Indian cattle in 1911
This section was written around 1911 when conditions were
Readers will be able to edit existing articles and post new articles
Encyclopaedia of India
No further details are available about this book, except that it was sponsored in some way by the (British-run) Government of India.
NOTE: While reading please keep in mind that all articles in this series have been scanned from a book. Therefore, footnotes have got inserted into the main text of the article, interrupting the flow. Readers who spot these footnotes gone astray might like to shift them to the correct place.
Secondly, kindly ignore all references to page numbers, because they refer to the physical, printed book.
Throughout the whole of India, except in Sind and the western districts of the Punjab, horned cattle are the only beasts used for ploughing. The well-known humped species of cattle predominates everywhere, being divided into many varieties. Owing partly to unfavourable conditions of climate and soil, partly to the insufficiency of grazing ground, and partly to the want of selection in breeding, the general condition of the cattle is miserably poor. As cultivation advances, the area of waste land available for grazing steadily diminishes, and the prospects of the poor beasts are becoming worse rather than better. Their only hope lies in the introduction of fodder crops as a regular stage in the agricultural course. There are, however, some fine breeds in existence. In Mysore the amrit mahal, a breed said to have been introduced by Hyder Ali for military purposes, is still kept up by the state. In the Madras districts of Nellore and Kurnool the indigenous breed has been greatly improved under the stimulus of cattle shows and prizes founded by British officials. In the Central Provinces there is a peculiar breed of trotting bullocks which is in great demand for wheeled carriages.
The large and handsome oxen of Gujarat in Bombay and of Hariana in the Punjab are excellently adapted for drawing heavy loads in a sandy soil. The fodder famines that accompanied the great famines of 1897 and 1900 proved little short of disastrous to the cattle in the affected provinces. In Gujarat and the arid plains of the south-east Punjab the renowned herds almost disappeared. In the affected districts of the Punjab the loss of cattle averaged from 17 to 45% of the whole. In Rajputana more than half of its thirteen or fourteen millions of stock is said to have perished in 1900 alone. In one state the loss amounted to 90%, and in four others to 70%. In Gujarat half of its 12 million cattle perished in spite of the utmost efforts to obtain fodder.
The worst cattle are to be found always in the deltaic tracts, but there their place is to a large extent taken by buffaloes. These last are more hardy than ordinary cattle; their charactot is maintained by crossing the cows with wild bulls, and their milk yields the best ghi or clarified butter. Along the valley of the Indus, and in the sandy desert which stretches into Rajputana, camels supersede cattle for agricultural operations. The breed of horses has generally deteriorated since the demand for military purposes has declined with the establishment of British supremacy. In Bengal Proper, and also in Madras, it may be broadly said that horses are not bred. But horses are still required for the Indian army, the native cavalry, and the police; and in order to maintain the supply of remounts a civil veterinary department was founded in 1892, transferred in 1903 to the army remount department. Horse-breeding is carried on chiefly in the Punjab, the United Provinces, and Baluchistan, and government keep a number of stallions in the various provinces. Formerly Norfolk trotters held the first place in point of number, but their place has been taken in recent years by English thoroughbreds, Arabs, and especially Australians. For the supply of ordnance, baggage, and transport mules a large number of donkey stallions have been imported by the government annually from various European and other sources. But the supply of suitable animals is not good, and their cost is large; so the breeding of donkey stallions has been undertaken at the Hissar farm in the Punjab.
Domesticated livestock in India
Cattle semen, frozen
2016: available online
Catlle/ bovine population and milk production in India, 2016 Vishwa Mohan, Sale of cattle and their semen gets a digital boost, Nov 28 2016 : The Times of India
Sale of cattle, buffaloes and their frozen semen has gone digital in India. The agriculture ministry on the occasion of the National Milk Day launched a web portal in Nov 2016 which on its very first day saw sales of nearly 9 lakh doses of frozen semen.
The first of its kind of portal in India -http:www.epashuhaat.gov.in -provides a digital market platform to breeders, sellers and buyers.It facilitates trade of live cowsbuffaloes, frozen semen and embryos under a verified and certified system without intervention of middlemen.
