakes like Ancistrodon himalayanus, Vipera lebetina and Ptyas mucosus.

Status of bio diversity33.PNG

Smith (1935, 1943) recorded the presence of some lizards and snakes from Kashmir and Ladakh. Das, Malhotra & Duda (1964) mentioned about the occurrence of 7 species of lizards and 8 species of snakes having Palearctic affinities. Deep Narain Sahi (1979) in his thesis entitled “A Contribution to the Herpetology of Jammu & Kashmir State”, stated that 31 species of reptiles and amphibians occur in Kashmir and Ladakh and 60 species occur in Jammu of which 15 species are common to both areas. Thus, 16 species (21%) of Kashmir and Ladakh faunal province are missing from Jammu and 45 species (59%) of Jammu faunal province are missing from Ladakh and Kashmir. The majority of species (Phrynocephalus theobaldi, P. reticulatus, Scincella ladacanse, Cyrtodactylus stoliczkai and C. montium salsorum) known from cold and dry region of Ladakh show more or less restricted distribution. D.N. Sahi & P.L. Duda (1983) in the paper, “Notes on Little Known Lizards from Jammu & Kashmir State”, has reported six species, out of which one (Ablepharus pannonicus) is new to India, whereas 3 (Sitana ponticeriana, Ophiosops jerdoni and Acanthodactylus cantoris cantoris) have been recorded for the first time from the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Ablepharis pannonicus, Sitana ponticeriana, Ophiosops jerdoni and Acanthodactylus cantoris stand reported from different locations in Jammu district. Some workers have also reconfirmed the report of occurrence of other lizards (Phrynocephalus theobaldi and P. reticulatus) which they collected from Leh in 1976 and mentioned in the paper entitled, “Notes on Little Known Lizards from J&K State” (1983).

Status of bio diversity34.PNG

While exploring the Kishtwar region of Jammu & Kashmir, D.N. Sahi collected specimens of unique lizard from a house in Kishtwar town on May 8 and October 24, 1975. Apparently, specimens were similar to pulchellus group of Cyrtodactylus (Gymnodactylus of Smith, 1935) comprising of 15 species under the genus but it was more closer to C. angularis. The detailed investigation revealed that species different from C. angularis on the basis of colour pattern, number of supralabials (10-13), number of infralabials (8-10), nature of subdigital lamellae and geographical distribution and this warranted its distinct status as altogether a new species, Cyrtodactylus himalayanus. The detailed list of Reptiles is given in Annexure-XX

Status of bio diversity35.PNG

Birds  : The bird diversity in the state varies from season to season and maximum diversity is seen during winter season, when many migratory birds come and join the resident birds. Various workers like Stuart Baker (1922-1930) and Hugh Whistler (1949) did the pioneer work on birds of India including Kashmir. In the earlier work titled, “Fauna of British India”, description on birds was published in 1889-1890 by Oates & Blanford.

Subsequently, S. Dillon Ripley (1961) brought out a publication of the synopsis of the Birds of India and Pakistan and included many birds of the state. “Handbook of the Birds of India & Pakistan” was brought out jointly by Salim Ali and Dillon Ripley between 1968-1974. In the monumental work on birds, both Salim Ali & Dillon Ripley has dealt with birds of this region in all details in their compact edition titled, “Birds of India and Pakistan”.

As per available data, as many as 358 species belonging to 179 genera, 51 families falling under 16 orders stand documented from the state of Jammu & Kashmir. The ponds, lakes, marshes and other wetlands provide the ideal breeding grounds for many birds including migratory birds of global importance. About 225 species of birds stand reported from Ladakh alone (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994). About 225 species have been reported from temperate Kashmir and 183 from the sub-tropical belt of Jammu. Arboreal birds form the major part of the bird diversity followed by the aquatic raptors, waders and pheasants.

