Water Resources: India (ministry data)
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A REFERENCE ANNUAL
RESEARCH, REFERENCE AND TRAINING DIVISION
MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
Water Resources: India
THE Ministry of Water Resources lays down policies and programmes for development and regulation of the country’s water resources. It covers sectoral planning, coordination, policy guidelines, technical examination and technoeconomic appraisal of the projects, providing central assistance to specific projects, facilitation of external assistance and assistance in the resolution of interstate water disputes, policy formulation, planning and guidance in respect of major, medium & minor irrigation, command area development, flood management and development of ground water resources etc.
The National Water Policy, 2002 lays emphasis on integrated water resources development and management for optimal and sustainable utilisation of the available surface and ground water; creation of well-developed information system; water conservation and demand management; quantity and quality aspects as well as environmental considerations; involvement of beneficiaries and stakeholders in the project planning and participatory approach in water resources management, training and research, resettlement and rehabilitation aspects of projected affected persons. The Policy also encourages Private Sector participation in planning, development and management of water resources projects for diverse uses, wherever feasible with a view to introducing innovative ideas, generating financial resources and introducing corporate management and improving service efficiency and accountability to users.
WATER RESOURCES POTENTIAL
The average annual water availability of the country is assessed as 1869 billion cubic meters (BCM). Of this, total utilizable water resource is assessed as 1123 BCM, out of which 690 BCM is surface water and 433 BCM replenishable ground water resources.
As per the information received from the State Governments in respect of creation of irrigation potential during the year 2009-10, irrigation potential of 1.85 million hectare has already been created. So far, limited information has been received in respect of creation of irrigation potential during 2010-11. Creation of 0.56 mha of irrigation potential has been reported so far by the States during 2010-11. BHARAT NIRMAN-IRRIGATION SECTOR Irrigation is one of the six components for development of rural infrastructure under Bharat Nirman. The irrigation component of Bharat Nirman aims at creation of irrigation potential of 10 million hectare (Mha) during four years i.e., from 2005-06 to 2008-09.
TARGETS UNDER BHARAT NIRMAN
Creation of irrigation potential of 10 million hectares was targeted under Bharat Nirman during the four years i.e., during the period from 2005-06 to 2008-09. The target for creation of irrigation potential under 'Bharat Nirman' was proposed to be met through completion of on-going major and medium irrigation projects,
extension, renovation and modernization (ERM) of major and medium irrigation projects, surface water minor irrigation projects and ground water minor irrigation projects. Emphasis was also laid on repair, renovation and restoration (RRR) of water bodies. The targets of various activities under irrigation component of Bharat Nirman are given in Table-1.
TABLE-1: PHYSICAL TARGETS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES
IDENTIFIED UNDER BHARAT NIRAM (in million hectare)
Components 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Total
I. Majar and Medium irrigation
Completion of on-going projects 0.90 1.10 1.10 1.10 4.20
Extension, renovation and
modernization of projects 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 1.00
Total for major and medium 1.15 1.35 1.35 1.35 5.20
II. Minor Irrigation
Surface water 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 1.00
Ground water 0.45 0.75 0.80 0.80 2.80
Repair, renovation and
restoration of water bodies 0.05 0.05 0.45 0.45 1.00
Total for minor irrigation projects 0.75 1.05 1.50 1.50 4.80
Total 1.90 2.40 2.85 2.85 10.00
As per information provided by State Governments, the total irrigation potential created during the four years i.e., during the period 2005-06 to 2008-09 is 7.31 million hectare against the target of 10 million hectare. Year wise achievement is given below. (in million hectare)
Year Target Achievement
2005-06 1.90 1.69
2006-07 2.40 1.96
2007-08 2.85 1.93
2008-09 2.85 1.93
Total 10.00 7.31
Target for 2009-10 and 2010-11
Creation of 3.5 million hectare of irrigation potential has been targeted in the next two years i.e., 1.75 million hectare each during 2009-10 and 2010-11.
ACCELERATED IRRIGATION BENEFITS PROGRAMME (AIBP)
The Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) was launched during 1996- 97 to give loan assistance to the States to help them complete some of the incomplete major/medium irrigation projects which were at an advanced stage of completion and to create additional irrigation potential in the country. The Surface Minor Irrigation Schemes of North-Eastern States, Hilly States of Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi Districts of Orissa have also been provided Central Loan Assistance (CLA) under this programme since 1999-2000. Grant component has been introduced in the programme from April 2004 like in other Central Sector Schemes.
As per the existing AIBP criteria effective from December 2006, grant amounting to 25% of the project cost for major/medium irrigation projects in non-special category States and 90% grant of the project cost for major/medium/minor irrigation projects in special category States (including Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi Districts of Orissa) are provided to the selected projects.
The minor irrigation schemes in non-special category States falling in drought prone/tribal areas are treated at par with special category States and are released 90% grant of the project cost. Major and medium projects providing irrigation benefits to drought prone/tribal areas and flood prone areas are also eligible for 90% grant of the project cost. The State Governments have been provided an amount of about Rs.48,565.476 crores as CLA/Grant under AIBP since inception of this programme till date for 287 major/medium irrigation projects and 12622 Surface minor irrigation schemes.
After commencement of this programme, 132 major/medium projects and 8140 Surface MI Schemes have so far been completed. An additional irrigation potential of 5,486 million hectare has been created through major/medium irrigation projects and an irrigation potential of 0.454 million hectare has been created through Surface MI Schemes up to March 2009. Irrigation potential of 9.82 lakh hectares has been created during 2009-10 up to March 2010.
As per the prevailing AIBP guidelines, projects benefiting drought prone/ tribal areas, projects included in the Prime Minister’s relief package for agrarian distress districts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, and projects in the States having Irrigation development below the national average could be included in AIBP in relaxation to one to one criteria of inclusion of new project under AIBP. Of the 65 major/medium projects initially included in the Prime Minister’s relief package for agrarian distressed districts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra, so far 40 projects have been funded under AIBP. The grant released so far for these projects is Rs.5241.6 crore. A Budget allocation of Rs.9750 crore has been made by the Ministry of Finance for AIBP for 2010-11 which includes Rs.1450 crore for National Projects.
The Union Cabinet in its meeting held on 7th February 2008 has given its consent to the proposal of the Ministry of Water Resources on Implementation of National Projects with central assistance of 90% of the cost of the project as grant falling in the following selection criteria:
(i) International projects where usage of water in India is required by a treaty or where planning and early completion of the project is necessary in the interest of the country.
(ii) Inter-State projects which are dragging on due to non-resolution of inter- State issues relating to sharing of costs, rehabilitation, aspects of power production etc. including river interlinking projects. (iii) Intra-state projects with additional potential of more than 2,00,000 ha. and with no dispute regarding sharing of water and where hydrology is established.
Ministry of Water Resources has finalized the modalities of funding and guidelines for implementation of scheme of National Projects in consultation with Planning Commission and Ministry of Finance and has sent the same to all the states and Union Territories. So far, three projects, namely Gosikhurd Project of Maharashtra, Shahpur Kandi Project of Punjab and Teesta Barrage Project of West Bengal have been funded under the scheme of National Projects. Gosikhurd Project has been provided grant amounting to R 2582.94 crore during 2008-09 to 2010-11 till date. Shahpur Kandi Project has been provided grant amounting to R 26.036 crore during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Teesta Barrage Project started receiving funding under the scheme of national project during 2010-11 and grant amounting to r 81.00 crore has been provided for the project.