“Breedersfarmers can sell and purchase breeding stock through the portal. Information on all forms of germ-plasm including semen, embryos and live animals with all the agencies and stakeholders in the country have been uploaded on the portal“, said the Union agriculture minister Radha Mohan Singh after launching e-pashuhaat.
He noted that the portal will lead to propagation of high genetic merit germplasm. “Farmers would get information on availability of quality disease free bovine germ-plasm in the country at one platform,“ said Singh.
The portal also provides e-transactions and home delivery facility. It not only carries breed and yield details of animals but also enlists their price tag.
Over 5,400 live cattles buffaloes, 1.65 crore doses of frozen semen and 354 embryos were available for trade on the website on the first day . The portal has connected farmers to 56 semen stations across 20 states in the country . Besides being a buyerseller platform, this government portal will also provide many related services to farmers and breeders.
These services include handling of artificial insemination, good care practices, animal certification, nutritional advisory and disease screening and testing of animals.
The portal is part of the ministry's initiative to meet the ever growing demand of milk in the country under a new scheme – National Mission on Bovine Productivity -with an allocation of Rs 825 crore. It is also aimed at making milk production more remunerative to farmers.
“The need to have an integrated market in the form of e-platform was felt because the country , at present, does not have any authentic organised market place for buyingselling animals.“
Though indigenous breeds are currently being sold in local `haats' and animal fairs in different part of the country , it does not guarantee any breed in absence of a verification mechanism“, said an official.
He said, “The farmers are also cheated due to lack of traceability and tracking of particular breeds, frozen semen and embryos. The ministry's portal will, however, now help the buyers in getting authentic breeds of animals and their scientifically verified semen and embryos“.
The Frieswal breed
Military farms' shutdown hits the project
A 30-year-long project that cost Rs 800 crore and produced a high-yield breed of cow that, according to experts, contributed to making India self-sufficient in milk production is on the verge of being derailed due to the impending shutdown of military farms across the country.
The Frieswal breed, developed by cross-breeding the Holstein Friesian cow of the Netherlands with the Sahiwal of India, is the result of studies at the Indian Council of Agricultural Research's (ICAR) Central Institute for Research on Cattle (CIRC), located on a military farm here. These farms today house 15,000 such cows and 10,000 bulls and calves and have helped farmers breed hundreds of thousands of the cows over the years. The cows at the farms provide 1 lakh litres of high-quality milk every day , mostly consumed by armed forces personnel.
B Prakash, director, ICAR and head, CIRC, said, “In order to provide more quality milk for the armed forces and the general public, a massive cross-breeding programme was initiated at Meerut in 1987 as a result of an agreement between the defence ministry and ICAR. Land was to be provided by the defence ministry at military farms, while technical expertise was provided by ICAR. After intense research and expenditure of close to Rs 800 crore, the Frieswal breed was developed. It had 62.5% genetic strain of Holstein Friesian and 37.5% of Sahiwal.“
However, now the scien tists involved in the project are a disappointed lot.
“The defence ministry has decided to shut down military farms because the Army is incurring losses while maintaining them. With no other land available to ICAR, the Frieswal project will also be scrapped,“ added Prakash.
According to officials at CIRC, last-ditch efforts are on to shift the centre elsewhere.“The deadline for the closure of these farms is August 15 while the cattle can be disposed of within three months by auction in the open market,“ said Ravindra Sangwan, senior scientist, animal genetics breeding of CIRC.
Sale of cattle
Centre bans cattle sale for slaughter
The move is aimed at ending uncontrolled and unregulated animal trade
The rules won’t apply to goats and sheep, often sacrificed during Id
Meat export organisations have protested the move saying it was sudden and arbitrary
NEW DELHI: In a move amounting to a virtual ban on unregulated trade of cattle, the Centre on Friday announced strict rules to prohibit sale of animals for slaughter or religious sacrifice at livestock markets and animal fairs that are a common occurrence in rural areas. The animals under purview are cows, bulls, bullocks, buffaloes, steers, heifers, calves and camels.
The official reasoning is the order is intended to end uncontrolled and unregulated animal trade. The rules won't apply to goats and sheep, often sacrificed during Id. Apart from the stated objective of curbing unregulated trade, mixing of milch animals with older, less healthy beasts meant for slaughter, the move has political overtones in tune with BJP's pledge to "protect" the cow and its progeny+ .
