Life Expectancy: India

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Contents

Changes over the years

1901- 2011/ Life expectancy in India

See graphic:

Life expectancy in India, 1901- 2011

1901- 2011: India vis-à-vis Brazil, China, UK, USA

Life expectancy in India vis-à-vis Brazil, China, Russia, UK, USA, 1901- 2011
From: July 25, 2019: The Times of India


See graphic:

Life expectancy in India vis-à-vis Brazil, China, Russia, UK, USA, 1901- 2011

1901- 1976


See graphic:

Life expectancy in India, 1901- 1976

1950-2019: 32 years added

On average, Indians live 32 years longer now than they did in the 1950s, July 4, 2019: The Times of India


See graphic:

Life Expectancy in India, 1950-2019


Access to better healthcare and sanitation has increased average life expectancy everywhere in the world. In India, it has increased by 32 years since Independence. Better sanitation, housing and availability of medical facilities, as well as the development of vaccines, have significantly reduced early- and mid-age deaths.

1998-2006

December 22, 2014: The Planning Commission]

No.

India & Major

1998-2002

1999-2003

2000-04

2001-05

2002-06*

States

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

India

61.6

63.3

61.8

63.5

62.1

63.7

62.3

63.9

62.6

64.2

1

Andhra Pradesh

62.0

64.6

62.2

64.8

62.4

65.0

62.7

65.2

62.9

65.5

2

Assam

57.7

58.1

57.8

58.3

58.0

58.6

58.3

59.0

58.6

59.3

3

Bihar

61.4

59.5

61.6

59.7

61.8

59.9

62.0

60.1

62.2

60.4

4

Gujarat

62.4

64.4

62.5

64.6

62.7

64.8

62.8

65.0

62.9

65.2

5

Haryana

64.7

65.4

65.0

65.6

65.3

65.8

65.6

66.0

65.9

66.3

6

Himachal Pradesh

65.7

66.3

65.8

66.6

66.1

66.8

66.3

67.1

66.5

67.3

7

Karnataka

62.8

66.2

62.9

66.4

63.1

66.7

63.4

66.9

63.6

67.1

8

Kerala

70.8

75.9

70.9

76.0

71.0

76.1

71.3

76.3

71.4

76.3

9

Madhya Pradesh

57.0

56.7

57.2

56.9

57.5

57.2

57.8

57.5

58.1

57.9

10

Maharashtra

65.0

67.4

65.2

67.6

65.5

67.8

65.8

68.1

66.0

68.4

11

Orissa

58.4

58.5

58.6

58.7

58.9

58.9

59.2

59.2

59.5

59.6

12

Punjab

67.4

69.5

67.6

69.6

67.8

69.8

68.1

70.1

68.4

70.4

13

Rajasthan

60.5

61.6

60.7

61.8

60.9

62.0

61.2

62.2

61.5

62.3

14

Tamil Nadu

64.2

66.3

64.3

66.5

64.6

66.8

64.8

67.1

65.0

67.4

15

Uttar Pradesh

59.4

58.5

59.6

58.7

59.9

59.0

60.1

59.3

60.3

59.5

16

West Bengal

63.3

64.8

63.5

65.0

63.7

65.2

63.9

65.5

64.1

65.8

Source : SRS, Registrar General of India, based Abridge Life Tables, 2002-06; * Bihar, MP & UP includes Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh & Uttarakhand resp.; National Health Profile 2008 : MoHFW

Life Expectancy of India for 2005-10 period : Overall (64.7); Male (63.2) & Female (66.4) as per United Nations World Fact Book; (September 17, 2009)


1986- 2011

See graphic, ' Life expectancy in India, 1986- 2011 '

1990–2013: 8.6 years added

The Times of India

Exp1.jpg

December 18, 2014

Life expectancy at Birth, India, 2005-14; The Times of India, Jan 28, 2017

One of the Best gains worldwide: The Lancet

Every fifth death in the world is that of an Indian, but Indians are also living at least 8.6 years longer on an average than in 1990, one of the best gains worldwide in life expectancy. In 2013, heart, lung or brain problems caused a third of all mortality in the country. Suicides, road traffic accidents and lifestyle disease diabetes have now muscled into the top 10 killers' list. Tuberculosis and heart diseases are the largest killers of Indians in the most productive age group of 15 to 49 years, says the first country-specific cause-of-death data for 188 countries published in The Lancet on

A comparison of the data from 1990 and 2013 showed that heart diseases and stroke have increased their death grip on Indians, but TB and pneumonia are no longer the top killers. “It is good news for India that the death share (26%) of the three major infectious diseases --tuberculosis (9%), pneumonia (9%) and diarrhoea (8%) -has reduced by 50% during the last 23 years,“ said Kaushalendra Kumar, one of the co-authors from the International Institute for Population Sciences in Deonar.