Hydrology Project Phase-II (HP-II) is being implemented with the World Bank assistance in 13 States viz. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry and Punjab, and 8 Central Agencies viz. Central Water Commission (CWC), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), National Institute of Hydrology (NIH), Central Water & Power Research Station (CWPRS), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Bhakra Beas management Board (BBMB), India Meteorological Development (IMD) and Ministry of Water Resources (MOWR). The cost of the project is R 631.83 crores. The World Bank Assistance is in the form of a loan of US $104.98 million from International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The project became effective from 5th April, 2006 and is scheduled to be completed
There are three components in the project. Component-I is Institutional Strengthening which includes: Consolidation of Hydrology Project Phase-I (HP-I) activities, Awareness Raising. Dissemination and Knowledge Sharing for HIS Use, and Implementation Support. Component-II is Vertical Extension of activities of data use by HP-I states (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu). It includes: Hydrological Design Aids (Surface Water), Decision Support system (Planning and Real Time) and Purpose Driven Studies. Component-III is Horizontal Expansion which is being implemented in 4 new States viz. Himachal Pradesh, Puducherry, Punjab and Goa, and 3 Central Agencies viz. BBMB, CPCB and CGWB. This component includes: Upgrading/Establishment of Data Collection networks, Establishment of Data Processing and Management System, Purpose Driven Studies, and Trainings.
The objective of the project is to extend and promote the sustained and effective use of Hydrological Information System (HIS) by all potential users concerned with Water Resources Planning and Management, both in public and private, thereby
contributing to improved productivity and cost effectiveness of water related investments.
Implementation Agencies (IAs) are progressing towards activities of Institutional Strengthening by way of procurement of Hardware, Software and Upgradation of Infrastructure. Good progress has been made by IAs in the area of awareness raising also through Hydrological Data Users Groups, Workshops, Public Programmes and Website Development.
Decision Support System - Planning (DSS-P) is being implemented through consultancy (procured by NIH) in HP-I States for which study basin in each State has been indentified and most of the data required for implementation have been provided to the consultants. The training on the selected model has been imparted to the officers of each implementing agency.
The Upper Bhima Basin in Maharashtra has been selected as pilot basin for implementation of the Generic Model of DSS (Planning). The Generic Model is in very advanced stage of development. The Decision Support System-Real Time (DSS-RT) is being implemented under BBMB through consultancy. The development of RT-DSS model is in progress. The procurement of Real Time Data Acquisition System equipments through International Competitive Bidding (ICB) is under the process. The Hydrological Design Aid-Surface Water (HDA-SW) Consultancy has been procured by Central Water Commission. The development of model for HDA-SW is in progress.
The Real Time Stream - Flow Forecasting & Reservoir Operation System is being implemented in the State of Maharashtra through consultancy, Procurement of Consultants and Real Time Data Acquisition system equipments are in very advanced stage.
41 Nos of Purpose Driven Studies (PDS) (21 related to Surface Water and 20 related to Ground Water) of various implementing agencies have been approved. The procurement of Consultancies, equipments and civil works, and analysis of data for these PDS is in progress. New States are progressing well in establishemt of observation stations for Surface Water, Ground Water, Water Quality, Meteorology networks; construction of Data Centres (State Data Centre, Divisional Data Centres, Sub-Divisional Data Centres and Sectional Offices); procurement of hardware and software and procurement of equipments. Construction of State Data Centre Building in Himachal Pradesh and Goa has been completed and is in progress in Puducherry.
WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY
Water Quality Assessment Authority (WQAA) has been constituted under Environment Protection Act. 1986, vide Gazettee Notification S.O. 583(E) dated 29th May. 2001 by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New Delhi under Chairmanship of Secretary. Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Joint Secretary (Admn.), Ministry of Water Resources is the Member Secretary of the Authority.
Activities during the year 2010-11
Some of the major activities by the Authority during the year 2010-11 are as follows: l A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has been signed on 17th March, 2011 between WQAA, Govt. of India & WHO in the area of water Quality Monitoring and Assessment activities.
l 8th meeting of Water Quality Assessment Authority was held on 11.10.2010 and follow-up action was taken up.
l State Level Water Quality Review Committees (WQRC) have been reconstituted so far in 9 States as per information received in the Secretariat, WQAA. The remaining States are being persuaded to reconstitute WQRC.
l Following Training programmes were conducted by National River Water
Quality Laboratory, New Delhi during 2010.
1. National Level Training on Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water during
26th-29th July, 2010.
2. Training on water Quality Management during December 2010.
3. Water Quality Data Entry in SWDES in Sep./Oct.2010.
4. Training of Level-1 Water Quality parameters, November 2010.
l The Amendments in the Gazettee Notification of WQAA for inclusion of new
Members has been published and the Amendment extending the term of the
Authority up to 31.03.2017 has been sent for publication in the Gazette of
l CGWB has organized two workshops on Water Quality assessment at
Lucknow on 16th-20th August, 2010 and 20th-24th September, 2010.
l Financial assistance has been given to University of Delhi for organizing "International Workshop on Sustainability and Water Quality" on 17-20th January, 2011. This workshop was hosted by the Global Innovation Imperatives (GII), a collaborative venture between the American Chemical Society (ACS) and the Society of Chemical Industry (SCI)
l A project on preparation of status report on base line ground water quality of NCT, Delhi is being conducted in collaboration with NEERI with full financial support from WQAA. This is one of the important projects to establish the status of ground water quality and is useful for establishment of future monitoring network in NCI, Delhi.
l Financial support had been given to Greentech Foundation, 811 Vishwadeep Tower, District Centre. Janakpuri, New Delhi for organizing 11th Global Environment Conference & Awards programme on 11, 12 & 13th December, 2010.
l Financial support has been given to Janhit Foundation's Project Proposal entitled 'Study of Water Quality of the Existing Water Bodies of Meerut District on GIS Platform'.
l Financial support has been given to Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur towards their Research project Proposal on "Impact of continuous use of effluent containing heavy metal load on water-soil-plant system".
l National Informatics Centre Service Inc. (NICSI), New Delhi has been given the work of "Redesigning and development of the Website for the Water Quality Assessment Authority".
l Financial assistance was given to Green Institute of Research & Development towards organising a National seminor on Sustainable and Innovative solutions for Water Woes on 28.03.2011.
l An independent web portal of the Authority having web address http:// wqaa.gov.in/has been created and the following reports/publications have been uploaded on the web portal.
l Uniform Protocol on Water Quality Monitoring
l Mitigation and Remedy of Ground Water Arsenic Menace in India
l River Water Quality Status
l Ground Water Quality in Bathinda, Mansa & Patiala Districts of Punjab
l Water Quality Standards for various uses of Water
l Ground Water Quality in unconfined aquifers (Shallow aquifers) of India
l Surface Water Quality status and remedial measures taken to improve
the quality of Surface Water
l MoU signed between WQAA and World Health Organization (WHO)
l Approach paper on Ground Water Quality issues in Andaman & Nicobar
and Lakshdweep Islands
l Report of Working Group to Advise WQAA on the Minimum flows in
l Mitigation and Remedy of Ground Water Arsenic Menace in India
l Recommendation of 11th Annual Greentech Environment Global
COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT & WATER MANAGEMENT
The Command Area Development (CAD) Programme was started as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in the year 1974-75 with the objective to bridge the gap between irrigation potential created and that utilized through micro level infrastructure development for efficient water management and enhancement of agricultural production and productivity so as to improve socio-economic conditions of the farmers. The programme was restructured and renamed as Command Area Development & Water Management (CAD & WM) with effect from 01.04.2004. During mid-term appraisal, the Planning Commission has emphasized the need to implement CADWM programme pari passu with creation of infrastructure. Under the CAD&WM Programme, financial assistance is being provided to the State governments on 50:50 basis for construction activities and 75:25 basis to carry out training programmes for field functionaries/farmers, monitoring, evaluation, adaptive trials and demonstrations. Initially, 60 major and medium irrigation projects were taken up under the CAD Programme, covering a Culturable Command Area (CCA) of about 15.00 million hectare. There are now 145 ongoing projects with CCA of 16.02 Mha. The
Scheme is being implemented as a State Sector Scheme during the XI Five Year Plan (2008-09 to 2011-12).
An Area of about 18.06 Mha has been covered under the programme since inception up to end of March, 2007 out of which an area of 1.8 Mha has been covered during the IX Plan and an area of 2.31 Mha has been covered during the X plan. During XI plan. 1.62 Mha has been covered in four years till March, 2011. The National Water Policy, 2002 stresses on participatory approach in water resources management. It has been recognized that participation of beneficiaries will greatly help in the optimal upkeep of irrigation system and utilization of irrigation water.
