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A REFERENCE ANNUAL
RESEARCH, REFERENCE AND TRAINING DIVISION
MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
Basic economic parameters
See graphic :
Karnataka: the basic economic parameters, as in 2017/ 2018
Area : 1,91,791 sq kms
Population : 5,28,50,562 (Census 2001) 6,11,30,704 (prov. Census 2011)
Capital : Bangaluru
Principal Language : Kannada
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
Karnataka has a recorded history of more than 2,000 years. Apart from its subjection to the rule of Nandas, Mauryas and the Satavahanas, Karnataka came to have indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD. The world renowned Gomateshwara monolith at Shravanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya.
The colossal rock cut image of Sri Gometeshwara in the most magnificent among all Jaina works of art. Numerous visitors arrive at Shravanbelagola to gaze at this and other monuments. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) reigned over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated the mighty Harshavardhana of Kanauj. This dynasty created fine, everlasting and the most beautiful monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock-cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country.
The Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed who succeeded them heaped tributes on the rulers of Kanauj successively in the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’. Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built exquisite temples, encouraged literature and various fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana.
The great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar empire (1336-1646) patronised and fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade flourished. The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature.
Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (Tobacco, Maize, Chillies, Groundnut, potato, etc.). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under British rule. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was ushered in. The urban middle-class emerged. Mysore dynasty initiated and helped industrialisation and cultural growth. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka.
After Independence, the Mysore State was created in 1953, wherein all the Kannada dominant areas under different dispensations were unified and the enlarged Mysore state carved in 1956 and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
Karnataka State is situated between 11o31' and 18o14' north latitudes and 74o12' and 78o10'
Talagunda/ associated with rise of Kadambas
An excavation that could potentially rewrite Kannada history is about to be taken up at a site in Karnataka’s Talagunda, with archaeologists saying it could be associated with the rise of Kadambas, one of the early Kannada rulers.
The trial excavation by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) at the location, about 80km north of the ancient Shivamogga city, could show that the language was in use at least seven decades earlier than believed.
A copper-plate inscription found at the site a few years ago had prompted speculation on the antiquity of the Kannada language.
Picture ‘ASI to start excavation work in next 7-10 days’
ASI had found the copper plates and coins while rebuilding the Pranaveshwara temple at Talagunda.
“Till this copper-plate inscription was found, it was believed that the Halmidi inscription, which dates back to 450 AD, was the oldest Kannada inscription. But this inscription precedes 80 years to the Halmidi script. It dates back to 370 AD,” retired superintending archaeologist of ASI TM Keshava told TOI on Sunday.
According to the ASI’s superintending archaeologist (Bengaluru circle) K Moortheswari, the “scientific clearance” (trial excavation) will begin at the excavation site in 7-10 days. “ The excavation will be done on a 7.5-acre plot at Talagunda. “The Pranaveshwara temple was in a dilapidated condition. We removed the stones and while removing the foundation stone, we found the copper plate and gold coins at a corner of the temple. The challenge is that the land selected for excavation is now in the hands of some people,” an ASI officer said.
“In 1954, the land was handed over to the ASI to carry out excavation. In absence of adequate staff, the ASI officials could not maintain the property. Later, a few land grabbers created bogus records and occupied the 7.5-acre land. Now, we are convincing them to help us out,” another ASI officer said.
FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE
The Forest department manages about 20.15% of the geographical area of the State. Forests have been classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests, villages forests, and private forests. There are 5 National Parks and 23 Wildlife sanctuaries. To overcome shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber, degraded forests and waste lands are being developed. Emphasis is also being laid on the conservation, protection and development of the fragile ecosystem of the Western Ghats. Several
Wildlife protection schemes such as Project Tiger and Project Elephant are being implemented with the Central assistance. The concept of Joint Forest Planning and Management applied to the 2 externally aided projects viz., Western Ghats Forestry & Environment Project (DFID) and Forestry and Environment Project for Eastern Plains (JBIS) has resulted in village forest planning and management through establishment of Village Forest Committees.
The State has 66% Rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are agricultural labourers. The State has 60% (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72% of the cultivable area is rainfed; only 28% is under irrigation. The state has 10 Agro Climatic Zones. The Red soil constitutes major soil type, followed by Black soil. The net sown area of the state constituted 51.7% of the total land.
Karnataka is one of the major milk producers and the Karnataka Milk Federation has 21 dairy processing plants with a capacity of 26.45 lakh liters a day and 42 chilling centres having 14.60 lakh litres of chilling capacity.
Horticulture crops are grown in an area of 16.80 lakhs hectare and the produces amount to 101 lakh ton. The Union Government has earmarked Rs. 171.29 crore for Karnataka under National Horticulture Mission.