Another co-author Dr Nobhojit Roy , professor at BARC Hospital in Chembur, concurred. “India is going through an epidemiological transition with communicable diseases going down and non-communicable diseases going up. Diseases like malaria and HIV are down and lifestyle-related diseases such as heart diseases and hypertension are going up. The biggest indicator of India's relative better health is the rise in life expectancy.“Life expectancy improved for both men (64.2 years) and women (68.5 years) in India, at an average of 8.6 years gained since 1990. This was a larger increase than the global aver age, and one of the top 25 biggest gains in life expectancy worldwide, said the report.

The global report, coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, said people live longer worldwide than they did two decades ago as death rates from infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease have fallen.

Since 1990, India saw marked declines in mortality from a number of diseases that used to take a large toll on the country . For instance, by 2013, mortality from diarrhoeal diseases reduced by 42%. In 1990, pneumonia and diarrhoeal diseases killed 15,32,459 people.Twenty-three years later, they claimed 7,15,303 fewer lives.

India, however, came in for a bit of criticism for poor health records while neighbouring China won praise for providing detailed reports.“India has to spend on research and surveillance. If you don't know what is killing people, how will you plan a health programme to check it?“ asked Dr Roy .

“All our policies and programmes are based on virtually no data and, therefore, it is difficult to measure effects of policy interventions or initiate effective programmes,“ said Kumar.

2001- 2025: Projected Levels of Expectation of Life at Birth in India & Major States

December 22, 2014: The Planning Commission


No.

India & Major

2001-05

2006-10

2011-15

2016-20

2021-25

States

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

India

63.8

66.1

65.8

68.1

67.3

69.6

68.8

71.1

69.8

72.3

1

Andhra Pradesh

63.4

67.9

65.4

69.4

66.9

70.9

68.4

72.1

69.4

73.3

2

Assam

59.6

60.8

61.6

62.8

63.6

64.8

65.6

66.8

67.1

68.8

3

Bihar

65.6

64.7

67.1

66.7

68.6

68.7

69.6

70.2

70.6

71.4

4

Gujarat

64.9

69.0

67.2

71.0

69.2

72.5

70.7

73.7

71.9

74.9

5

Haryana

66.4

68.3

67.9

69.8

68.9

71.3

69.9

72.5

70.9

73.7

6

Karnataka

64.5

69.6

66.5

71.1

68.0

72.3

69.0

73.5

70.0

74.5

7

Kerala

70.8

76.0

72.0

76.8

73.2

77.6

74.2

78.1

75.2

78.6

8

Madhya Pradesh

60.5

61.3

62.5

63.3

64.5

65.3

66.5

67.3

68.0

69.3

9

Maharashtra

66.4

69.8

67.9

71.3

68.9

72.5

69.9

73.7

70.9

74.7

10

Orissa

60.3

62.3

62.3

64.8

64.3

67.3

66.3

69.6

67.8

71.6

11

Punjab

67.7

70.4

68.7

71.6

69.7

72.8

70.7

73.8

71.5

74.8

12

Rajasthan

64.1

67.2

66.1

69.2

67.6

70.7

68.6

71.9

69.6

73.1

13

Tamil Nadu

66.1

69.1

67.6

70.6

68.6

71.8

69.6

73.0

70.6

74.0

14

Uttar Pradesh

62.0

61.9

64.0

64.4

66.0

66.9

67.5

69.2

68.7

71.2

15

West Bengal

66.7

69.4

68.2

70.9

69.2

72.1

70.2

73.3

71.0

74.3

Source : Report of the Technical Group on Population Projections May 2006, National Commission on Population/MoHFW and National Health Profile 2008; MoHFW


2012-16: 68.7 years

Sushmi Dey, Life expectancy rises to 68.7 years, November 1, 2019: The Times of India


Life expectancy in India has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.7 years in 2012-16, as per the National Health Profile, 2019. For the same period, the life expectancy for females is 70.2 years and 67.4 years for males. For comparison, in last year’s survey, the life expectancy had increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.3 years in 2011-15. For the same period, the life expectancy for females is 70 years and 66.9 years for males. So there has been an increase in life expectancy in general, and also for males. The infant mortality rate has declined (33 per 1,000 live births in 2016), however differentials of rural (37) & urban (23) are still high. IANS

2017, life expectancy level

Life expectancy, as in August 2017; The Times of India, August 14, 2017

See graphic:

Life expectancy, as in August 2017

State-wise details, 2013-17

Rema Nagarajan, After age 1, people in J&K live the longest in India, September 4, 2019: The Times of India

Indians On Average Now Live Longer, But People In Nepal, B’desh, Lanka Have Higher Life Expectancy, Pak Lags

A child that survives to the age of 1 can expect to live longer in Jammu & Kashmir than in any other state of India. Data just released by the Census and Registrar General’s office also shows that Bihar and Jharkhand remain the only states in India where males outlive females on average while Kerala is the only state in which village folk outlive their urban counterparts.