The participation of farmers in the management of irrigation would give responsibility for operation and maintenance, collection of water charges from the areas under the jurisdiction of Water Users’ Association (WUAs), and redressal of petty grievances. A provision of one time functional grant of r1000/- per hectare is also provided for the registered WUAs under the programme. Minimum contribution of 10 per cent for beneficiaries has been made mandatory in the cost of construction of field channels, reclamation of water logged areas and one time functional grant to WUAs. 56,934 Water Users' Associations (WUAs) have been formed in various States covering an area of 13,538 Mha, under different commands of irrigation projects.
The evaluation made in the past has revealed that the CAD Programme made positive impact on various important indicators, like increase in the irrigated area, productivity and production, irrigation efficiency etc. Despite best efforts being made for efficient irrigation water management, the problem of water logging has surfaced in many irrigated commands. Hence, under the component on reclamation of water logged areas, 579 schemes of 9 States, namely, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh have been approved for reclamation of 78.81 th. ha. of water logged area. Out of this, an area of about 52.11 th. ha. has been reclaimed by these States.
Out of the country’s total geographical area of 329 million hectares, about 45 million hectare is flood prone. Till March 2007, an area of 18.22 mha has been provided with reasonable protection against floods by way of construction of embankments, drainage channels, town protection works and providing raised platforms. The Union Government is providing Central assistance to the flood prone States to take up some of the critical works. The Central Government is also providing 100% Central assistance to West Bengal, Tripura and North-Eastern States for taking up certain priority works along the border.
The Government of India has launched a “Flood Management Programme” as a State sector scheme, to provide Central assistance to the States during XI plan for taking up flood control, river management, drainage development, flood proofing and anti-sea erosion works. Under the Programme, a total of 353 Flood Management Works of critical nature with a total cost of `6796.9 crore (with central assistance of Rs.5351.13 crore)are included from 22 States and a total amount of central assistance of Rs.2667.65 crore has been released to States (including Rs.89.79 crore for spilled over works of X plan) as on 31.03.2011. A total of 218 schemes have been completed by the State Governments as on 31st March 2011.
A network of Flood Forecasting and Warning System has been established by the Central Water Commission in major river basins, and flood forecasts are being issued through 175 stations, out of which 147 are river level forecasting stations and 28 are inflow forecasting stations spread over nine major river basins. During the flood season 2010-11, 7508 flood forecasts (with 98.86% accuracy) were issued to the State Government/local administration in order to take timely action to save live- stocks and public properties. Advance forecasts about (i) water levels likely to be attained in rivers as a result of floods and (ii) volume of inflow into reservoirs are formulated and disseminated to various administrative authorities of Central Government, State Government and District Administration, media and other users on the basis of time data.
GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT IN THE COUNTRY
The ground water development has galloped fast in the last few decades in India. Groundwater has emerged as the prime source of drinking and irrigation. 92 percent of present groundwater withdrawal is being used for irrigation purpose thus contributing largely in food security of the country. Groundwater contributes as the principal source of drinking water especially in rural areas and significantly in urban areas. However, the development of ground water in different parts of the country has not been uniform. Highly intensive development of ground water in certain areas has resulted in over exploitation leading to decline in the levels of ground water and sea water intrusion in coastal areas.
There is a continuous increase in groundwater over-exploited areas in the country. As per the 2004 assessment of ground water resources carried out jointly by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and the States, the assessment units are categorized as 'over exploited, 'critical' and 'semi-critical' based on the stage of ground water development and the long-term water level declining trend during the past decade (1995-2004).
Categorization of Blocks/Mandals/Talukas in India (As per March 2004 Estimates) Sl. Total No. of assessed Safe Semi- Critical Over exploited No. units in India critical No % No % No % No % 1 5723 4078 71 550 10 226 4 839 15 Out of 5,723 assessment units (Blocks/Mandals/Talukas) in the country, 839 units in various States have been categorized as over exploited, i.e., the annual ground water extraction exceeds the annual replenishable resource. In addition, 226 units are 'critical', i.e., the stage of ground water development is above 90% and less than 100 percent of annual replenishable resource with significant decline in long term water level trend in both pre-monsoon and postmonsoon period. There are 550 semi-critical units, where the stage of ground water development is more than 70 per cent. List of these areas has been circulated to the State Pollution Control Boards and the Ministry of Environment and Forests which refers the new industries/projects falling in these areas to the Central Ground water authority CGWA for obtaining clearance for ground water withdrawal.
ADVISORY COUNCIL ON ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF GROUND WATER
Artificial Recharge to Ground Water Advisory Council has been constituted by the Government in the year, 2006 under the Chairmanship of Hon'ble Minister of Water Resources. The main objective of the Advisory Council is to popularise the concept of artificial recharge of ground water among various stakeholders. The Advisory Council comprises of Members from the concerned Central Ministries/Departments, representatives of State Governments, Public Undertakings, financial Institutions, representatives of industries and renowned subject experts/farmers/NGOs. As per the recommendation of the Council, various actions have been initiated which include:-
l Implementation of 5,000 Farmers Participatory Action Research Programme (FPARP) in 25 States/UTs of the Country.
l Organization of National Ground Water Congres.
l Institution of Ground Water Augmentation Awards & National Water Awardto encourage the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)/Gram Panchayats/Urban Local Bodies/Institutions/Corporate Sector and individuals.
l Preparation of a policy on use of water for industries.
FARMERS PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH PROGRAMME (FPARP) l During the inaugural address at the first meeting of the Artificial Recharge of Ground Water Advisory Council held on 22nd July 2006 at New Delhi, The Hon'ble Prime Minister emphasized that "we have to minimize our water use, invest in science and technology to ensure that we can grow crops which use less water. In other words, find ways of valuing the crop per drop".
l To implement the suggestion of the Hon'ble Prime Minister, the Council approved the "More Crop and income per Drop of Water" report for implementation through Farmers Participatory Action Research Programme (FPARP) in the country.
l The Ministry of Water Resources has sanctioned 5,000 demonstrations under FPARPs in two to three crop seasons through 60 identified institutes which include agricultural universities, ICAR research institutes, ICRISAT and WALMIS etc. in 25 States/UTs in the country, at a cost of about r 24 crore with the objective of demonstrating the technologies available to the farmers for increasing productivity and profitability of agriculture through generating synergy among water, crops and their varieties, agronomic practices, soil nutrients and implements. l Each progamme covers a minimum of one hectare and is being implemented in a participatory mode, with the farm family having a sense of ownership of the programme.
l The performance of the programme is being monitored by the field formations of CWC & CGWB. l In the first phase (2007-2011), a total of 4912 demos have been completed under Farmers Participatory Action Research Programmes (FPARPs).
Technologies, namely, Micro irrigation system (drip & sprinkler irrigation). Water conservation (Jalkund, Storage tanks, percolation tanks, Check darms, recharging wells etc.), Crop Diversification and multiple use of water, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), in-situ soil moisture conservation, micronutrient management etc. envisaged for demonstration to the farmers.
Ministry of water Resources released r 21.586 Crore in phase I. l As per reports, the impact of technologies demonistrated have shown a substantial water saving as well as increase in yield varying from wheat (5 to 66.67%), vegetables (20.94 to 50%) and paddy (8.1 to 65%). The yield improvement of the crops ranges between 4.3 to 43% for wheat, 5 to 55% for vegetables and 8 to 62% for paddy. The water saving through micro irrigation is reported from 10% to 80%. System of Rice intensification (SRI) - 14.24% to 54, Land leveling / configuration - 0.4% to 42.2%, Pit method/ paired row planting of Sugarcane -5.41% to 46.7% etc. Farmers also have shown their interest to support the programme in view of the benefits accruing to them. l Considering the overall benefit of the programme in terms of water saving, increase in yield leading to more crop per drop of water etc., the Ministry of Water Resources has considered for expansion of FPARP during the last period of XIth Five Year Plan, i.e. year 2011-12. Independent evaluation is in progress for the completed demos by MoWR. Funds have been released as R 14.31 Crore for phase 2 for conducting 2921 demonstrations by 31 institutes.
