Odonata: India

From Indpaedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Faunal Diversity in India: Odonata

This is an extract from

FAUNAL DIVERSITY IN INDIA

Edited by

J. R. B. Alfred

A. K. Das

A. K. Sanyal.

ENVIS Centre,

Zoological Survey of India,

Calcutta.

1998

( J. R. B. Alfred was

Director, Zoological Survey of India)

Odonata

Introduction

Odonates which are commonly known as damselfly (Zogoptera) or dragonfly (Anisoptera), are,amphibiotic insects. They spend major part of their life cycle in freshwater ecosystem. This includes oviposition and larval stages upto ultimate stage. Adults are flying insects, but relatively of short life. Odonates have c-olourful bodies, clear wings and make swift flying movements. Adults are large predacious insects while larvae are carnivorous and voracious feeders. Adults have a peculiar method of feeding. They capture their prey while on wing with the help of mouth parts and fprI\'iHdly posed fore legs and consume while flying. Larvae, also callC'd no.iads. .lre aquatic and quite different morphologically: Metamorphosis i~ inColllplde, therefore, there is no pupal stage. Larva develops rudimentary wing-sheath during early stage and has very little resemblance to the adult.

Status Of The Taxon

Global Status

Dragonflies are relatively generalised insects compnsIng the order Odonata. Kirby (1890) has listed about 1800 species in 319 genera and expressed the opinion that the world species might be about four times of that number. Montgomery listed about 6750 species and subspecies from the world. In recent years the taxonomy of the Odonata has also been revised on a worldwide basis, resulting in new synonymies, etc. Davies and Tobin (1984, 1985) and Tsuda (1991) have published lists of the Odonata of the world. They also listed the Indian species but did not deal with their distribution within India. Order Odonata is represented by 37 families clubbed under three suborders namely, Zygoptera, Anisozygoptera and Anisoptera. Approximately 6,000 species and subspecies belonging to 630 genera in 28 families are known from all over the world.

Indian Status

The first mention of an Indian Odonata is available in the Sangam literature, written before eight century A.D. (Bhaduri et aI., 1972). The first scientific description available is that of NOllrobasis chillensis by Linnaeus (1758) based on non-Indian specimens. Johnson (1768), Drury (1773) and Fabricius (1792-1798) contributed to the knowledge of Indian Odonata during the 18th century. Rambur (1842) has added more than 20 species of Odonata from India. Selys-Longschamps (185CJ.:1890) was a keen naturalist whose contributions to Indian odonates could be described as a Selysian-Era in Indian Odonatology as he has described numerous taxa on the basis of material from India.

Earliest consolidated work on the fauna of Indian Odonatc\ is by Fraser (1933-1936) who published Odonata in three volumes in the "Fauna of British India" series. Since then many workers in India and abroad have studied the Indian Odonata and described new taxa from various states. Recently Prasad and Varshney (1995) have published a revised and updated check-list of 499 species and subspecies of Indian Odonata under 139 genera in 17 families, 32 subfamilies and 7 superfamilies.

Distribution

Earlier studies on Odonata in India were made from Western Himalayas, Eastern India and peninsular India especially from Eastern and Western Ghats. Recent studies added information from different zones, states and ecosystems.

Biological Diversity And Its Special Features

Dragonflies are true amphibiotic insects whose eggs and larvae are aquatic, while the adults are aerial in habits. Their aquatic stages are found in almost all types of waters be they permanent or temporary. Spatial and seasonal distribution of adults is determined to a large extent on the type of the aquatic larval habitat and generally the adults are restricted in their distribution around the aquatic habitats.

Suborder Zygoptera first appeared in Upper Permian period. In this suborder fore-and hindwings are almost of same shape and size, with a definite discoidal cell formed below the arculus. Members of families Coenagrionidae, Platycnemididae and Lestidae breed at the sides of freshwater bodies, while Platystictidae, Protoneuridae, Chlorolestidae, Calopterygidae, CWorocyphidae and Euphaeidae breed in the hill streams, and sometimes also near waterbodies in the plains.