The life expectancy at birth for India has gone up from 49.7 in 1970-75 to 69 years in 2013-17, registering an increase of 19.3 years in the last four decades. Though life expectancy for males was higher at birth than for females half a century ago, that trend has been reversed since 1981-85 and India is now in line with global patterns in this respect. In 2013-17, female life expectancy was 70.4 years compared with 67.8 years for males.

While life expectancy in India has risen, it remains lower than in Bangladesh

(72.8 in 2017), Nepal (70.6), Sri Lanka (75.5) or China (76.4) in the neighbourhood, though better than Pakistan’s 66.6, according to the UN’s Human Development Report.

In 2013-17, UP had the lowest life expectancy at birth of 65 years and Kerala the highest at 75.2 years. Data released by the Sample Registration System (SRS) conducted by the Census and Registrar General’s office showed that a child that survived the first year had the lowest life expectancy in Chhattisgarh, followed by Assam, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in that order (see graphic).

How long a person can expect to live on average doesn’t seem to change very much from 10 years of age to 40 years, with an addition of just two more years to life expectancy at 40 years over that at 10 years. However, those surviving to 60 years could expect to live till 78 years and those who touch 70 years can expect to live till 81.5 years.

These are average life expectancy figures for India, but the numbers vary quite widely across states. Life expectancy at 70 years is the highest in Jammu and Kashmir at 85 years followed by Punjab with 84.2 years. At the other end of the spectrum, the average person who has turned 70 in Chhattisgarh can expect to live only another 9 years, that is till the age of 79.

The data shows that women in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh could expect to live almost six years more than men, while Kerala women lived 5.3 years more than men.

Kerala recorded the highest life expectancy at birth for males and females in rural areas whereas Himachal recorded the highest for both males and females in urban areas. The lowest life expectancy at birth was recorded in MP for rural males (62.6) and Uttar Pradesh for rural women (64.7). In urban areas, the lowest life expectancy at birth was in Chhattisgarh and UP for males (67.1) and females (68.9) respectively.

Life expectancy, state-wise

1990-2016

Bindu Shajan Perappadan, Indians add more years to their lives, November 15, 2017: The Hindu

See graphic:

Life expectancy at birth, 1990-2016, state-wise


But new report on disease burden maps severe inequalities among States

A first-of-its kind report on the ‘India State-Level Disease Burden,’ has revealed severe inequalities in the disease burden in different States.

For instance, life expectancy at birth in the country improved significantly during 1990 to 2016 — from 59.7 years and 58.3 years for females and males respectively in 1990 to 70.3 years for females and 66.9 years for males in 2016.

But in a measure of the continuing inequalities, the life expectancy for females in Uttar Pradesh was 66.8 years — below the national average and 12 years less than in Kerala, where it was 78.7 years.

Again, men in Kerala enjoyed a life expectancy of 73.8 years, but the corresponding figure for men in Assam was 63.6 years.

The study found that while under-5 mortality was improving in every State, there was a four-fold difference in the rate of improvement among States, which again indicated health inequalities.

“The per person burden from many of the leading infectious and non-communicable diseases varies 5-10 times between different States and malnutrition continues to be the single largest risk for health loss in India, which is higher among females and is particularly severe in the empowered action group States [Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand] and Assam,” noted the report.

The report was prepared under the India State-level Disease Burden Initiative, a joint project between the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The report’s findings were published in the journal Lancet

2011-15: Life expectancy at birth and after 60 years

Life expectancy in 2011-15
i) at birth, and
ii) after 60 years.
From: February 3, 2018: The Times of India
Correlation between life expectancy in (2011-15) and
i) total fertility rate, and ii) size of family
From: February 3, 2018: The Times of India

See graphics:

1) Life expectancy in 2011-15
i) at birth, and
ii) after 60 years.