GROUND WATER AUGMENTATION AWARDS & NATIONAL WATER
l The Ministry of Water Resources instituted Bhoomijal Samvardhan Puraskars (Ground Water Augmentation Awards) including one National Water Award in the year 2007.
l The awards aim to encourage the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)/ Gram Panchayats/Urban Local Bodies(for population up to 1 lakh)/ Institutions/corporate sector and individuals for adopting innovative practices of ground water augmentation by rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge, promoting water use efficiency, recycling and re-use of water and creating awareness through people's participation in the targeted areas for sustainability of ground water resources.
l There are 21 Ground Water Augmentation Awards (Bhoomijal Samvardhan Puraskars) for all categories taken together. Each award consists of a cash award of Rs.1 lakh and a plaque with citation.
l There is one National Water Award amongst 21 Award winners for best innovative practices of water conservation etc. consisting of a cash award of Rs.10 lakh and a plaque with citation.
l The detailed guidelines of the awards are available on the website of the Ministry of Water Resources at http://mowr.gov.in/ under Guidelines– National Water Award.
l The nominations for Awards/Puraskars as forwarded/recommended by the Nodal Departments of the States/UTs are shortlisted by a Selection Committee (Jury) which comprises of a Chairperson and four expert Members.
l So far the awards were given in 2007, 2010 and 2011 during the National Groundwater Congres at New Delhi. l For the year 2007, Her Excellency, the President of India gave away the National Water Award to Hiware Bazar Gram Panchayat, Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra, and l For 2008, the National water award were given away by Hon'ble Union Minister of Water Resources, Govt. of India to the Vruksha Prem Seva Trust, Junagarh, Gujarat l For 2009, the National water award were given away by Hon'ble Union Minister of Water Resources, Govt. of India to the Jagabalia watershed Association, Bolangir district, Orissa. l Bhoomijal Samvardhan Puraskars were given away to the Gram Panchayats/ NGOs/Local Bodies categories.
SCHEME ON ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER THROUGH DUG WELLS
Pursuant to the announcement made by Hon'ble Minister of Finance in his Budget Speech, 2007, a state sector scheme on "Artificial Recharge to Ground Water through dugwells" during XI Plan is under implementation in 1180 over-exploited, critical and semi-critical blocks in the seven States, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Salient features of the Scheme l Total number of irrigation dug wells proposed for recharge is 4.45 million, and of which 2.72 million were owned by small and marginal farmers and 1.73 million owned by other farmers. Average cost of recharges structure per well is r 4000.
l The beneficiaries would be farmers having own well in their agricultural land. l Provision has been made for 100% subsidy to small and marginal farmers and 50% subsidy to other farmers.
The funding of the scheme will be done by Ministry of Finance through NABARD. 1. In order to implement the scheme, state nodal department was identified in each participating state having role of identification of beneficiaries, preparation of list of beneficiaries with information of their agricultural land dug well and bank accounts and capacity building & awareness of beneficiaries for construction of dug well recharge facility. Further District level implementation & monitoring Committee (DLMIC) were responsible for implementation of dugwell recharge scheme in each district. 2. An amount of Rs.1499.27 crore has been released by the Ministry of Finance (MoF) to NABARD (programme partner) for releasing subsidy to beneficiary farmers and funds to state for awareness activities. The Ministry of Water Resosurces (MoWR) is the nodal ministry for the purpose of monitoring the progress of the scheme at national level and to take measures for experience sharing among all stakeholders, knowledge transfer and awareness.
3. As on 31st May 2011, Rs.280.815 Cr has been utilized as subsidy to the beneficiaries (Rs.260.937 Cr), and information, Education and communication (IEC)/capacity building activities (`17 Cr), awareness by Ministry (Rs.0.2417 Cr) and operating cost by NABARD (Rs.2.6358 Cr). State-wise details of funds released in the scheme are indicated below: Sl. State fund Released Fund released Total Fund No. of dug well No. as subsidy to to states/Min. for released recharge structures beneficiaries IEC activities. As on 31.3.10 completed (Rs.in Cr) (Rs.in Cr)
1 Andhra Pradesh 0 0.00 0.00 0
2 Gujarat 47.713 3.25 50.963 8040
3 Karnataka 26.252 2.00 28,252 11007
4 Madhya Pradesh 39.604 2.00 41.604 22832
5 Maharashtra 14.031 2.00 16.031 38023
6 Rajasthan 29.743 2.00 31.743 4398
7 Tamil Nadu 103.594 5.75 109.344 21212
Ministry 0.242 0.242
NABARD 2,6358 2,6358
Total 260.937 17.242 280.8148 105512
NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL
National Water Resources Council was set up by the Government of India in March 1983. The Prime Minister is the Chairman, Union Minister of Water Resources is the Vice-Chairman, and Minister of State Chief Ministers of all States and Lieutenant Governors/Administrators of the Union Territories are the Members. Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources is the Secretary of the Council.
NATIONAL WATER BOARD
The Government of India constituted a National Water Board in September 1990 under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources to review the progress achieved in implementation of the National Water Policy and to report the progress to the National Water Resources Council from time to time. The Secretaries of Union Ministries of Agriculture, Rural Development, Urban Development, Surface Transport, Environment & Forests, Planning and Science & Technology, Chairman, Central Water Commission, Chief Secretaries of all States/Union Territories are its Members and Member (Water Planning & Projects), Central Water Commission is the Member Secretary. The 13th meeting of National Water Board was held on 18 September 2009.
The Union Government is having continuous dialogue with the Government of Nepal at various levels for bilateral cooperation in the field of water resources development.
A treaty on Integrated Development of Mahakali River was signed between the Government of India and the Government of Nepal in February 1996, which came into force in June 1997. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project on river Mahakali (known as river Sarda in India), is the centerpiece of Mahakali Treaty. India-Nepal Joint Group of Experts (JGE) has been overseeing the physical and financial progress with respect to finalization of Joint Detailed Project Report of Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project. All related field investigations have been completed and Detailed Project Report is to be finalized after resolving the pending issues, which are under discussion with Nepal. The project will have power and irrigation benefits besides incidental benefits of flood moderation.
During the 3rd meeting of India-Nepal Joint Committee on Water Resources (JCWR) headed by Secretaries of Water Resources held from 29.09.08 to 01.10.08 at Kathmandu (Nepal), it was decided to set up Pancheshwar Development Authority (PDA) at the earliest for the development, execution and operation of Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project. During the 4th meeting of JCWR held on 12-13 March 2009 at New Delhi, draft Terms of Reference (TOR) of PDA were also discussed. During the 5th meeting of JCWR held on 20-22 November, 2010 at Pakhara (Nepal), the Terms of Reference (TOR) of PDA were jointly finalized.
Agreement has also been reached with Nepal to take up joint field investigations, studies and preparation of Detailed Project of Sapta Kosi High Dam Multipurpose Project and Sun Kosi Storage-cum-Diversion Scheme. A Joint Project Office was opened in August 2004 in Nepal for undertaking the above work. It was to complete the investigation works by February, 2007. However, because of the prevailing situation in Nepal, the field investigations have been delayed. The field works of Kosi High Dam site in Nepal, are suspended since May 2007 due to security reasons. On the repeated request of the Government of India to provide security at Sapta Kosi High Dam sites, the Government of Nepal has established a police post of Barahkshetra. However, the suspended works have not yet been resumed. In order to rationalize the number of technical committees and to put in place an effective joint mechanism, a three tier mechanism comprising of (i) Joint Ministerial Level Commission on Water Resources (JMCWR) at the level of Ministers of Water Resources of India and Nepal (ii) existing JCWR at the level of Secretaries (WR) of India and Nepal, and (iii) Joint Standing Technical Committee (JSTC) of the level of Chairman, Ganga Flood Control Commission, Patna was agreed to, in the 3rd meeting of JCWR, held from 29th September 2008 to 1st October 2008 at Kathmandu (Nepal). During the 4th meeting of JCWR, Terms of Reference of JMCWR were finalized.