Suborder Anisozygoptera has a single Superfamily Heterophlebioidea, comprised of 11 families, all of which, except Epiophlebiidae have become extint world over. This family is represented by a single species within our limits. There is another species found in Japan under this genus.

Suborder Anisoptera includes relatively robust built dragonflies as compared to Zygopterans. Wings are usually held horizontally or descended when at rest. Members of families Aeshnidae, Cordulegasteridae, Corduliidae are found in the hilly tracts and breed in the hill streams, waterfalls, etc., while those of family Gomphidae are found in hill streams as well as in the plains. Members of the family Libellulidae are found mostly in the plains near waterbodies. Some species of this family are also found near hill streams. Only one dragonfly from India, viz., Epiopltlebia laidlawi Tillyard (Epiophlebiidae) posesses unique morphological feature~. It was originally reported from Darjeeling, West Bengal (Tillyard, 1921). Its description was based on a single larva, which was collected from a stream flowing at a short distance below Ghoom. This species has characters that link the two suborders of Odonata, viz., Zygoptera, and Anisoptera. Adult of this species is yet to be collected within India. Asahina (1958) rediscovered the larva of E. laidlawi from the Himalayas and later a few adults from ehittry Valley in Nepal (Asahina, 1963). Recently Mahato (1993) has also reported this species from Shivapuri in Nepal.

Family-wise details of Odonata species in India and all over the world are given in Table 2. Of these, 6 species, viz., Rhodisc1mura nursei (Morton), Melanonellra bililleata Fraser, Phyllonellra westermanni Selys, Schmidtiphaea schmidi Asahina, Dllbitogomplllls bidelltatlls Fraser and Davidioides martini Fraser are monotypic.

Endemicity

About 115 species and subspecies, i.e., about 23 per cent of total Indian Odonata species and subspecies are endemic to different ecosystems of India.

Value

Ecologically and economically Odonata are significant since they are predators of flies, mosquitoes, smaller moths, etc. As such, they serve as scavengers. Their larvae being consumers form an important link in the food chain of freshwater ecosystem. Being voracious predators in both immature and adults stages they are important components of all environment, except in the high altitude, in temperate and tropical regions, occupying a position at the apex of the food chain of invertebrates. Many species serve as intermediate hosts of helminth parasites (flukes) of birds especially of poultry and wild ducks and thereby help in transmission of parasitic diseases.

Threats, Conservation Strategies And Future Studies

The concept of Odonata conservation in India or even of insects in general is very recent. In the last decade some awareness of dragonfly conservation in India has been persistently felt and, consequently, Odonata have also been considered worth preserving in the Country.

In India Epiop/rlebia laidlawi is the first dragonfly which was considered endangered/ threatened and was given statutory protection by the Government of India W1der the provisions of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 1980, and included in the schedule I, part IV. It is certainly a milestone in our efforts to conserve and protect several such species of dragonflies which are vanishing fast today due to destruction of their breeding and perching habitats. In India there are some interesting species of Odonata, such as, Epiop/rlebia laidlawi which also need protection as far as possible as discussed earlier. This can be done along with various other national programmes aimed at conserving all the vertebrate and invertebrate fauna. The Government of India is presently running various nature conservation programmes and the results are highly relevant since the protection of habitats, Le., forests, lakes, rivers, mountains and their cascades, etc., from otherwise certain destruction has undoutedly positively affected the conservation of dragonflies.

The need to conserve rare, endangered or threatened species of Odonata is now recognized in this cOW1try. Several research papers dealing with the conservation problems on odonata have been published by Tyagi (1981, 1983,1984 and 1985). He has suggested that (i) Water level of dams, marshes and pools at a constant level should be maintained; (ii) natural bushes and trees stands adjacent to both standing and rW1ning waterbodies should be maintained and (iii) siltation of freshwater bodies should be avoided.