The rules are in line with BJP's emphasis on shutting down illegal slaughterhouses during the UP poll and the views expressed by senior leaders calling for the promotion of "cattle wealth" rather than the meat trade.
Meat export organisations have protested the move saying it was sudden and arbitrary and will affect their business+ that is already taking a hit over the actions of BJP governments that have discouraged the trade.
Activists welcomed the step taken in the wake of Supreme Court's directions for regulation of livestock markets. "We commend the ministry for their vision and their efforts to protect the most vulnerable animals, be it animals used as reproductive machines for breeding or animals that are cruelly sold off at unregulated markets," said Gauri Maulekhi, trustee at People for Animals (PFA).
With the onus being on cattle owners to certify that cattle will not be sold for slaughter or sacrifice, the trade in animals will be more regulated, said officials. The rules will bring in new norms for the functioning of well-known livestock markets or annual cattle fairs like the ones at Sonepur (Bihar) and Pushkar (Rajasthan) or in other states including Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
Animals for slaughter can now be bought directly from farms — a move expected to ensure traceability and food safety standards and weed out middlemen between farmers and slaughterhouses, and increase the income of farmers who rear such animals for trade. New rules have, however, not banned sale of such animals for agriculture purposes or milk. But it can be done only through regulated livestock markets which will have to adhere to safety standards and certain do's and don'ts to avoid cruelty against the animals.
The rules, notified by the ministry of environment, will have to be implemented within three months across the country, including Kerala, which allow cow slaughter. Though the issues relating to cow slaughter come under the 'state' subject in terms of making law and framing the rules, the new central rules are notified under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act of 1960 that gives the Centre power over animal welfare.
"The rules intend to promote the concept of 'farm to fork', which revolves around the traceability of food products as they move through the supply chain. Due to the present system of open markets that allow trade of both milch and slaughter animals, and multiple buyers and sellers, it becomes impossible to trace an animal back to its farm of origin", said N G Jayasimha, managing director of the Humane Society International/India, who was part of the drafting committee of the Regulation of Livestock market rules. He said, "The animals being sold for slaughter are generally unfit, making the markets a major hub for the spread of infectious diseases as there are no records and no liability. Cattle suffering from foot & mouth disease or mad cow disease may be sold. So, the idea behind the new rules is to ensure that only healthy animals are traded for agricultural purposes, whereas animals for slaughter must be sourced directly from farms to ensure traceability".
The rules also provide for setting up a district-level authority to enforce animal protection laws on the ground, including those against illegal slaughter. As part of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Regulation of Livestock Markets) Rules, 2017, it makes a provision of constitution of Animal Market Committee for management of animal markets in the district. The Committee will have to ensure that no person will bring a cattle to an animal market unless upon arrival he has furnished a written declaration signed by the owner of the cattle that "the cattle has not been brought to market for sale for slaughter".
The purchaser will have to give an undertaking that he/she will not sell the animal for purpose of slaughter, follow the state cattle protection or preservation laws, not sacrifice the animal for any religious purpose and not sell the cattle to a person outside the state without the permission as per the state cattle protection laws. Under the rules, no animal market will be allowed in a place that is within 25 km from any state border or that is within 50 km from any international border. Besides, unfit animals, pregnant animals, animals who have not been vaccinated and animals under six months of age cannot be displayed or sold at any of the cattle market anywhere in the country. The market committee will have to keep a record of name and address of the purchaser and procure his identity proof. The committee will also have to ensure that the purchaser of the animal gives a declaration that he shall not sell the animal up to six months from the date of purchase and shall abide by the rules relating to transport of animals made under the Act or any other law for the time being in force.
Since the rules include buffaloes in their definition of cattle, big traders and exporters will initially feel the heat in procuring the animals for meat. But the regulation of slaughter houses and closure of illegal ones will ultimately bring consistency of supply in the market and ensure food safety standard. India is currently a major buffalo meat exporting country which grew from Rs 3,533 crore in 2007-08 to Rs 26,685 crore in 2015-16.
"The three-month time given for implementing these rules will be sufficient to regulate the practice. After all, the specific provisions will only apply to animals in livestock market and animal seized as case properties. The legal slaughter houses can directly procure animals from farms", said an official.