A scheme titled “Comprehensive Scheme for Establishment of Hydro-meteorological and Flood Forecasting Network on rivers Common to India and Bhutan” is in operation. The network consists of 35 hydro-meteorological/meteorological stations located in Bhutan and is being maintained by the Royal Government of Bhutan with funding from India. The data received from these stations are utilized in India by the Central Water Commission for formulating flood forecasts. A Joint Expert Team (JET) consisting of officials from the Government of India and Royal Government of Bhutan continuously reviews the progress and other requirements of the scheme.
The matter relating to problem of floods created by the rivers originating from Bhutan and coming to India was taken up with the Royal Government of Bhutan. A Joint Group of Expert (JGE) on Flood Management has been constituted between India and Bhutan to discuss and assess the probable causes and effects of the recurring floods and erosion in the southern foothills of Bhutan and adjoining plains in India and recommend to both Governments appropriate and mutually acceptable remedial measures. Three meetings of JGE have been held so far. The first meeting of JGE was held in Bhutan from 1st to 5th November, 2004, the second meeting was held on February, 26-27, 2008 at New Delhi and the third meeting was held on February, 6-10, 2011 at Thimphu, Bhutan.
In accordance with the decision taken during the first meeting of JGE, a joint Technical Team (JTT) on Flood Management between the two countries was constituted. JTT was considered in the 2nd meeting of JGE. JGE reconstituted JTT with Chief Engineer, CWC, Shillong as its team leader (Indian Side). The 1st meeting of reconstituted JTT was held in Bhutan on 13-16 September, 2010. The recommendation made by JTT for the issues addressed were considered in the 3rd meeting of JGE held on 6th - 10th Feburary, 2011 at Thimpu, Bhutan. JGE inter-alia directed the JTT to make field visits to the mines area which could not be visited by JTT due to time constraint and weather conditions during the 1st meeting of the reconstituted JTT to assess the causes of landslides and flooding and suggest remedial measures.
An Indo-Bangladesh Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) headed by Water Resources Ministers of both the countries is functioning since 1972 with a view to maintaining liaison in order to ensure the most effective joint effort in maximizing the benefits from common river systems. A Treaty was signed by the Prime Ministers of India and Bangladesh on 12 December 1996 for the sharing of Ganga/Ganges waters. The Treaty shall remain in force for a period of thirty years to be renewable by mutual consent. A Joint Committee has been set up for implementing, joint inspections and monitoring of the sharing arrangements at Farakka in India and at Hardinge Bridge in Bangladesh for the dry season (January to May) every year. The 37th meeting of Indo-Bangladesh JRC was held of New Delhi from 17th- 20th March 2010 wherein various matters pertaining to cooperation in Water Resources sector with Bangladesh were discussed.
The meeting was held in a very friendly and cordial atmosphere. The important outcome of the meeting was that it has strengthened the mutual trust and created goodwill between the two sides. Indian side agreed to provide additional information of Sahebganj site for flood forecasting on river Ganga. Regarding apprehensions of Bangladesh on Tipaimukh dam project and river inter-linking project, Indian side reiterated that it would not take steps that may adversely affect Bangladesh. The JRC reviewed the agreements made between the two sides during the Secretary level meeting held in January, 2010 and 2011 and other technical level meetings. The JRC noted with satisfaction that both sides have been able to resolve their difference on implementing of long pending river bank protection works and construction of embankments along the common/border rivers. It was also noted
that during the Secretary level meeting in January, 2010. It was agreed that 1.82 cusecs of water may be withdrawn by India from Feni river for drinking water supply scheme for Sabroom town of South Tripura. During the Secretary level meeting in January, 2011, two draft agreements for interim sharing of waters of river Teesta and Feni have been finalized. As per the directives of the Hon'ble Prime Ministers of Bangladesh and India reflected in the Joint Communique on the occasion of the visit of Prime Minister of Bangladesh to India in January, 2010, the Commission had threadbare discussions on sharing of waters of Teesta and other common rivers. Both sides have exchanged their views in this regard and the differences were narrowed down. The meeting has been able to establish a good rapport between both the countries. The Commission directed the Secretaries of Water Resources of both sides to meet and examine the remaining issues so that an expeditious solution may be arrived at. The next meeting of JRC is due to be held at Dhaka. A new chapter in the Indo-Bangladesh relations opened up wth signing of a Treaty by the Prime Minister of India and Bangladesh on 12th December 1996, on the sharing of Ganga/Ganges waters at Farakka during the lean season. As per the Treaty, the Ganges water is distributed at Farakka (which is the last control point on river Ganga in India) during lean period, from 1st January to 31st May every year on 10 daily basis as per the formula provided in the Treaty. The validity of treaty is 30 years. Though there is provision of review of Treaty after 5 years, no party has asked for its review so far. The sharing of water as per the Treaty is monitored by a Joint Committee comprising the members of Joint River Commission from Bangladesh and India. Three meetings of the Joint Committee are held every year. The Treaty is being implemented to the satisfaction of both the countries since 1997. India is providing the flood data of Farakka and Sahebganj for Ganga (from 15th June to 15th October) and the flood data of Pandu, Goal Para and Dhubri for Brahmaputra and of Silchar for Barak during monsoon period (From 15th May to 15th October) on continuous basis to Bangladesh for use of their flood forecasting and warning arrangements. Besides the data of river Teesta, Manu, Gumti, Jaladhaka and Torsa etc. is also provided. The transmission of flood forecasting information from India during the monsoon, which is being supplied free of cost, has enabled the civil and military authorities in Bangladesh to shift the population affected by flood to safer places.
During the Secretary level meeting held in January, 2010 at Dhaka, details of bank protection works for 38 Indian sites and 28 Bangladesh sites were exchanged. Further, during the Technical level meeting held at Kolkata on 1.2.2010, details of 12 new Indian sites and 22 new Bangladesh sites were exchanged. At present, both sides have agreed to undertake the works on 50 sites each on common/border rivers. Out of 50 sites on Indian side, the works on 21 sites would be implemented by the Government of Tripura and for 29 sites by the Government of West Bengal. These works are being implemented with 100% grant-in-aid to the state governments under the scheme "River Management Activities & Works Related to Border Areas". It has already been agreed that the aforesaid works will be executed simultaneously from 1st February, 2010 and would be completed in the next three years. The dredging work of Ichhamati river from village Barnberia to Kalanchi bridge was also agreed. This work is required to ease out the flood congestion in the adjacent area in West Bengal. The work has been started by the Government of West Bengal from 15th
March, 2010 and scheduled to be completed by June, 2011. The dredging work is being monitored by Indo-Bangladesh Joint Monitoring Team. Further, the Secretary (WR) level meeting was also held in January, 2011 at Dhaka for discussion on sharing of waters of common/border rivers and substantial progress has been made on this issue.
In the year 2002, the Government of India had entered into an MoU with China for provision of hydrological information on Yaluzangbu/Brahmaputra river in flood season by China to India. In accordance with the provisions contained in the MoU, the Chinese side is providing hydrological information (Water level, Discharge and Rainfall) in respect of three stations, namely, Nugesha, Yangcun and Nuxia located on river Yaluzangbu/ Brahmaputra from 1st June to 15th October every year, which is utilized in the formulation of flood forecasts by the Central Water Commission. This MoU expired in 2007.
The Hon'ble President of the People's Republic of China paid a state visit to the Republic of India from 20 to 23 November, 2006. During the visit, it was agreed to set up an Expert Level Mechanism (ELM) to discuss interaction and co-operation on provision of flood season hydrological data, emergency management and other issues regarding trans-border rivers as agreed between them. Accordingly, the two sides have set up the Joint Expert Level Mechanism. The Expert Group from Indian side is led by Joint Secretary level officers. Five meetings of ELM have been held so far.