To make odonata conservation more effective, a list of endangered and rare species of odonates along with their pictorial illustrations and distributional map should be prepared. Public awareness in conservation of biodiversity in general and this insect group in particular is to be created.

Selected References

Fraser, F.e. 1933-1936. TI,e Fal/na of British. Illdia, illell/ding Ceylon and Bllrma, Odonala.

Vols. 1-3, Taylor & Francis Ltd., London. Kumar, A. 1973a. Description of the last instar larvae of Odonata from Dehra Dun Valley (India), with notes on biology. I, (Suborder Zygoptera). Oriental IllS., 7: 83-118.

Kumar, A. 1973b. Description of the last instar larvae of Odonata from Dehra Dun Valley (India), with notes on biology, II. (Suborder Anisoptera). Oricnlal IllS., 7 : 291-331.

Kumar, A. and Prasad, M. 1981. Field ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy of the Odonata of Western Himalayas, India. Rec. zool. Slim Illdia, Occ. pap., No. 20: 1-118.

Lahiri, A. R. 1987. Studies on the Odonata fauna of Meghalaya. Rec. zool. SIIrv. India, Occ. pap. No. 99 : 1-402.

Mitra, T. R. 1994. Observations on the habits and habitats of adult dragonflies of Eastern India with special reference to the fauna of West Bengal. Rec. zool. SIIrv. India, Occ. Pap., No. 166 : 1-39.

Prasad, M. and Varshney, R. K. 1995. A check-list of the Odonata of India including data on larval studies. Oriental Ins., 29 : 385-428. Tsuda, S. 1991. A distriblltionallist of world Odonata, Osaka. : 1-362. Tyagi, B. K. 1985. Dragonfly conservation in India : present status and future prospects. Rep. Odon. specialist. Grollp I/lt. Un. conserv., No.6: 1-5.

Odonata

This is an extract from
ANIMAL RESOURCES OF INDIA:
Protozoa to Mammalia
State of the Art.
Zoological Survey of India, 1991.
By Professor Mohammad Shamim Jairajpuri
Director, Zoological Survey of India
and his team of devoted scientists.
The said book was an enlarged, updated version of
The State of Art Report: Zoology
Edited by Dr. T. N. Ananthakrishnan,
Director, Zoological Survey of India in 1980.

Note: This article is likely to have several spelling mistakes that occurred during scanning. If these errors are reported as messages to the Facebook page, Indpaedia.com your help will be gratefully acknowledged.

Introduction

Odonates. which are commonly known as damselfly (Zygoptera) or dragonfly (Anisoptera), are amphibiotic insects. Major part of their life cycle is spent in freshwater ecosystem. This includes oviposition (exophytic and endophytic, amongst aquatic plants), prolarvae and larval stages upto ultimate stage. Adults are flying insects, but relatively of short life. These, thus, belong essentially to the ecogroup of aquatic insects. all -members of which undergo aquatic phase wholly or partially for completion of their life cycle. This ecogroup comprises of three other insect orders besides Odonata, namely Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptem.

Odonates. along with Ephemeropterans are the present day representatives of the Insects of Palaeopterous orders. Palaeopterans are one of the oldest winged insects (Pterygota) which frrst appeared during upper ~arboniferous period in Ewupe and North America, the other winged insects being Neoptera. In Palaeoptera insects were unable to -Cold their wings backwards to form a roof over the abdomen, while in Neoptera they can fold their wings backwards and form a chitinised cover.

In dragonflies both fore and hind wings are in the primitive condition i.e., both are equal in size and similar in venation (primitive Zygopteroid types). In Jurassic period, a new evolutionary line arose and the hind wings became more specialised than forewings, and also more broader, specially in the anal area. These are the larger dragonflies-or present day Anisoptera.

Odonata have colourful bodies, clear wings and make swift flying movements. Adults are large predacious insects while larvae are carnivorous and voracious feeders. Adults have a peculiar method of feeding. They capture their prey while on wings with the help of mouth parts and forwardly posed fore legs and consume while flying. Larvae, commonly known as naiads, are essentially aquatic and quite different morphologically. Metamorphosis is incomplete, therefore there is no pupal stage. The larva develops rudimentary wing-sheaths during early stage and has very litde resemblance to the adult.