Notice to dog breeders
The ministry has separately also notified the Dog Breeding & Marketing Rules to regulate the breeding industry where tens of thousands of dogs are bred in deplorable conditions without proper medical care. The rules mandate obtaining of a certificate of the registration from the Animal Welfare Board of India for breeding activity, owning or housing dogs for breeding, for sale of dogs and pups. Such a certificate will be valid for a period of one year. It will also be non-transferable and be subject to reviewing.
The rules require the breeder to maintain records of all the animals housed in the establishment including the dogs being used for breeding and the dogs for sale. The breeder will also have to maintain records of each individual dog. Besides, every registered breeder is required to submit an annual report to the Board detailing total number of animals traded (sold or exchanged), boarded or exhibited during the previous year.
Cattle sale norms based on SC order, 2016
The environment ministry's notification prohibiting sale of cattle for slaughter or sacrifice in livestock markets is based on the Supreme Court's order of July last year when the apex court had directed it to frame rules under Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, to curb transborder smuggling of cattle and to protect animals from cruelty .
It all started with a writ petition, filed by animal rights activist Gauri Maulekhi in 2014, drawing the SC's attention to large-scale smuggling of cattle to Nepal for sacrifice there at the Gadhimai festival. The festival is held every five years at Bariyarpur village, where over five lakh animals are sacrificed in a span of two days making it the largest animal sacrifice in the world. Maulekhi, a trustee at Union minister Maneka Gandhi-led People for Animals (PFA), had sought SC intervention so that trans-border smuggling can be stopped with involvement of different agencies, including border guarding forces and state police, and cattle was made available to farmers at reasonable prices for agriculture.
The court then passed an order on July 13, 2015 to frame guidelines to prevent animals from being smuggled out of India for the festival and constituted a committee under the then director general of Sahastra Seema Bal. The panel submitted a list of 20 recommendations, paving the way for the SC to deliver its final order on July 12 last year asking the ministry to frame rules under Section 38 of the 1960 Act.
Saying the new rules were long overdue, Maulekhi told TOI on Tuesday that the move would save cattle from cruelty , remove the scope of illegal sale and smuggling and also help farmers who would now be able to buy cattle for agriculture purposes.
She said, “ Animal markets, which used to be `farmer markets', have turned into `butcher markets' over the years. The result has been that there are no animals left for farmers to buy . The prices have been driven sky-high by butchers and no farmer who wants an animal for ploughing can afford one.More small farmers are driven to bankruptcy because they cannot afford mechanised vehicles“.
Stating that the new rules have restored hope for small and marginal farmers, Maulekhi said, “Price of the animals will now come down and small farmers will be able to afford them again, restoring some form of wealth to them“.
The committee's recommendations, which had become the basis for the SC order, include restrictions on slaughter, regulations of “pashu haatsmelas“ (animal marketfair), methods to handle unproductive animals and transportation of animals under existing laws in the country .
Its recommendation says, “No animal slaughter may be allowed at any religious or public place and slaughter may be permitted only in accordance with the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 and Regulations, 2011“. It has not talked about a complete ban on slaughter but noted that it should be done in a manner that cattle suffering from disease do not enter the food chain.
Political opposition in Kerala, Puducherry, TN
Pondy CM Says Won't Implement Centre's Order
The countrywide chorus against the Centre's notification banning the sale of animals for slaughter at livestock markets and animal fairs grew louder on Monday , with West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee saying West Bengal will not implement the new rules and Kerala writing to all CMs to oppose the new regulations. Describing the move as “undemocratic, unconstitutional and unethical“, Mamata said the state will seek a review by the Supreme Court, if needed. The Puducherry go vernment, too, said it will not implement the ban and passed a resolution in the assembly to register its protest against the notification. The move has caused consternation in the Christian-majority states of Meghalaya and Nagaland. Accusing the Modi government of crossing the “Lakshman rekha“, Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee said, “Let's not forget that a state government, like the Centre, is elected. A government should not exceed its brief, endangering democracy and secularism.Nothing remains if a government bulldozes states and destroys the federal structure.“
Protests erupted across Tamil Nadu, with several parties, including the opposition DMK, slamming the “silent“ state government for not opposing the Centre on the issue.
