Nagpur district: Climate
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Climate: Nagpur district
The climate of this district is characterised by a hot summer, well distributed rainfall and dryness except in the rainy season. The cold season is from December to February and is followed by the hot season from March to May. The south-west monsoon season is from June to September while the period October-November constitutes the post-monsoon season.
Composition and condition
The distribution of forests and type of vegetation is mainly governed by the rainfall, climate and geological formations of the tract. The plains in the district are under cultivation and are usually of a park-like appearance owing to the scattered groves of tamarind, mango, mahua and other fruit trees. The courses of the streams are fringed with lines and clumps of date-palm, and the most common tree of the open country is the babul (Acacia arabica). The hills that separate the various plains and valleys are at times bare except for a few grasses and stumpy shrubs, such as flueggea, Phyllanthus and the like, or are clothed with a sparse jungle of which Boswellia is the principal constituent with little or no undergrowth of grass.
The forests are mainly situated on a large block on the Satpuda hills to the north-east, while smaller isolated patches are dotted on those extending along the south-western border. The forest growth varies with the nature of the soil, saj (Terminalia tomentosa), achar (Buchanania latifolia) and tendu (Diospyros tomentosa), being characteristic on the heavy soils, teak on good well-drained slopes, Salai (Boswellia serrata) on the steep hillsides and ridges, and satinwood on the sandy levels. Mixed with these are Anogussus latifolia, Adina cordifolia, Butea frondosa and other similar trees. The scrub growth consists of shrubs as woodfordia, Antidesma, clustanthus, Grewia, Nyetanthes, with stunted Diospyros and other trees. The following are the main local types of forests:
Good quality teak with well-stocked mixed forests
In these forests, the proportion of teak varies from 30% to 60% of the crop and the average height varies from 13.716 m. to 18.30 m. (45' to 60') corresponding to type IV and type III of the standard quality. Other associates of teak are saj, salai, dhaora, tendu, ghat, mahua, tiwsa, achar, bija, shisham, dhaman, etc. These forests are capable of producing big-sized timber. The proportion of this type of forests in trap zone is 13.58% of the total area.
Poor quality teak forests
This type is found in dry exposed localities and the quality of the crop is mostly IV b (C. P.). Proportion of teak varies from 50% to 95% of the crop and other associates of teak are lendia, dhaora, bhirra, garai, etc. Preponderance of Salai, especially on hill slopes is noticeable. This type of forest is capable of producing only small-sized poles below 0.61 metre (2) in girth at breast height and firewood. The proportion of these forests is 35.9% of the total area.
Mixed Forests-This type is confined to poorly drained stiff soil
The main species occurring are saj, tendu, lendia, dhaora, achar, mahua, aonla, birla, bija, shisham, etc. This type of forests is capable of producing small-sized poles and firewood. The proportion of these forests is 22.99% of the total area.
Poorly and openly stocked forests
The following local subtypes which are almost pure in composition may be distinguished
(i) Saj.-Where the soil contains moisture and the drainage is poor, specially in depressions, Saj thrives well. (ii) Palas.-This is chiefly found in heavy water-logged areas and in areas of black soil subjected to very heavy grazing. (iii) Khair, Ber sub-type.-Wherever grazing is heavy and fires frequent, this sub-type comes up well, specially on arid soils.
Protection of Wild Life.-In order to protect wild life shooting blocks have been prepared and thus unauthorised and excessive shooting is checked.
Under Third Five-Year Plan, Pench National Park has been established for preservation of wild life in this division