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By: Karan Bali aka TheThirdMan
Paluvayi Bhanumathi, who was truly among the most multifaceted film personalities of South Indian Cinema. The Grande Dame of Tamil and Telegu Cinemas, at her peak she was an Actress, Writer, Director, Producer, Studio Owner, Music Director and Singer! In her own words... "People in the film industry call me high-spirited and a woman who tried to get what she wanted and often succeeded. Their assessment was correct,"
Bhanumathi was born in Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh in 1924 and was encouraged to take up training in carnatic music by her father B Venkatasubbiah, himself a well known musician in those days. Later, she also had training under two other 'vidwans'. She became adept at both Carnatic as well as Hindustani Music.
She made her film debut as a teenager in C Pulliah's reformist melodrama, Varavikrayam (1939). The film saw Pulliah taking on the social issue of dowry as against his usual mythologicals. Bhanumathi played the eldest daughter Kalindi, whose father borrows money to get her married against her wishes to the thrice married Lingaraju. She commits suicide before the marriage. Her sister then marries Lingaraju and takes him and his father to court thus salvaging the family honour and avenging her sister.
More film roles began to follow. However Bhanumathi fell in love with the assistant director of one of her films, Ramakrishna Rao, married him and decided to quit films.
It was stalwart BN Reddy who convinced her to make a comeback and Bhanumathi made her first major impact with Vauhini Pictures Swargaseema (1945). The film looks at the metamorphosis of a rural street entertainer Subbi (Bhanumathi) into the urban seductress and stage star Sujatha Devi who breaks up the marriage of the man who discovered her. Allegedly based on the Rita Hayworth starrer Blood and Sand (1941), the film saw Bhanumati give a tremendous performance capturing the graph of the village beauty to sexy star perfectly with subtle changes at every stage in speech, attitude, gesture and make up. The classic hit seduction song sung by her - Ooh Pavurama, in fact, has shades of Rita Hayworth's humming from Blood and Sand. Swargaseema made Bhanumati into a major star.
Bhanumathi went on to give legendary performances in other films made by Vauhini and those by SS Vasan's Gemini Studios. She then branched out and owned her own studio with husband Ramakrishna Rao - Bharani Studios and Production Company - Bharani Pictures, both named after her son. Bharani Pictures maiden venture was Ratnamala (1947) with Bhanumathi essaying the title role of a woman tricked into marrying the infant prince Chandrakantha.
Bharani Pictures went on to do many popular films with Bhanumathi as star including Laila Majnu (1949) (with A Nageshwara Rao and Bhanumathi and a happy ending!), Prema/ Kathal (1952) including story by Bhanumathi, Chandirani (1953) - a trilingual in Tamil, Telugu and Hindi and Bhanumathi's directorial debut and also as co-Music Director though the Hindi version did not click, Chakrapani (1954), which she made as a rejoinder to losing the title role in Missiamma (1955) and made her debut as an Independent Music Director and included the hit song Ananda Dayini and Vipranarayana (1954), yet again paired with A Nageshwara Rao.
A versatile actress
Bhanumathi was an extremely versatile actress who was equally adept at social dramas, mythologicals, comedies as well as adventure and swashbucking films particularly those where she was paired with MGR. She acted opposite all the top heroes of her day - MGR, Sivaji Ganesan, A Nageshwara Rao and NT Rama Rao. Special mention must be made of her films with MGR. She was often cast as the Damsel-in-Distress in these films with MGR cast as a Robin Hood like vigilante. (Malaikallan (1954), Alibabavum Narpatha Thirudargalum (1955) and Madurai Veeran (1956) etc.)
Malaikallan was the classic MGR film about an outlaw who robs the rich to feed the poor while maintaining a double identity. In the film MGR established his political persona of a superman imposing his own brand of justice. The film was remade in Hindi as the Dilip Kumar - Meena Kumari starrer Azad (1955).
Alibabavum Narpatha Thirudargalum was one of Modern Theatres' best films and was based on the Alibaba legend. The first South Indian film in Gevacolor, it is mainly remembered for MGR's swashbuckling stunts and Bhanumathis's popular songs and dances like Unnai Vidamatten and Azhagana Ponnutham. Waheeda Rehman plays a small role of a dancer in the film!