The most dominant families represented in the state are Muscicapidae, Fringillidae, Anatidae, Accipitridae and Charadiidae having 23%, 56%, 58%, 38% and 42% respectively of the total Indian representatives which constitute about 48% of the state’s avifauna. The families which are least represented in this region are Podicipedidae, Phalacroscoracidae, Gruidae, Jacanidae, Rostratulidae, Ibidorhynchidae, Glareolidae, Pteroclidae, Psittacidae, Caprimulgidae, Coraciidae, Upupidae, Capitonidae, Troglodytidae, Certhidae, Nectarinidae and Zosteropidae, which together constitute less than 6% of state’s total bird diversity. Available information reveals that about 72 birds are resident throughout the year, 237 are summer visitors and 49 are winter visitors. Maximum species find their ideal breeding habitats in the pine forests followed by oak-pine, oak-deodar, semideciduous forests, alpine meadows, rhododendron, fir forest, juniper-birch forests and high altitude scrubby desert areas. Pioneering work on the documentation of vernacular names of various animals including the birds of Jammu & Kashmir stands compiled in the book, “Jammu Kashmir Ki Van Sampada” (O.P. Vidyarthi, 1998). Many local names in Dogri have been collected for the first time and it is considered as a useful work for bridging the gap between scientists and common people (P. Kachroo, 1998). The detailed list of birds is given in Annexure-XXI.

Mammals : Nearly 80 sp. of mammals are reported from the state of J&K (D.N. Sahi, 2001).

The order Primata is represented by 2 species i.e. Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey) and Presbytis entellus (Hanuman Langur), order Pholidata is represented by 1 species of Manis crassicaudata (Indian pangolin), order Carnivora has 36 species, Felidae represented by 2 big cats, 2 lesser cats (Lynx and Palla’s cat) in Ladakh, leopard cat and jungle cat in Middle and Outer Himalayas, Canidae is represented by Tibetan wolf, Himalayan fox, Indian wild dog in Greater and Trans Himalayan region of Ladakh whereas Himalayan fox Vulpes vulpes Montana occurs in Kashmir, family Ursidae is represented by 2 species of brown bear and black bear, Civet family has 3 species, small Indian civet, toddy cat and Himalayan palm civet, family Mustalidae represented by 3 species i.e. marten, Himalayan weasel, common otter, all confined to Kashmir. The mongoose family is represented by common mongoose and small Indian mongoose. The only member of order Perissodactyla in our region is Tibetan wild ass found in Kashmir Himalayas. The order Artiodactyla that includes wild boar, deer, sheep, goat and antelope is represented by 15 species in 3 families, Suidae with 1 sp., Cervidae with 4 spp. of which hangul or Kashmir stag. The alpine musk deer, Moschus sifanicus is known to occur in Kishtwar. Barking deer is found in Pir Panjal range. The spotted deer occurs in plains and foothills of Outer Himalayas. The family Bovidae is represented by many species, notable species are Ovis orientalis, O. ammon, Pseudois nayur, Capra ibex, C. falconeri, Hemitragus jemlahicus, Nemorhaedus goral, Capricornis sumatraensis. All 3 species of wild sheep and 1 species of goat (ibex) occur in north side of Great Himalaya whereas others occur in southern side of Great Himalayas and Middle Himalayas (Pir Panjal). The member of Bovidae are represented by chiru, Tibetan gazelle and nilgai. The chiru and Tibetan gazelle are high altitude species whereas nilgai occurs in foothills of Jammu. The wild yak – Bos grunniens is another representative of this group which is restricted to Ladakh region.

Status of bio diversity36.PNG

The mormots, squirrels, porcupine, voles, rat, mice forms the order Rodentia and is represented by 11 species in Kashmir Himalayas. From the conservation point of view, marmots,flying squirrels, Royle’s vole, Indian porcupine, pangolin fruit, bats need conservation strategies. The Alticola roylei has recently been reported from Jammu plains (D.N. Sahi, 1998). The order Lagomorpha is represented by 4 species, 3 species of Ochotona (O. roylei, O. ladacensis and O. macrotus) are reported from Ladakh and one species of Lepus i.e. L. nigricollis from Outer Himalayas of Jammu region. The detailed list of Mammals is given in Annexure-XXII.

Status of bio diversity37.PNG

DOMESTICATED BIODIVERSITY

All plant and animal forms which man has domesticated over the years come under this category. During the course of domestication, he has selected many species and varieties from the natural populations existing in the wild and improved them by various methods of plant and animal breeding.
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