2) Correlation between life expectancy in (2011-15) and
i) total fertility rate, and ii) size of family

Life Expectancy at birth, after 60

2010-14, state-wise

Subodh Varma, J&K tops post-60 life expectancy list, Oct 27 2016 : The Times of India

Table 1: Life expectancy after 60, the 5 best and 5 worst states, 2010-14
Table 2: Life expectancy at birth, the 5 best and 5 worst states, 2010-14. The national average is compared with 1970-75.
Table 3 combines Tables 1 and 2 and adds the following details:
i) The actual number of years that the average resident of the 5 best states lived after 60, presumably in the same 2010-14 period, and
ii) Life expectancy in the 5 best countries in 2014.
The Times of India

How long will an Indian live after 60? It de pends on which state you live in. Post-60 life expectancy is highest in a state you would least expect -J&K. People of this state who are 60 years old will live for another 21.1 years on an average. At the other extreme is Chhattisgarh, where such life span is 15.6 years.On an average, in India, a man will live for another 17 years and a woman for 19 years after turning 60.

These facets of life and death across all states, and over the years, emerge from recently released `Life Tables' whi ch showcase yearly mortality data collected from a sample of about 7.4 million people across the country. This work is done by the Sample Registration System (SRS) under the Census office. The most recent data is from 2010-2014. Life expectancy can be calculated at birth or at various points in life. `At birth' calculations average out death rates at all subsequent ages.This is usually said to be life expectancy of people in any country or a state within a country ,“ demographer P M Kulkarni, formerly of JNU, said.

In 1970-75, people's average lifespan in India was just 49.7 years. By 2010-14, it had increased to 67.9 years, an increase of 18.2 years. Another change that has taken place is that women are now living longer than men. Four decades ago, men's average lifespan was 50.5 years compared to 49 years for women. This reversed in the mid-eighties and currently women's life expectancy stands at 69.6, almost three years more than men. Women living longer than men is a global trend attributed to higher death rates in men, being more exposed to health risks. Kerala, with its low infant mortality , higher incomes, higher education levels and better health indicators, has the highest lifespan of 74.9 years among all states. Closely following it are Delhi, J&K, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab. Lowest lifespans are in Assam, followed by UP, MP, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.

Beyond the age of five years, J&K emerges as the state with highest lifespan for every five-year age group except the over 70 years group. According to experts, not too bad poverty levels (15% compared to India's average of about 30%), more equitable land ownership and the temperate climate in Kashmir valley that is less conducive for tropical diseases and pollution may have created conditions for this higher lifespan.

But why is there a difference between J&K's average life expectancy at birth (72.6) and life expectancy at 60 years age (81.1 years)? This is due to higher infant mortality rate, which is in turn dependent on how good are delivery and infant health care services. J&K's infant death rate was 37 per 1000 live births in 2013; the same as Jharkhand and only slightly below the national average of 40. “Once a child survives the first year, and then the first five years, conditions for survival and longer life spans improve considerably ,“ Kulkarni said.

2011: the best and worst states

See graphic : Life expectancy in the Indian states. The best and worst states in 2011

Life expectancy in the Indian states, the best and worst states in 2011; The Times of India, August 7, 2017

Trends

Longer life but burdened with illness

The Times of India, Jun 09 2015

Disease burden, 1990-2013; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, Jun 09 2015

Sushmi Dey

Indians live longer, but spend more time with illnesses

While people across the globe are living longer, they are spending more time recovering from sickness. The reasons are non-fatal illnesses and injuries such as diabetes and hearing loss which pose the next major threat in terms of disease burden, says the latest study by a consortium of international researchers. In India, diabetes and other musculoskeletal disorders have replaced diarrheal diseases and vision problems as leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health.

Between 1990 and 2013, years lived with disability among women with diabetes increased by 109%, whereas from other musculoskeletal disorders increased by 110% in India.However, iron-deficiency anemia decreased by 12%.Diabetes YLDs also increased for men in India be tween 1990 and 2013, climbing 136%. Among men, YLDs from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increased by 76%, and iron-deficiency anemia YLDs decreased by 32%.

The study says countries around the world may have made significant progress in addressing fatal diseases, but globally the years lived by people with disability increased from 537.6 million in 1990 to 764.8 million in 2013, for both sexes.

The study was conducted by researchers working on the Global Burden of Disease project and led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washing ton. It was published in The Lancet on June 8.

“With success in delaying death, the years of life lived with ill-health are increasing. For example, this has more than doubled in India for diabetes over the past two decades. Accurate understanding of the causes of ill-health is crucial for planning of appropriate health services,“ Lalit Dandona, study co-author and professor at Public Health Foundation of India said.

Apart from diabetes, migraines, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neck pain, anxiety disorder and hearing loss were among the 10 leading causes of YLDs in 2013.

See also

Life Expectancy: India

Life Expectancy: South Asia

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