Economic Importance

Ecologically and economically the insects of this order are significant since they are predators of flies, mosquitoes, smaller moths, etc., and as such serve as scavengers. Larva forms an important link in the food chain of freshwater ecosystem being secondary consumers. Montgomery (vide. Kiau~ 1975) has aptly indicated its significance that the dragonflies (Odonata) comprise one of the most important group of aquatic animals. Being voracious predators in both immature (aquatic) and adult (aerial) stages, they are important elements of all, except the higher (or high lipine) environment in temperate and tropical regions, occupying a position at the apex of the food. chain of invertebrate life.

In addition to 'their biological importance of such environments, these relationships render them the ultimate accumulators of present compounds in polluted waters. They are thus one of ideal organisms to be used as indicators of water quality : pollution and contamination. Many species serve as intermediate hosts-of fluke parasites of birds especially of domestic poultry and wild ducks, and thus are important in the transmission of parasitic diseases. Because of their unique morphology and physiology. dragonflies are used extensively in the study 9f many biological phenomena.

Historical Resume

i) Pre-1900

The first mention of an Indian dragonfly is available in the Sangam literature, written before eight century A. D. (Bhaduri st al., 1972). The first scientific description available is that of Neurobasis chinensis by Linnaeus (1758) based on a non-Indian specimen. Johanson (1768), Drury (1773) and Fabricius (1792-1798) contributed to the knowledge of Indian Odonata during the 18th century. A little over 20 species were added by Rambur (1842) from within the Indian• limits. Selys -Longschamps (1850-1890) was a keen naturalist, whose contributions to Indian od~nates could be described as a Selysian-Era in Indian Odonatology, as he described numerous taxa on the basis of material emanating from India.

ii) 1901-1947

After Selys died in 1890, the lacuna in Odonate studies was filled by Laidlaw and Fraser, and several other workers like Williamson, Ris, Lieftinck, Asahina etc. The three and a half decade beginnings from 1900 can be appropriately termed as the Laidlaw-Fraserian Era. Fraser (1902¬1951) made significant contribution in his 40 publications, including three volumes of 'Fauna of British India' published in (1933, 1934, 1936).

Laidlaw's (1917, 1922, 1923) studies were mostly confined to Indian Agriidae, Gomphidae, and several subfamilies of Coenagriidae. Fraser, under encouragement from Laidlaw, made two series of contributions, the frrst started in 1918 as "Indian dragonflies", and the other in 1922 as "Dragonfly collecting"., These resulted in foundation of three volumes of Fauna on Odonata. Besides, Fraser's contributions on Fissilabes and account of Western Indian deserve special mention, although both Laidlaw and Fraser restricted their studies mostly within Eastern India and Western Ghats. Several other experts a(ided to our knowledge of Odonata in India in this period. TiUyard (1921) described a relic species, Epiophelabia laidlawi, on the basis of larvae collected from the district Oarjeeling in the northern mountain tract of West Bengal. Among other workers, Needham (1932) published a key to the Indian Odonata and of Eastern India. Subramanyam (1936) and Vasu (1944) published interesting notes on the ecology of Indian Odonata.

iii) 1948-1990

The post-independence era of Indian Odonatology was marked by a spate of contributions by several workers, but none as exhaustive as Laidlaw and Fraser. Bhasin (1953) has provided a consolidated list, along with their distribution, of Odonata present in Forest Research Institute & College, Oehra Dun, U.P. Later on, Singh &Baijal (1954, 1955a, 1955b and 1955c) studied the material collected by Entomological Expeditions to North-West Himalaya carried out under the leadership of Dr. M. S. Mani of the School of Entomology, St. John's College Agra. Agarwal (1957) reported the fauna ofPilani (Rajasthan) and Bhatnagar and Sahni (1964-65) that of Kumaon region (U.P.).