DMK working president M K Stalin is to lead the protest on Wednesday . “The decision has affected the village economy . Several states have expressed their opposition to the ban, but the Tamil Nadu government is silent on it, and it is condemnable,“ the statement added.
Accusing BJP of imposing the Hindutva ideology across the country , Tamilar Desiya Munnani president Pazha Nedumaran called Tamil nationalist organisations to join an agitation on May 31 in Trichy . PMK chief S Ramadoss also warned of protests from his party members.
Puducherry CM V Narayanasamy said he would write to the PM urging him to withdraw the notification. If needed, legislation will be passed declaring that the Union government's notification will not be implemented, he said. “Beef is an integral part of French cuisine in the former French colony of Puducherry ,“ he added.
The Karnataka government is contemplating challenging the Centre's new rule in court.“We are studying the Centre's notification, and it appears very confusing. We have to see if the new regulation conforms to the 1960 law,“ said T B Jayachandra, Karnataka's law minister. In what could be termed as the first step for “beef diplomacy“ that may even turn out to be a movement to unite nonBJP CMs, Kerala chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan wrote letters to all his fel low CMs expressing concern over the recent guidelines issued by the Centre to regulate cattle trade.
He urged all his counterparts to stand together “to oppose this anti-federal, antidemocratic and anti-secular move“. In Left-ruled Tripura, CPM state secretary Bijan Dhar demanded the withdrawal of the notification.
Madras HC stays ban for 4 weeks…
Rules Violate Parent Act, Say Petitioners
The Union government's controversial notification of May 23 banning the sale of cattle in animal markets for slaughter was stayed on Tuesday by the Madras high court. A vacation bench of Justice M V Muralidharan and Justice C V Karthikeyan, granting an interim stay on the operation of the notification, also ordered notice to the state and central governments, returnable in four weeks. The interim order effectively stops operation of Rule 22(b) (iii) and Rule 22(e) of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Regulations of Live Stock Markets) Rules 2017.
The bench passed the order when PILs filed by S Selvagomathy and Asik Elahi Baba of Madurai, seeking to declare those rules as ultra vires the parent act, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, and various other constitutional provisions, came up for admission.
During arguments, the petitioner's counsel told the court that India was a multireligious and multi-cultural, secular republic which ensured social justice to all its citizens. The legislature has not categorised the slaughter of animals for the purpose of food as an act of cruelty . In fact, the petitioners said, the scheme of the Act spe cifically provides for and permits slaughter of any animal for the purpose of food.
Parliament did not enact the Act to in any way prohibit or restrict any act of slaughter of animals for food or for religious sacrifice or the sale of animals for these purposes. The joint secretary of the Union ministry of environment, forest and climate change had no jurisdiction to make such rules contrary to the parent enactment and also beyond the rule-making power delegated to him, the PIL said. Therefore, the impugned provisions are ultra vires the parent Act -the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals Act, 1960 -they said.
The petition said the sale of animals is a trade and every citizen has a right to carry on any occupation, trade or business, guaranteed under the Constitution. The impugned provisions are in violation of the right to livelihood under the Constitution. Further, the SC had in various cases held that the right to choice of food is a part of the right to personal liberty , conscience and privacy . By imposing a ban on the slaughter of animals for food, citizens with a choice to eat the flesh of such animals would be deprived of such food, which violates the right to food, privacy and personal liberty guaranteed under the Constitution, they said. The Centre said the government had brought the rule to restrict the sale of cattle. It also sought four weeks to reply to the cases and argued against a stay of operation of the rules before they offer their reply .But the court said the matter should have been brought to the notice of the state government since implementation of the rule lay with the state government. It also said the subject was under concurrent list.While so, the court asked how the Centre could arbitrarily take the decision, adding that no parliamentary nod too had been given to the rule. A prima facie case is made out in favour of the petitioner sides, warranting an interim stay , the HC said.
…but Kerala HC supports the ban
The Kerala high court dismissed PILs that sought quashing of the new central law banning sale of cattle for slaughter in the state.
The court said there was no need for the judiciary to interfere with the Centre's decision as it did not violate any law or provision in the Constitution.
A division bench headed by Chief Justice Navniti Prasad said the new order had been "misread" and nothing stated in the petition has been banned by government.