Madhurai Veeran was based on the legend of Madurai Veeran. A megahit, it was written by noted DMK rationalist poet Kannadasan and is an early example of the political appropriation of Tamil folk ballads.
With Sivaji Ganesan
Some of her popular films with Sivaji Ganesan include Rangoon Radha (1956), Ambikapathy (1957) and Makkalai Petra Maharasi (1957).
Another of Bhanumathi's most famous and applauded roles was Annai (1962). She gave a brilliant performance where she would not give up her hold on her adopted son to his real mother even after he had grown up. The film was redone in Hindi with Nirupa Roy but failed to have the same impact as the Bhanumathi version.
One of her last major films was Peddarikam (1992). It was the story of two feuding families from the politically kamma caste. One is led by the Patriarch NN Pillai and the other by the voluble Bhanumathi. Trouble brews when the youngest son of the former falls in love with the granddaughter of the latter. The film was known mainly for the performances of the two egotistic family heads! The film was remade in Hindi as Hulchul (2004) by Priyadarshan.
Bhanumathi based her music on C Ramachandra, Arabian folk and even Pat Boone! However she is best remembered for her brilliant renderings of Thyagaraja's kirtis and Purandaradasa's bhajans. She also served as Principal of the Government College of Music in Madras (now Chennai), in the mid 1990s.
A compilation film, Chitramala (1985), features her songs and dances, She also wrote her autobiography, Naalo Neno (1993), which won an award. Bhanumathi, in fact, received several awards and felicitations in her lifetime including the Padma Shri. Her collection of short stories about mother in laws, Attagari Kathalu won her the Sahitya Academy award in 1966. In 1994, the London Doctors Association honoured her as a 'Great Artiste.'
Suffering from chronic diabetes, Bhanumathi passed away in Chennai on December 24, 2005. It is indeed a tragic state of affairs that Mumbai, (which considers itself the film capital of India) barring one daily, failed to even carry a report of Bhanumathi's death. This, when she was known as a one woman industry long, long before Amitabh Bachchan was known as a one man industry!
Next only to Ray
Parvez Dewan adds: India has produced four renaissance persons, who excelled in more than one field: Amir Khusro, Rabindra Nath Tagore, Satyajit Ray and P Bhanumathi. In the films only Ray straddled so many departments, all equally deftly. Manoj Kumar came a distant third.
Dr.P. Bhanumathi Ramakrishna: some highlights
Name Dr.P. Bhanumathi Ramakrishna
Birth Name Paluvayi Bhanumathi
Titles bestowed on her
Multifaced Queen of the Indian screen
Bhakukala Dheerati Sreemathi
Profession: Actress, Writer, Director, Producer, Studio Owner, Music Director and Singer
Date of Birth 7 September 1925
Date of Demise 24 December 2005
Birth Place Doddavaram village near Ongole Andhra Pradesh
Mother Tongue Telugu
Air travel :: Had a terrible fear of flying
Father : Bommaraju Venkata Subbaiah
Mother : Saraswatamma
Spouse : P.S. Ramakrishna Rao (film producer, director and editor of Telugu and Tamil Films)
Son : Dr. Bharani
A grand son and a grand daughter
Marriage Date 8 August 1943
Introduced by Sri Chintajallu.Pullaih (popularly called as C.Pulliah)
In Telugu Films: - Varavikrayam (1939) at a very early age of 13.
In Tamil films - "Rajamukthi" (1948) with M.K. Thygaraja Bagavathar.
As Singer: Varavikrayam (1939)
As Producer: Ratnamala (1947)
As Writer: Prema (1952)
Director: Chandirani (1953)
As Composer: Chakrapani (1954)
- In 1953 she performed a dual role in the movie "Chandi-rani".
- It was simultaneously made in Telugu, Tamil and Hindi and was released on the same day all over India
- She created history by becoming the first woman in the history of Indian Cinema who directed, produced, sang and acted in that movie.
- Her father was her first Guru.