In addition to these, several Indian and foreign workers studied the fauna of Himalaya and Kiauta (1975) published a valuable bibliography of Himalayan Odonate fauna which lists all works published till then.

In recent times, a number of workers, viz., Kumar, Lahiri, Mitra, Prasad, Singh, Sinha, Srivastava and Ram from Zoological Survey of India have contributed several papers on Indian Odonata. Of these, Kumar (1971-1989), Kumar &Khanna (1983), Kumar &Prasad (1977-1971), Prasad (1974-1988), Prasad and Singh (1976-1977) mostly deal with taxonomy (adult &larval), bio-ecology, and Zoogeography of Odvnata of Western Himalaya, Sangal &Kumar (1970) and Tyagi, (1971) were also engaged in the study of Odonata of Dehra Dun Valley (U.P.). Tyagi has made contributions on the cytotaxonomy of Odonata of Ooon Valley. Consequent to these studies a total of 162 species of adult Odonata (66 Zygoptera and 96 Anisoptera) and 58 species of larvae have been reported from Western Himalaya, with brief descriptions of biotopes, phenology, life history of few species and zoogeography.

The zoogeography of Odonata of Western Himalaya has been discussed by Kumar &Prasad (1981) and the species are classified into four faunal elements, viz., Oriental (131 species), Palacarctic (28 species), Ethiopian (2 species) and Circumtropical (1 species). KUl11ar (1970-1983), Kumar &Prasad (1977, 1978) and Sangal &Kumar (1970) have provided taxonomic descriptions of the last larval instar, life history of a few species, key to their identification, notes on their larval ecology, habitat preference and morphological adaptation in relation to concealment, feeding and respiration elc. Varshney &Guha (1972) and Varshney &Prasad (1981) have reported variations in wings of two species.

Lahiri, Mitra, Ram, Sinha and Srivastava of Zoological Survey of India have studied .the Odonata fauna of Eastern India. Their studies included taxonomy, faunistics and ecology. Raychaudhuri et al., (1969) "have reported the occurrence of complete and incomplete distal antenodal nervures in the wings of Brachythemis contaminata. Lahiri (1977, 1979) has studied the odonate fauna of different States of North Eastern India and has reported 33 species. Lahiri (1987) made a detailed study on the taxonomy of Odonata of Meghalaya reporting a total of 147 species and subspecies belonging to 77 genera and 14 families. Mitra (1983) and Ram et ale (1982) reported 59 species from Calcutta, West Bengal. Mitra (1986, 1988) reported 15 species from Mirzapur district (V.P.) and 39 species from Central India. Srivastava et ale (1987) have recorded 48 species from Orissa. Bose et ale (1976), Prasad &Thakur (1981) and Thakur (1985) have studied the odonate fauna of Rajasthan and recorded 29 species. 63 species of Odonata have been reported by Prasad &Kumar (1977) and Prasad & Varshney (1988) from Bihar. In this connection some field notes, distribution and zoogeography of these species have also been discussed.

Tern bhare, an Indian odonate endocrinologist has described the structure of the endocrine system thoroughly. Tembhare and associates (1975-1984) have studied neurosecretory cells of the brain and ventral ganglia, the corpora cardica and other nemohaemal organs and the corpora allata of the nymphs (larva) and adults of Orthetrum chrysis, Pantala flavescens etc. Mathavan (1974-1984) studied the predatory behaviour in larvae of Mesogomphus .lineatus, Pantala flavescens and BrachYlllemis contaminaui. Mathavan (1984) studied the reproductive behaviour in Brachythemis contaminata and Orthetrum sabina. Chromosomal basis of sex determination in Anax parthenope, Diplacodes trivialis, Orlhetrum taeniolatum and N. tullia tullia was reported by Thomas &Prasad (1984).

Srivastava (1962), Srivastava &Suribabu (1984, 1985, 1988) and Suribabu (1983) have studied the reproductive organs in Cocothemis s. servilia and reproductive behaviour in Ischnura aurora, Chloroneura quatirimacuiata, Ceriagrion coromandelianwn and Pseudagrion rubriceps.

