Human Development Index: South Asia

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1960-2013: Total fertility rate: South Asia; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India
1960-2013: Life expectancy at birth: South Asia; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India
1960-2013: GDP per capita current USD: South Asia; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India
G20 economics and India, HDI ranking, 2014; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, September 7, 2016
This is a collection of articles archived for the excellence of their content.

Contents

Sources of this article

i) HDR.UNDP

ii) Life expectancy in India goes up by 7.9 years since 1990: UNDP report The Times of India TNN | Jul 24, 2014

iii) India ranks 135 in human development index: UNDP TNN | Jul 24, 2014 The Times of India

Countries and HDI ranks in 2013 and change in rank from 2012 to 2013

In the alphabetical order

 

Afghanistan

169

0

Bangladesh

142

1

Bhutan

136

0

India

135

0

Maldives

103

0

Myanmar

150

0

Pakistan

146

0

Sri Lanka

73

2

 

Listed by HDI rank

Sri Lanka

73

2

Maldives

103

0

India

135

0

Bhutan

136

0

Bangladesh

142

1

Pakistan

146

0

Myanmar

150

0

Afghanistan

169

0

 

South Asian countries in HDR 2014

India’s life expectancy has increased from 58.5 years in 1990 to 66.4 years in 2013.

India's human development index (HDI), a measure of health, education and standard of living, inched up by less than half a per cent between 2012 and 2013, the new Human Development Report 2014 says. While this slow growth is similar to most other countries, it is much below India's growth in the past. Between 1980 and 2013, India's HDI increased by nearly 59%, a yearly growth of about 1.4%. But since 2010, India's growth in human development measures has slowed down considerably.

India is ranked at 135, among the 'medium development' countries like Egypt, South Africa, Mongolia, Philippines and Indonesia. Among India's neighbours, Bhutan and Bangladesh too figure in this category. Pakistan (ranked 146) and Nepal (145) are in the 'low development' category, while Sri Lanka (73) is in the 'high development' category.

The HDR covers 187 countries across the world and is published annually by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). In the current report, the top five countries ranked in terms of the HDI are Norway, Australia, Switzerland, Netherlands and the US. The bottom five in this ranking are Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Chad and Sierra Leone.

Citing recent estimates of giving universal basic old age and disability pension, basic childcare benefits universal healthcare, social assistance and 100-day employment guarantee, the report says India would need to spend just about 4% of its GDP to provide all this.

Life expectancy

India's life expectancy has increased from 58.5 years in 1990 to 66.4 years in 2013. While this is a significant increase, both Pakistan and Bangladesh have slightly better life expectancy. Among the BRICS countries, only South Africa has a lower expectancy at 56.9 years, primarily due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. China's life expectancy is 75.3 years. The average for the whole world is 70.8 years, while among the developed countries with very high human development levels, it is 80.2 years.

Educational indicators

On educational indicators, India performs slightly better with 11.7 expected years of schooling, the same as the average for medium human development countries, of which India is a part. This is a measure of how many years of schooling a child is expected to receive if prevailing enrollment patterns continue. The world average is 12.2 years, while the developed countries average 16.3 years. Among the BRICS countries, India's average is the least. Currently, Indians of 25 years or more have received just 4.4 years of schooling on average, compared to a global average of 7.7 years.

Income

It is on the income measure that India fails dramatically. The annual income per person (measured in purchasing power parity terms) for India is $5,150, slightly more than our neighbors, but lowest among the BRICS countries, and less than half the global average of $13,723. The developed countries' average is way ahead at $40,046.

Inequality

To take into account inequality within a country, HDI 2014 also gives an 'inequality adjusted HDI' (IHDI) for 145 countries for which data was available. India lost about 29% in human development because of inequality. This loss was the most, about 42%, in education. Brazil too has a high loss of 26% due to inequality while Russia loses about 12%. China and South Africa did not have the requisite data for this. The world average for inequality loss is 23%.

Multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI)

Another measure is the multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI), which measures deprivations of families in education, health and standard of living using ten indicators. This gives a better picture of poverty than simply measuring incomes. According to this measure, over 55% of India's population is multi-dimensionally poor, compared to just 3% in Brazil, 6% in China and about 10% in South Africa. HDR 2014, however, has used 2005-06 data for India, which is quite outdated.

Gender inequality

Another measure is the gender inequality index (GII), which reflects inequalities in reproductive health, empowerment and economic activity. India is ranked 127 out of 152 countries in this, the same as Pakistan and lower than Bangladesh (115). Among the BRICS countries, India is the lowest. China is ranked best at 37, due to its very good women's health indicators and high female work participation (64%)

South Asian countries in HDR 2017

Human Development in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan in 2017
Life expectancy, school education, per capita income, and the Human Development Index
Income (in)equality
Women: Maternal mortality, seats in parliament, girls’ education
From: September 15, 2018: The Times of India

See graphic :

Human Development in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan in 2017
Life expectancy, school education, per capita income, and the Human Development Index
Income (in)equality
Women: Maternal mortality, seats in parliament, girls’ education


India went up one notch in the UN Human Development Index, ranking 130 out of 189 countries surveyed. But if you compare where India stands now with where we were in 1990, we have made massive progress. While Indians had a life expectancy of only 57.9 years in 1990, this has gone up to 68.8 years. Similarly, we are all a lot better off, with a per capita income of $6,353 (in PPP) in 2017 compared with only $1,733 in 1990. That’s a 267% growth

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