- Was good at singing both Carnatic and Hindustani Music
- Has sung many english songs.
- She also served as Principal of the Government College of Music in Madras (now Chennai), from 1985 to 1988.
- She met him during the shooting of the movie "Krishna Prema" in the year 1942.
- He was the assistant director of that movie.
- Married him against her father's wishes.
Along with her husband she founded Bharani Studios and Bharani Pictures both named after her son.
She produced a Children's feature colour film titled "BHAKTHA DHURUVA MARKADEYA" in Telugu, Tamil, Hindi and Malayalam with artists of under sixteen, which was a huge success
- Children's Film Society (1965-1970)
- Lalit Kala Academy for 5 years
- Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy for 10 years
- Madras Branch of Altrusa International Inc., Chicago
- Red Cross Society
- State Film Awards Committee for two years
- 2003 -Awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government of India
- 2001 - NTR award, from the Government of Andhra Pradesh
- 1998 - Raja-Lakshmi Award from Sri Raja-Lakshmi Foundation, Chennai.
- 1996 - "Mangiar Ratna" award by K.K.Nagar Lion's Club.
- 1994 - Government National Award for Best writer for the book "Nalo Nenu" an autobiography.
- 1994 - London Doctors Association honoured her as a 'Great Artiste.'
- 1986 - Best Director, Nandi Award
- 1985 - Awarded the prestigious Raghupathy Venkaiah award by the State Government of Andhra Pradesh.
- 1984 - Honorary Doctorate, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi
- 1983 - Kalai Maamani, Government of Tamilnadu
- 1975 - Honorary Doctorate, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
- 1969 - Padma Shri award from the Government of India
- National Award for Best Actress, Annai (Tamil)
- 1966 - National Award for Best Actress, Palnati Yuddham (Telugu)
- 1965 - National Award Winner as Best Actress, Anthastulu (Telugu)
- The Karnataka Director's Association have honoured her as "First Senior Lady Director"
- Annadurai honoured her with a title "Nadippukku Ilakkanam" for her remarkable performance in "Rangoon Radha"
- She is ardent devotee of Shri Jagadguru Abhinava Vidyateertha Swamiji of Sringeri, who bestowed her with the blessing of Sri Vidya Vupasana 32 years back.
- Her autobiography, Naalo Neno (1993)
- Her collection of short stories about mother in laws, Attagari Kathalu won her the Sahitya Academy award in 1966 later released in English as 'Musings'.
As an educationist
She established an educational institution named as "Dr. Bhanumathi Ramakrishna Matriculation School" at Saligramam, Chennai providing free education to the poor.
- As an extremely versatile actress she was equally adept at social dramas, mythologicals, comedies as well as adventure and swashbucking films.
- She is best remembered for her brilliant renderings of Thyagaraja's kirtis and Purandaradasa's bhajans.
- Was paid Rs.350/- for her first movie
- Her film Alibabavum Narpatha Thirudargalum was the first South Indian film produced in Gevacolor
- Tanguturi Surya Kumari's entry into cine field inspired her father to make Bhanumati as an actress.
- She had acted in more than 100 films in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Hindi.
- She is the only lady in India who was a Studio Owner, Producer, Directress, Writer, Music Director and also a great singing cine-artiste.
- A good painter, Astrologer and a great Philosopher.
- Her autobiography was made into a teleserial.
- She was a great cook.
- Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishnan was a great fan of her. Other noted fans of her include Bejawada Gopal Reddy, PV Rajamannar, Kodavaganti Kutumba Rao and Chakrapani.
- First lady recipient of State Honours after the formation of Andhra Pradesh state
- Was visiting Professor to the Film Institute for one year.