Studies from Different Environs

Early studies in India were made from Eastern India, Peninsular India (both eastern and western Ghats) and Western Himalaya. Recent studies add information from different zones, states and ecosystems (Map). States explored are Rajasthan, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh, U.P. (Himalayan portion), Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Meghalaya and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Odonata of Western Himalaya was studied by KUlnar and Prasad (1981) in which 162 species from Jammu &Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and U.P. were recorded. Prasad (1988) provided an account of male accessary genitalia of 63 species from Western Himalaya. Kumar &Khanna (1983) have provided information on larvae and a bibliography from Western Himalaya. Prasad & Kumar (1977) published a list from Punjab recording 36 species. Bose e't al (1976), Prasad &Thakur (1981) and Thakur (1985) provided information on Odonata of Rajasthan recording altogether 29 species. Mitra (1986) published a list of 39 species from Central India.

A comprehensive study on the Odonata of Bihar was made by Prasad &Varshney (1988) reporting 63 species and subspecies. Ram et al., (1982) and Mitra (1983) have published accounts on the Odonata of Calcutta reporting altogether 59 species.

'From North Eastern India, Varshney (1971) reported some species from Khasi Hills. Lahiri (1987) studied the Odonata fauna of Meghalaya in detail. A total of 147 species and subspecies belonging to 77 genera under 14 families have been dealt with. Lahiri (1979) has pubHshed a list of 33 species from different States of North-East India.

Srivastava &Das (1987) have studied Odonata fauna of Orissa and recorded 44 species belonging to 7 families. Of these, 29 species arc recorded for thc first time from Orissa. Srivastava &Sinha (1990) have given a comprehensive account of 185 species of odonates from West Bcngal.

Estuarine fauna of Odonata from West Bengal and Orissa coasts have been dealt with by Prasad &Ghosh (1988), reporting altogether 42 species. Odonata of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been studied by Chhotani et ale (1983) and a total of 27 species and subspecies have been recorded.

Estimation of Taxa

The order Odonata is represented by 37 families clubbed under three suborders namely Zygoptera, Anisozygoptera and Anisoptera. A little over 5500 species belonging to 630 genera in' 28 families are recorded from allover the world. Of these about 491 species are represented in India under 135 genera, in 32 subfamilies, 19 families, and 7 super families.

Suborder Zygoptera

Zygoptera fIrst appeared in Upper Permian period. These are characterized by their fore-and hindwings being of almost same shape and size, with a definite discoidal cell formed below the arculus. Body is slender, hence the common name damselfly.

Family Coenagrionidae has maximum representation, 33 species 11 genera, in India. Members of families Coenagrionidae, Platycnemidae and Lestidae breed at the sides of fresh water bodies, while that of Platycnemididae, Protoneuridae, S ynlestidae, Calopterygidae, Chlorocyphidae and Euphaeidae breed in hill streams, but sometimes also near waterbodies in the plains.

Suborder Anisozygoptera

It has a single superfamily Heter{)phbeb~oidea, comprised of 11 families, all of which, except Epiophlebiidae, have become extinct world over. This last named family is represented by a single species, name within our limits. There is another species found in Japan under this genus. It was described from Darjiling Dist. of West Bengal and has now been protected under schedule of Indian Wild Life Act

Suborder Anisoptcra

Suborder Anisoptera (dragonflies) are relatively robust in built as compared to Zygopterans. Their eyes are not separated by a space greater than own diameter. Wings are usually held horizontally or descended when at rest. In India, the suborder Anisoptera is represented by 285 species belonging to 79 genera under 13 sub-families, 6 families and 3 superfamilies.

Members of families Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae and Macromiidae are found in hilly tracts and breed in the hill streams, waterfalls, etc., while that of family Gomphidae is found near hill streams as well as near water bodies in the plains. Libellulidae is found only in the plains.