The first meeting of the Joint Expert Level Mechanism was held on 19-21 September 2007 at Beijing, wherein the issues related to bilateral cooperation on exchange of hydrological information between the two countries were discussed. The 2nd meeting of Expert Level Mechanism (ELM) on Trans-Border rivers was held at New Delhi from 10-12 April 2008. During the meeting, work regulations of the Expert Level Mechanism were agreed and signed by the two sides. It has been agreed that the Expert Level Mechanism shall meet once every year, alternatively in China and India. The 3rd meeting of the Expert Level Mechanism (ELM) was held at Beijing from 21st to 25th April 2009 which helped in understanding of each other's position for smooth transmission of flood season hydrological data. The 4th meeting of ELM was held from 26-29 April, 2010 at New Delhi. The 5th meeting of ELM was held from 19-22 April, 2011 wherein the implementation plan in respect of MoU on Sutlej was signed between the two countries.
MOU ON RIVER BRAHMAPUTRA
A new Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on hydrological information of the Brahmaputra/Yaluzangbu River in flood season by China to India with a validity of five years has been signed with China on 05 June 2008 during the visit of the External Affairs Minister of India to Beijing from 4-7 June 2008. The Implementation Plan between the Bureau of Hydrology & Water Resources, Tibet Autonomous Region, the People's Republic of China and the Central Water commission, Ministry of water Resources, the Republic of India upon provision of Hydrological Information of the Yaluzangbu/Brahmaputra River in Flood Season by China to India was signed during the 4th meeting of Expert Level Mechanism on TransWater
Border Rivers held from 26th to 29th April, 2010 in New Delhi. The hydrological information during the flood season every year is received in terms of the signed implementation plan.
MOU ON RIVER SUTLEJ
Another Memorandum of Understanding has been signed during the visit of the Chinese Premier to India in April 2005 for supply of hydrological information in respect of Sutlej (Langqen Zangbu), in flood season. Chinese side is providing hydrological information in respect of their Tsada station on river Sutlej (Langqen Zangbu) from the monsoon of 2007. Implementation Plan was signed in this regard during April, 2008. The MoU in respect of Sutlej river expired in April, 2010. A new MoU upon provision of hydrological information of Sutlej/Langqen Zangbo river in flood season by China to India with a validity of five years has been signed with China on 16.12.2010 during the visit of Hon'ble Prime Minister of China to India during December, 2010. The Implementation Plan containing technical details of provision of hydrological information, data transmission method and cost settlement etc. in respect of the MoU on Sultej was signed between the two countries during the 5th ELM held in April, 2011 at Beijing, China. The hydrological information during the flood season, 2011 is being received in terms of the signed implementation plan.
INDUS WATER TREATY, 1960
Under the Indus Water Treaty, 1960, India and Pakistan have created two permanent posts of Commissioners for Indus Waters, one each in India and Pakistan. who are representative of the respective Governments for all matters arising out of the treaty and serve as the regular channel of communication with regard to implementation of the Treaty. The two Commissioners together form the Permanent Indus Commission (PIC). The PIC holds periodical meetings and also undertakes tours of inspection to projects/works in India and Pakistan. By way of implementation of the Treaty, the PIC held its 105th meeting at New Delhi and its 106th meeting at Lahore to discuss the issues raised by Pakistan. India also arranged the 111th tour of inspection of PIC in Feb. 2011 and undertook the 112th tour of PIC in Pakistan in
The Disputes related to Kishenganga HE Project are being examined by a Court of Arbitration constituted under the provisions of Indus Waters Treaty 1960 on Pakistan's request. The Court held its first meeting at the Hague in January 2011 and had a site visit on both Indian and POK sides in June 2011. Secretary level talks as part of Composite Dialogue to discuss Tulbul Navigation Project were held in May 2011 in Islamabad. As a gesture of goodwill, flood data of the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Tawi is being communicated to Pakistan with effect from 01.07.2010 for undertaking advance flood warning measures.
The Central Water Commission (CWC) is a premier technical organisation in the country in the field of water resources since 1945. The Commission is entrusted with the responsibilities of initiating, co-ordinating and furthering schemes for
control, conservation and utilisation of water resources throughout the country in consultation with the State governments concerned for purposes of flood control, irrigation, drinking water supply and hydro power development. CWC also undertakes investigation, construction and execution of any such schemes as required.
The CWC is headed by a Chairman, who also holds the status of Ex-officio Secretary to the Government of India. It has three technical wings, namely, (i) Design and Research, (ii) Water Planning and Projects, and (iii) River Management. Each of the wings is headed by an engineering officer designated as Member, with the Exofficio status of an Additional Secretary to the Government of India. The wings consist of organisations headed by Chief Engineers, with Directorates under them, each headed by a Director/S.E. There are 32 organisations and 147 Directorates/ Circles under the CWC.
There are thirteen regional organisations of CWC which are functioning from Bengaluru, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Coimbatore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Nagpur, Patna, Shillong, Siliguri and Gandhi Nagar, each headed by a Chief Engineer. These organisations closely interact with the States and are entrusted with the monitoring of medium and major projects, command area development, rehabilitation and renovation of water bodies, minor irrigation and other water management activities, appraisal of medium projects, flood forecasting and hydrological observations.
BROAD FUNCTIONS OF CWC
l To carry out techno-economic appraisal of irrigation, flood control and multipurpose projects proposed by the State Governments. l To collect, compile, publish and analyse the hydrological data relating to major rivers in the country, consisting of rainfall, runoff and temperature, etc. and to act as the central bureau of information in respect of these matters. l To collect, maintain and publish statistical data relating to water resources and its utilization including quality of water throughout India and to act as the central bureau of information relating to water resources. l To provide flood forecasting services to all major flood prone inter-state river basins of India through a network of 175 flood forecasting stations. l Monitoring of selected major and medium irrigation projects, to ensure the achievement of physical and financial targets. Monitoring of projects under Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP), and Command Area Development (CAD) programme has also been included in its field of activities. l To advise the Government of India and the concerned State Governments on the basin-wise development of water resources.
l To undertake necessary surveys and investigations as and when so required, to prepare designs and schemes for the development of river valleys in respect of power generation, irrigation by gravity flow or lift, flood management, environmental management, resettlement and rehabilitation, soil conservation, anti-water logging measures, reclamation of alkaline and saline soils, drainage and drinking water supply.
l To undertake construction work of any river valley development scheme on behalf of the Government of India or State Government concerned.
l To advise and assist, when so required, the State Governemts (Commissions, Corporations or Boards that are set up) in the investigation, surveys and preparation of river valley and power development schemes for particular areas and regions.
l To advise the Government of India in respect of Water Resources Development, regarding rights and disputes between different States which affect any scheme for the conservation and utilization and any matter that may be referred to the Commission in connection with river valley development. l To impart training to in-service engineers from Central and State Organisations in various aspects of water resource development. l To initiate studies on socio-agro-economic and ecological aspects of irrigation projects for the sustained development of irrigation. l To conduct and coordinate research on the various aspects of river valley development schemes such as flood management, Irrigation, navigation, water power development. etc. and the connected structural and design features. l To promote modern data collection techniques such as remote sensing technology for water resources development, flood forecasting and development of related computer software. l To conduct studies on dam safety aspects for the existing and future dams and standardize the instruments for dam safety measures. l To carry out morphological studies to assess river behaviour, bank erosion/ coastal erosion problems and advise the Central and State Governments on all such matters. l To promote and create mass awareness regarding the progress and achievements made by the country in the water resources development, use and conservation. Central Soil and Material Research Station The Central Soil and Materials Research Station (CSMRS), New Delhi is a premier organization in the field of soil-mechanics, rock mechanics, construction materials and allied fields specially in respect of water resources projects. The mandate of CSMRS is basic and applied research followed by consultancy and dissemination of knowledge. Further, this research station provides technical assistance to the Departments of Central and State Governments, Public Sector Undertakings and other agencies in India and abroad, covering areas such as soil mechanic and foundation engineer including soil dynamics, geotextiles, soil chemistry and rockfill technology, concrete technology, drilling technology for sub surface characterization and construction materials rock mechanics including laboratory testing, in-situ testing, instrumentation, engineering geophysics and numerical modeling, concrete chemistry, electronic and information technology. CSMRS has recently established instrumentation Demonstration Centre and Numerical Modelling Unit with state-of-art equipments and softwares. It has successfully undertaken investigations on more than 2000 projects in the last two and half decades and disseminated knowledge of several engineers and scientists working in both governmental and non-governmental organizations.