The bench said there is no ban on slaughtering as such in the rules. In the absence of such ban on slaughtering, how are the petitioners aggrieved, the court asked.
The court also pointed out that Article 48 of the Constitution mandates ban on slaughtering cattle but the recently introduced rules only restricts sale of cattle for slaughter at markets. There is no restriction on sale of beef and the right to eat or slaughter beef are not restricted by the rules, the bench said.
"There is no ban on slaughter or sale of beef. What has been said in the new order is that mass sale of cattle for slaughter through the cattle market is banned," the judge observed.
In the absence of any cause for the petitioners to be aggrieved on such aspects through the imposition of the rules, there is no cause to file petitions, the bench said during the hearing.
While a total of five petitions were before the court, one of them, filed by Youth Congress general secretary TG Sunil, was withdrawn by the petitioner.
Widespread protests had erupted across Kerala objecting to the Centre's imposition of ban on sale and purchase of cattle for slaughter. Protesters alleged that it infringed upon the food habits of people. The state government led by chief minster Pinarayi Vijayan also criticized the new order, saying that it encroached on the powers of the state.
The Madurai bench of the Madras high court had on Tuesday suspended the ban for four weeks after PILs contended that the provisions of the Centre's order "breached the cardinal principle of federalism" as it amounted to legislation in the fields earmarked for state legislature.
The petition further said the rules, which deprived the people of the right to sell or purchase any animal for sale or slaughter as part of meat vending business, were a burdensome interference in the freedom of trade and business guaranteed under the Constitution.
The new rules notified by the Union environment ministry banned the sale or purchase of bulls, cows, camels for slaughter houses or for sacrifice for religious purpose.
2018: Govt dilutes rules on cattle sale
The Centre has finally scrapped its controversial notification on a ban on sale of animals for slaughter in livestock markets and come out with new draft rules doing away with the clause on “restrictions on sale of cattle”.
This means cattle, including cows, can be sold in animal markets, even for slaughter wherever it is legal.
Notification released in 2017 had not prohibited slaughter as such, but restrictions on sale of cattle for this purpose in animal markets had the effect of restraining it even in Kerala, Bengal and certain NE states where cow slaughter and sale of beef is not banned.
The notification attracted flak for catering to cow vigilantism and also had the effect of a rise in the number of cattle that were past their use as dairy animals as they could not be sold at fairs. The rules needed declarations by seller and buyer that the animal was not being taken for slaughter.
Diluted draft disappoints animal rights activists
The notification was soon followed by a realisation in the government that the rules will make even transport of cattle more difficult and end up displeasing agriculturalists and dairy farmers. But it has taken the environment ministry close to a year to finally delete the problematic clause.
The regulation on livestock market under the May 2017 rules was opposed by states where beef is not banned even as it caused discomfort elsewhere. Though the environment ministry clarified that the notification was not about a ban on slaughter as animals could still be procured for this purpose directly from farms, the matter reached various high courts and was seen to be clearly restrictive.
The Madurai bench of the Madras HC had stayed the notification on livestock market rules. The SC then stayed the rules in July last year. Such regulations, however, have now been removed from the new draft, which will be notified as ‘rules’ after analysing stakeholders’ comments later this month.
Though the draft deals with cruelty aspect of animal sales and specifies ‘prohibited practices’, including certain ‘do’s and don’ts’, it dilutes many provisions that were there in the May 23, 2017 rules for not only regulating livestock markets but introducing best practices to minimise cruelty and trace sources of procuring animals to weed out unhealthy ones.
Animal rights activists are disappointed with the proposed rules and have flagged many shortcomings in the diluted version of the draft. “The draft fails to address the common cruelties animals are subject to in livestock markets across the country,” said Humane Society International-India’s Shreya Paropkari.
Meat traders and exporters in UP have welcomed the government's latest move. “It is good that the government has at last understood the importance of this trade and made much needed modifications in the last year’s rules. Because of the stringent rules, the disposal of economically unviable cattle has become a huge problem today,” said Al Saqib Exports MD Shahid Akhlaq. Hafiz Imran Yaqub, MD of Al Fahim Meatex Pvt Ltd, said: “This modification was the need of the hour. The ban was severely affecting the milk industry.”