- Suffered from chronic diabetes
As an Actress
1. Pelli Kanuka (1998)
2. Chamanthi (1992)
3. Chembaruthi (1992)
4. Peddarikam (1992)
5. Samrat Ashok (1992)
6. Bamma Maata Bangaru Baata (1990)
7. Annapurnammagari Alludu (1988)
8. Attagaru Swagatham (1988)
9. Muddula Manavaraalu (1986)
10. Mangamma Gari Manavadu (1984)
11. Gadasari Attaha Sosagara Kodalu (1981)
12. Manavadi Kosam (1977)
13. Ammayi Pelli (1974)
14. Tatamma Kala (1974)
15. Vichitra Vivaham (1973)
16. Anta Mana Manchike (1972)
17. Mattilo Manikyam (1971)
18. Grihalakshmi (1967)
19. Palnati Yudham (1966) .... Nagamma
20. Antastulu (1965)
21. Todu Needa (1965)
22. Bobbili Yudham (1964)
23. Vivaha Bandham (1964)
24. Penchina Prema (1963)
25. Batasari (1961)
26. Ambikapathy (1957)
27. Nala Damayanti (1957) ....
28. Sarangadhara (1957) ....
29. Varudu Kavali (1957)
30. Tenali Ramakrishna (1956)
31. Chintamani (1956) ....i
32. Madurai Veeran (1956) ....
33. Rangoon Radha (1956) ....
34. Tenali Raman (1956) ....
35. Alibabhavum Narpathu Thirudargalum (1955)
36. Kalvanin Kadhali (1955) ....
37. Vipranarayana (1954) ....
38. Aggi Ramudu (1954)
39. Chakrapani (1954)
40. Malaikallan (1954)
41. Chandirani (1953) ....
42. Chandirani (1953)
43. Prema (1952)
44. Malliswari (1951)
45. Mangala (1951) ....
46. Maya Rambha (1950)
47. Apoorva Sahodaralu (1950)
48. Laila Majnu (1949) ....
49. Raksharekha (1949) ....
50. Nallathambi (1949) ....
51. Ratnamala (1947) ....
52. Grihapravesham (1946) ....
53. Swargaseema (1945) ....
54. Tahsildar (1944) ....
55. Garuda Garvabhangam (1943)
56. Krishna Prema (1943) ....
57. Bhaktimala (1941)
58. Dharmapatni (1941)
59. Dharmapatni (1941)
60. Malathi Madhavam (1940)
61. Vara Vikrayam (1939)
As a singer/ playback singer
1. Pelli Kanuka (1998)
2. Bamma Maata Bangaru Baata (1990)
3. Muddula Manavaraalu (1986)
4. Mangamma Gari Manavadu (1984)
5. Gadasari Attaha Sosagara Kodalu (1981)
6. Mattilo Manikyam (1971)
7. Palnati Yudham (1966)
8. Antastulu (1965)
9. Todu Needa (1965)
10. Bobbili Yudham (1964)
11. Vivaha Bandham (1964)
12. Batasari (1961)
13. Nala Damayanti (1957)
14. Varudu Kavali (1957)
15. Tenali Ramakrishna (1956)
16. Chintamani (1956)
17. Vipranarayana (1954)
18. Aggi Ramudu (1954)
19. Chakrapani (1954)
20. Chandirani (1953)
21. Chandirani (1953)
22. Prema (1952)
23. Malliswari (1951)
24. Mangala (1951)
25. Apoorva Sahodaralu (1950)
26. Laila Majnu (1949)
27. Raksharekha (1949)
28. Ratnamala (1947)
29. Swargaseema (1945)
30. Tahsildar (1944)
31. Garuda Garvabhangam (1943)
32. Krishna Prema (1943)
33. Dharmapatni (1941)
34. Vara Vikrayam (1939)
As a Director
Bhakta Dhruva Markandeya (1982)
Oke Naati Rathri (1980)
Manavadi Kosam (1977)
Vanga Sambandhi Vanga (1976)
Ippadiyum Oru Penn (1975)
Ammayi Pelli (1974)
11. Vichitra Vivaham (1973)
12. Anta Mana Manchike (1972)
13. Grihalakshmi (1967)
14. Chandirani (1953)
As a Producer
1. Batasari (1961)
2. Varudu Kavali (1957)
3. Chintamani (1956)
4. Vipranarayana (1954)
5. Chakrapani (1954)
6. Chandirani (1953)
7. Chandirani (1953)
8. Prema (1952)
9. Laila Majnu (1949)
10. Ratnamala (1947)
As a Composer
As a Writer