Karnataka was the pioneer in establishing hydroelectric projects in the country. Today, Karnataka has 7222.91 Power Generation Installed capacity and 31229 Million Units of Electricity was generated.
Karnataka State and Bangaluru city in particular have become the largest bio-clusters in the country. The value of Biotech exports was 215 Million US$.
Road : Total road length of Karnataka has increased from 83,749 km in 1971 to 2,15,849 km in 2007. The Karnataka Highways Improvement Project with World Bank assistance will improve 2375 km of road, i.e. upgradation of 900 km and rehabilitation of 1475 km comprising state highways and major district roads at an estimated cost of Rs. 2402.51 crore. Assistance is being provided under the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund for the construction and improvement of roads and bridges in the state.
Ports: The Karnataka State has a maritime coastline of 155 nautical mile (300 kilometres) and has only one Major Port at Mangalore, i.e. New Mangalore Port and studded with 10 minor ports of the State-Karwar, Belekeri, Tadri, Honnavar, Bhatkala, Kundapur, Hangarkatta, Malpe, Padubidri and Old Manglore. Out of 10 ports Karwar is the only all weather port while the other nine are the riverine anchorage lighterage ports.
Aviation: The Civil Aviation Sector has seen tremendous growth with international air passenger traffic growth of 50% and domestic air passenger growth at 44%.
Karnataka "One State Many Worlds" is becoming a Hub of tourist attraction of south India. The IT & BT Centre Bangaluru has received more tourists in the recent past. The State is known for its Heritage monuments and Eco-Tourism destinations.
The Golden Chariot named after the famous Stone Chariot in Hampi, a world heritage site, in southern India will travel through timeless historical heritage sites, resplendent palaces, wildlife and golden beaches.
Its 7 Nights/8 Days colourful journey begins every Monday from Bangaluru and traverses through Mysore, visiting Srirangapatna, Mysore Palace, The Nagarhole National Park (Kabini) and continuing to the historical sites of Shravanabelagola, Belur - the 11th century cradle of Hoysala architecture and a world heritage site, Halebidu, Hampi and thereafter entering into the triangular heritage sites of Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole and finally the Golden Beaches of Goa before ending in Bangaluru. Karnataka has a blend of heritage places, thick dense forests and holy places.
The new concept of 'Homestay' has added a new dimension to Tourism in the State. Hampi and Pattadakal have been declared as world heritage sites.
Governor : Shri Hans Raj Bhardwaj
Chief Secretary : Shri S.V. Ranganath
Chief Minister : Shri D.V. Sadananda Gowda
Jurisdiction of : Karnataka State High Court
AREA, POPULATION AND HEADQUARTERS OF DISTRICTS
S.No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters
1. Bagalkot 6,575 16,51,892 Bagalkot
2. Bangalore 2,190 65,37,124 Bangalore
3. Bangalore Rural 5,815 18,81,514 Bangalore Rural
4. Belgaum 13,415 42,14,505 Belgaum
5. Bellary 8,450 20,27,140 Bellary
6. Bidar 5,448 15,02,373 Bidar
7. Bijapur 10,494 18,06,918 Bijapur
8. Chamarajanagar 5,101 9,65,462 Chamarajanagar
9. Chikmagalur 7,201 11,40,905 Chikmagalur
10. Chitradurga 8,440 15,17,896 Chitradurga
11. Dakshina Kannada 4,560 18,97,730 Mangalore
12. Davanagere 5,924 17,90,952 Davanagere
13. Dharwad 4,260 16,04,253 Dharwad
14. Gadag 4,656 9,71,835 Gadag
15. Gulbarga 16,224 31,30,922 Gulbarga
16. Hassan 6,814 17,21,669 Hassan
17. Haveri 4,823 14,39,116 Haveri
18. Kodagu 4,102 5,48,561 Madikere
19. Kolar 8,223 25,36,069 Kolar
20. Koppal 7,189 11,96,089 Koppal
21. Mandya 4,961 17,63,705 Mandya
22. Mysore 6,854 26,41,027 Mysore
23. Raichur 6,827 16,69,762 Raichur
24. Shimoga 8,477 16,42,545 Shimoga
25. Tumkur 10,597 25,84,711 Tumkur
26. Udupi 3,880 11,12,243 Udupi
27. Uttara Kannada 10,291 13,53,644 Karwar
28. Ramanagar - - -
29. Chikkaballapur - - -
Areas with substantial Muslim populations
Population of Karnataka state is 6.10 crore or 61 million
Muslim population in Karnataka is 78.93 lakh or 7.89 million
Percentage of Muslims in Karnataka is 12.9%
The State has been home to Muslim dynasties in the past. Nawabs of Carnatic ruled this region and a part of Nizam's territory is also in present day's Karnataka.The population of Muslims in Karnataka is almost identical to the national average. But it is higher compared to other South Indian states, except Kerala.