Central Water and Power Research Station The Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS), Khadakwasla, Pune, is the centre of excellence in hydraulic research at the national level. From its inception in 1916 as an agency dealing with the twin problems of irrigation and drainage, CWPRS is an institution of international standing in hydraulic research. The mandate of the institution encompasses undertaking specific research studies supported by necessary basic research. Comprehensive R&D support is offered to a variety of projects dealing with water resources, power and waterborne transport. Consultancy and advisory services are rendered to a variety of clients of the institution within the sphere of its activities. Disseminating expertise and research findings amongst hydraulic fraternity and promoting hydraulic research activities at other institutions by imparting training to their research manpower are also undertaken. As the regional laboratory of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) since 1971, CWPRS has contributed in many projects in the neighbourhood as well as countries in the Middle East and Africa.
The major disciplines/laboratories of CWPRS are: River Engineering, Reservoir and Appurtenant Structures, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Ship Hydrodynamics, Hydraulic Machinery, Earth Sciences, Mathematical Modelling, Foundation & Structures and Instrumentation & Control Engineering. About 50 Divisions - well equipped with state-of-the-art equipment, software and other high quality infrastructure – are engaged in hydraulic research at the institution within the ambit of the disciplines/laboratories mentioned above. The institution, with an interdisciplinary approach in all its activities, represents unique services available to the country and the ESCAP region. The major client of CWPRS include: Central / State Government Agencies / Departments, research institutes, Port Trusts, Public private sector undertakings and Municipal Corporations.
CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
Ground Water Management and Regulation Scheme Ministry of Water Resources through Central Ground water Board, which is a multidisciplinary Scientific Organization with the mandate to "Develop and disseminate technologies for scientific and sustainable development and management of India's Ground Water Resources including monitoring, exploration, assessment and augmentation". Activities of ground water studies, exploration, monitoring, assessment etc., which are of continuing nature, were earlier covered under the scheme of "Ground Water Survey, Exploration and Investigation". In view of the emergent ground water situation in various parts of the country, the need has been felt for proper management of ground water resources including their augmentation and regulated development etc. The following activities are conducted annually to achieve the objective of the GWM&R scheme by CGWB :
Ground water l Evaluate the changes in For 1.5 lakh km Management quantity and quality of the area of the country every Studies ground water regime year in 1:50000 scale l Prepare ground water management plans Special studies in problem As per the requirement Areas viz. ground water depletion, seawater ingress and geogenic contamination etc. Ground water Exploratory drilling aided by The Board has drilled 15803 Exploration geophysical and remote exploratory well till 31st sensing studies to decipher March 2011. In addition, it has the GW potential of various constructed 6242 observation geological formations wells, 3915 piezometers, 361 slim holes and 3635 deposit well to collect scientific datas. l During 2010-11. 50 wells with discharge ranging from 1000 litre per hour to 115000 litre per hour have been constructed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, J&K Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The study will help in identifying ground water sources and in guiding the states to adopt follow up action with regard to ground water development for drinking water supply and other demands. l During 2010-11, 1862 Vertical Electrical Soundings, 6.23 line kilometer resistively profiling and geophysical logging of 90 bore holes have been conducted in various parts of the country to support and supplement ground water management studies, ground water exploration and shortterm water supply investigations to demarcate bedrock configuration and thickness of overburden, saline-fresh water interface etc. Ground Water l Through a network of Monitoring of National Monitoring 15,600 shallow and deep Hydrograph Stations (NHS) observation wells (NHS) are conducted for to assess the ground water groundwater levels four regime changes in time times in a year and for and space for the country quality once in a year. The l Urban Groundwater water level data are made monitoring in few cities available in public domain for reference.
l 18213 water samples have been analyzed during the year 2010-11, out of which 14455 samples were analysed for basic constituents, 3192 samples for heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, CO, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb etc. 566 samples for organic and specific constituents. Artificial Through Central Sector The Board has undertaken Recharge Scheme, the Board is actively 165 pilot artificial recharge involved in implementing projects in which more than construction of artificial 750 artificial recharge recharge structures and structures were completed impact assessment along during IX plan in 27 states with State govt. agencies wherein feasibility, design, so that successful technique funds and complete of recharging can be technical guidance were replicated. given to State govt. agencies. l Impact assessment studies conducted at the construction of the artificial recharge structures have shown locally rise in groundwater level/arrest in declining groundwater level, sustainability of shallow tube wells, reviving of dry dug wells & shallow tube wells, improvement in quality of water and overall greenery in the area due to increase in soil moisture. Central Ground Groundwater Regulation in The CGWA has so far Water Authority over exploited area in the notified 43 over-exploited (CGWA) country areas in the country for regulation of ground water development and management. l For enforcement of the regulatory directions issued under Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, concerned Deputy Commissioners/District Magistrates have been authorized to take necessary action in case of violation of directives of CGWA in the notified areas. For more effective regulation of ground water development and management, Advisory Committees under the Chairmanship of District Collector/Deputy Commissioners with members drawn from various organizations have been constituted which will render advice in matters pertaining to regulation of ground water development and management.
RGI plan scheme was first adopted during IXth five year plan and is running continuously since 1997 under Central Ground Water Board, MoWR. The scheme started looking into the emerging problems of ground water management being
faced in the country. For proper planning, development and management of ground water resources, its extent and disposition need to be fully delineated. It is therefore essential that the professionals handling this resource are adequately and appropriately equipped with practical training including knowledge of new and innovative technologies. Training facilities in the ground water sector in the country are meager. The CGWB has expertise and knowhow for capacity building in ground water sector. For providing the proper infrastructure and manpower for research and training, the RGNGWTRI was launched at Raipur. The institute had the mandate to meet the training and research requirement of professionals and sub professionals working in ground water sector.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME
1. To provide training to ground water professionals and sub-professionals in ground water investigations, development and management techniques. 2. Setting up well equipped laboratories, a library, a computer center, and a documentation center. 3. To take up R&D studies in Ground Water Sector. ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER THE SCHEME l RGI since its inception has conducted 185 training courses and imparted training to more than 3900 personnel in various fields (till March, 2011). This includes two international courses. l During XIth Plan (2007-2012), a total of 96 courses are proposed to be organised up to March 2011. 92 courses were organized during XIth plan and 32 courses are scheduled in 2011-12.
NATIONAL LEVEL PAINTING COMPETITION ON WATER CONSERVATION
Central Ground Water Board organized First National Level Painting Competition on Water Conservation on 21st January 2011 at CSMRS, New Delhi under the auspices of Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. A total of 63 winner students of IV to VI standards from all over the country (three from each Regional office) participated in National Level Painting Competition. Painting experts' Juries have selected 23 students for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and consolation awards. The 1st prize winner was from the Andhra Pradesh State.
FARAKKA BARRAGE PROJECT
The Farakka Barrage Project was constructed for preservation and maintenance of Kolkata Port by improving the regime and navigability of the Bhagirathi-Hoogly river system. The river Bhagirathi, the feeder canal and navigation lock at Farakka form part of the Haldia-Allahabad Inland Waterway. The principal components of the project are: (a) 2,245 metre long barrage across the Ganga with a rail-cum-road bridge, river training works, a head regulator on the right side, (b) 213 metre long barrage across the river Bhagirathi at Jangipur, (c) Feeder canal of 1113 cubic metres per second (40,000 cubic feet per second) carrying capacity and 38.38 km long, taking off from the head regulator on the right of the Farakka Barrage, and (d) navigation works such as locks, lock channels, navigation lights and other infrastructure. Farakka Barrage Project authority also undertakes emergent/regular anti erosion works since 2005 along the bank of the river Ganga in the critical reaches between Rajmahal and Jalangi.
BANSAGAR CONTROL BOARD
The Bansagar Control Board was constituted by the Central Government in consultation with the Governments of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh with a view to ensure efficient, economical and early execution of the Bansagar Dam on Sone river, including all connected works in Madhya Pradesh but excluding the canal systems. The headquarters of the Board is at Rewa (M.P.). The day-to-day activities of the Board are managed by an Executive Committee of the Board under the Chairmanship of Chairman, Central Water Commission. Funds for the project are borne by the beneficiary States of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the ratio of 2:1:1.