Current Studies

Scientists of the Zoological Survey of India are presently engaged in the study of Odonata of Meghalaya, Tripura, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. Scientists working in other Institutes in India, i.e. at the Department of Zoology, D.A.V. College, Dehra Dun V.P.; University of Saugar, Saugar; Nagpur University, Nagpur, and School of Biological Sciences, Kamraj University, Madurai, are working on the bioecology, endocrinology and toxicology aspects.

Expertise India

In ZSI

V. D. Srivastava, M. Prasad, A. R. Lahiri, T. R. Mitra, R. Ram, S. Das, C. Sinha, all of Z.S.I., M-Block, New Alipur, Calcutta 700 053.

A. Kumar, Z.S.I., NorLhcm Reg. Stn., 218, Kaulagarh Road, Dehra Dun, U.P.

Elsewhere

S. Mathavan, School of Biological Sciences, Kamaraj University, Palkalai Nagar, Madurai 625021 (Bioecology). S. K. Sanyal, Department of Zoology, D. A. V. College, Debra Dun 248001 [Bioecology]. B. K. Srivastava, Department of Zoology, University of Saugar, Sagar 470 003 [Bioecology]. B. K. Tyagi, Road No.7, Milkman Colony, Jodhpur 342 003 [Cytotaxonomy].

Abroad

S. Ashina, Takadanobada,4-4-24, Shinjukuku, Tokyo, 160, Japan. B. Kiauta, S.1.0. Central Office, Post Bus 256, NL -3720, AG, Bilthoven, The Netherlands [Cytotaxonomy] . J. M. Van Brink, S.I.O. Central Office, Postbus 256, NL 3720, AG, Bilthoven, The Netherlands [Bioecology]. P. S. Corbet, The old Mouse, 45 Lanark Road, Edinburg, E, 1 + 14, 1 T2, United Kingdom, [Bioecology]. P. L. Miller, Department of Zoology University of Oxford, South Park Road, Oxford, Ox, 3, PS, United Kingdom [Bioecology].

Selected References

Fraser, F. C. 1933-1936. The Fauna ofBritish India. including Ceylon and Burma, Odonata, Vol. I : xiii + 423 pp.: Vol II : xxiii + 398• pp.: Vol DI : xi + 461 pp..Taylor and, Francis, London.

Fraser, F. C. 1956. Odonata. In : Handbookfor Identification ofBritish Insects, 1 (10) second ed : 49 pp.

~raser, F. C. 1957. A reclassification of the order Odonata : 134 pp. Zoological Society, New South Wales, Sydney.

Fraser, F. C. 1960. A handbook of the dragonflies ofAustralasia, with keys for identification 0/ all species: 67 pp. Royal Zoological Society, New South Wales, Sydney. Kumar, A. &Khanna, B. 1983. A review of the taxonomy and ecology of the Odonata larva India. Orient. Ins., 17 : 127-157.

Kumar, A. &Prasad, M., 1981. Field ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy of the•odonata of Western Himalayas, India. Rec. zool. Surv.lndia, Occ. pap., No. 20 : 1-118.

Lahiri, A. R. 1987. Studies on the Odonata fauna of Meghalaya Rec. zool. Surv. India, Occ. pap., No. 99 : 1-402.

Prasad, M. 1988. Introduction to the external morphology of the Odonate male ~ccessary genitalia with descriptions of sixty three cases in North-West Indian species. Indian Odonalol., 1 : 45-88.

Prasad, M. &Varshney, R. K., 1988. The Odonata of Bihar, India. Rec. zool. Surv. India, Occ. pap., No. 110 : 1-47.

Srivastava, V. D. 1986. Aid to the identification of Odonata. In : Manual : Collection, Preservation and Identification ofInsects and Mites ofEconomic Importance: 227-240. Zoo!. S urv. India, Calcutta.

Srivastava, V. D. &Das, S. 1987. Insecta: Odonata. In : Fauna of Orissa, State Fauna Series 1, Part I : 135-159.

Personal tools
Namespaces

Variants
Actions
Navigation
Translate