In Karnataka, Muslims number around 13% [slightly above 12.9%].
The concentration of Muslims is higher in Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Bellary, Hubli-Dharwad, Belgaum and Mangalore districts apart from small cities and towns. (From Pranav Palliyil)
Wildlife parks and sanctuaries: India
Bandipur nestles in the Western Ghats and is a part of a wider protected area comprising Mudumalai in Tamil Nadu and Nagarhole in Karnataka. It differs from the adjoining areas by maintaining a much less undulating topography. It is more an open forest and hence provides higher visibility for visitors. Bandipur is well known as an Elephant and Gaur habitat and one gets an opportunity to observe these majestic species from close quarters. A visit to the Gopalswami temple, which is located at the highest point, the Gopalswami Betta, is a must. From this point, one gets a complete aerial view of the whole terrain.
Bandipur camp is located on the highway and provides a wonderful sight of huge herds of spotted deers moving about in the tourist complex. Wild elephants catching up for a peek in the camp area is not uncommon either and one has to use caution when they are around.
Location: Foothills of Nilgiris.
Best time to visit: September to April
Area: 874.20 sq .kms.
Airport/Railway Station - Mysore (77kms) By Road - Regular bus service from Mysore.
Accommodation:Rest Houses and Cottages
Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation, Badami House, N.R Square, Bangalore.
With close proximity to Bangalore, Banerghatta is one of the most visited parks. Chital, Sambar, Barking deer, Sloth bear, Leopards are found here. Elephants are seen in this park during migration. A 104 sq.km. undulating terrain, provides for the scenic beauty in the park. It would be an ideal day's trip if you were around in Bangalore.
Location: Bangalore district
Best time to visit: Round the year
Area: 104 sq.kms
Airport/Railway Station - Bangalore (22kms)
By Road - State bus services, private taxis
NAGARHOLE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
Nagarhole is contiguous with Bandipur separated by Kabini dam. Nagarhole is more of moist deciduous forest in contrast to Bandipur. Hilly undulating terrain is scenic. Elephants, Gaur, Sambar, Chital, Leopard, and Tiger are the main animals found here. One can also see the Indian Wild dogs or Dole. Nagarhole has a lot to offer for bird lovers.
Kodagu and Mysore districts
Best time to visit: October to March Habitat: Forests, streams, valleys and waterfalls
Area: 643.39 sq.kms
Airport/Railway Station - Bangalore (220 km), Mysore (90 kms) By Road - Regular bus service from Mysore
Kabini River Lodge Rest Houses and Cottages.
Jungle Lodges and Resorts Ltd. 2nd Floor, Srungar Shopping Centre, M.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 001
Additional Chief Conservator of Forests (wildlife), Karnataka Forest Department, Aranya Bhawan, Malleswaram, Bangalore.
RANGANATHITTU WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
Ranganathittu is a unique place where large colonies of waders can be seen at close quarters. In fact it is haven for bird photographers.
Ranganathittu is in fact a group of small islands formed due to the construction of the dam on River Cauvery more than 300 years back. These small islands surrounded by deep waters provide complete security to the nesting birds. The Sanctuary has very little to offer in the form of food but vast agricultural fields and irrigated land provide ample food for the nesting birds. The approach to the nesting colonies is by boats only. A large number of crocodiles find shelter on these islands and can be seen closely without risking one's life.
More than a dozen species of birds breed between May to November, and this is an ideal season for visiting the Sanctuary. Open bill stork, Spoonbills, Ibis, Darter, Night herons, Purple heron, Cormorants, and a number of species of Egrets congregate together and one can approach their nests at close quarters. The tall trees on one island are roosting places for flying foxes.
If you are anywhere near Mysore, you should not miss the opportunity.
4 kms from Srirangapatna and 15 kms from Mysore
Best time to visit: July to August
Area: 27 sq.kms
By Air - Bangalore (110 kms)
By Rail - Srirangapatnam (10 km)
By Road - From Bangalore via Maddur and via Mandya
Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation, Badami House, N.R.Square, Bangalore
HANG GLIDING/PARA GLIDING
Chamundi Hills lying 13 kms from Mysore city offers a wonderful opportunity for hang/para gliding.
82 kms from Mysore is the Cauvery fishing camp at Bhimeshwari, a virtual paradise for anglers. The Mahseer can be found here in abundance. However, the fish has to be returned to the river by the angler. The camp can also be reached from Bangalore which is about 100 kms from there.
State government rules
Meat-free days are observed during Mahaveer Jayanti, Buddha Poornima, Ambedkar Jayanti, Mahashivaratri, Ramanavami, Krishna Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Gandhi Jayanti, Sankranti and Ramalinga Adikalar Memorial Day .
The order in connection to this was passed in 1970.
The order also puts sanction on sale and consumption of meat (goat and sheep) during Ambedkar Jayanti.