The revised cost of the Dam Project is Rs. 1,582.94 crore (at 2009 price level). The total expenditure for an amount of Rs.1508.29 crore upto October, 2010 has been incurred on the project. The work on the DAM including Crest Gates have been completed in June 2006 and the reservoirs has been filled to EL 334.06 m against FRL 341.65 m in September, 2010. Power generation is 425 MW up to September 2010 in the financial year 2010-11.
The project will provide annual irrigation to 2049 lakh hectare in Madhya Pradesh, 1.5 hectare in Uttar Pradesh and 0.94 lakh hectare in Bihar towards stabilizing its existing Sone Canal System. All 18 nos. spillway blocks have been completed upto crest level (RL 326.4 m). Non overflow blocks on either side upto top elevation of RL 347 M has been completed. All irrigation sluices, spillway bridges, 6 saddle dams, rock fill dam upto RL 347 M have been completed. So far, 72 meetings of Executive Committee have taken place. Ganga Flood Control Commission Ganga Flood Control Commission (GFCC), with its headquarters at Patna, was established in 1972. It serves as the Secretariat and executive limb of Ganga Flood Control Board which is headed by Union Minister for Water Resources and its members are the Union Minister for Finance, Railways, Surface Transport and Agriculture or their representatives, Union Minister of State for Water Resources, the Chief Ministers of the basin States or their representatives and Member, Planning Commission. The Commission is headed by a Chairman who is assisted by two full-time Members.
Main functions of the Commission include preparation and updating of a comprehensive plan for flood management, techno-economic appraisal of flood management schemes, assessment of adequacy of waterways under road and rail bridges, monitoring and performance evaluation of flood management schemes, and participation in international and national committees set up by the Government of India on Ganga basin States pertaining to the subject of flood management. Upper Yamuna River Board A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed by the Chief Ministers of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and National Capital Territory of Delhi on 12th May 1994 regarding allocation of utilizable surface flow of Yamuna up to Okhla among the co-basin States. The MoU provides for creation of a board called Upper Yamuna River Board.
The Board shall consist of Member, Central Water Commission as part time Chairman and one nominee each from the States of Uttar Pradesh. Uttarakhand,
Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and National Capital Territory of Delhi not below the rank of Chief Engineer and Chief Engineer of Central Electricity Authority and representatives of Central Ground Water Board and Central Pollution Control Board as part time members. The Board shall have a full time Member-Secretary. The States have agreed that a minimum flow in proportion of completion of upstream storages going upto 10 cumec shall be maintained downstream of Tajewala/ Hathnikund and downstream of Okhla Headwork throughout the year from ecological considerations as upstream storages are built up progressively in a phased manner.
The main function of Upper Yamuna River Board is to regulate the allocation of available flows amongst the beneficiary States and also maintaining the return flows; monitoring conserving and upgrading the quality of surface and ground water; maintaining hydrometeorological data for the basin, overviewing plans for watershed management; monitoring and reviewing the progress of all projects up to and including Okhla barrage.
As per the Resolution of Ministry of Water Resources dated 11th March, 1995, there shall be a Review Committee to be known as the Upper Yamuna Review Committee comprising of the Chief Ministers (Governor in case of President's Rule) of the States of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and National Capital Territory of Delhi under the Chairmanship of the Union Minister/Minister of State for Water Resources which shall supervise the working of the Upper Yamuna River Board and ensure implementation of MoU dated 12.5.94 regarding allocation of surface flow of Yamuna and issue directions as may be necessary for the proper development and management of the upper reaches of the Yamuna River Basin up to Okhla. The Government of India has included the three storage projects in the upper reaches of Yamuna or its tributories known as Renuka Dam, Kishau Dam, Lakhwar Vyasi Project as National projects for which 90% of the cost of irrigation and drinking water supply component of the project shall be provided by the Government of India.
PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS
Water and Power Consultancy Services Limited WAPCOS Limited is a "MINI RATNA" Public Sector Enterprise under the aegis of the Union Ministry of Water Resources. Incorporated on 26 June 1969 under the Companies Act, 1956, WAPCOS has been providing consultancy services in all facets of water resources, power and infrastructure sectors in India and abroad. The quality Management Systems of WAPCOS conform to ISO 9001 : 2008 for consultancy services in Water Resources, Power and Infrastructure Development Projects.
Fields of Specialisation
Main fields of specialisation of the company cover Irrigation and Drainage, Flood Control and Land Reclamation, River Management, Dams, Reservoir Engineering and Barrages, Integrated Agriculture Development, Watershed Management, Hydropower and Thermal Power Generation, Power Transmission and Distribution, Rural Electrification, Ground Water Exploration, Minor Irrigation, Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural and Urban), Environmental Engineering including
Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audit, Ports and Harbours and Inland Waterways, Rain Water Harvesting; Survey & Investigations, Human Resource Management, System Studies and Information Development, City Development Plans, Financial Management System, Technical Education, Quality Control and Construction Supervision, Roads & Bridges. The Company has amended its Articles of Association to provide concept to commissioning services for developmental projects in India and Abroad.
Range of Consultancy Services
WAPCOS' spectrum of services covers a wide range of activities, e.g., pre-feasibility studies, feasibility studies, siltation studies, diagnostic studies, socio-economic studies, master plans and regional development plans, field investigations, detailed engineering including designs, detailed specifications, tendering process, contract and construction management, commissioning and testing, operation & maintenance, quality assurance & management, software development and human resource development.
Registration with International Organisations and Operations Abroad WAPCOS is registered with various international funding agencies for participating in the funded projects like World Band/International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Food and Agriculture Organisation, International Fund for Agricutlural Development, United Nations Development Program, World Health Organisation, African Development Bank, Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme, Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan Bank for International Cooperation, United Nations Office for Project Services etc.
Apart from India, WAPCOS has successfully completed/on-going consultancy assignments abroad in 50 countries and is currently engaged in providing consultancy services in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, DR Congo, Kenya, Laos, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Taiwan, Togo, Yemen and Zimbabwe.
NARMADA CONTROL AUTHORITY
The Narmada Water Dispute Tribunal (NWDT) was constituted by the then Ministry of Irrigation and Power in October, 1969 to adjudicate upon the water dispute pertaining to river Narmada. The tribunal has ordered setting up of machinery for implementing its directions and decisions. Accordingly, the Central Government framed the Narmada Water Scheme inter-alia constituting the Narmada Control Authority (NCA) and the Review Committee for Narmada Control Authority (RCNCA) to give effect to the decisions of the Tribunal and notified the same in the then ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation Notification No. SO 770 (E) of the 10th September 1980. The Authority started functioning from 20th December, 1980. The Role of the Authority will mainly comprise coordination and direction. Normally all bilateral matters would be dealt with mutually by the states concerned and referred to the Authority only if there is a dispute. The Authority shall be charged with the power and shall be under a duty to do any or all things necessary, sufficient and expedient for the implementation of the order of the Tribunal with respect to :
i. The storage, apportionment, regulation and control of the Narmada Waters. Water Resources 1143 ii. Sharing of power benefits from Sardar Sarovar Project. iii. Regulated releases by Madhya Pradesh. iv. Acquisition by the concerned States for Sardar Sarovar Project of lands and properties likely to be submerged under Sardar Sarovar. v. Compensation and rehabilitation and settlement of oustess; and vi. Sharing of costs.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HYDROLOGY
The Institute was established in 1978 with the main objective of undertaking, aiding, promoting and coordinating systematic and scientific work in all aspects of hydrology. The institute has its headquarters at Roorkee (Uttarakhand), four regional centres at Belgaum, Jammu, Kakinada and Sagar, and two centres for Flood Management Studies at Guwahati and Patna. The Institute is well equipped to carry out computer, laboratory & field oriented studies. In view of the importance of reservoir operation problem in Indian context and the non availability of a generalized software for reservoir analysis, the National Institute developed a generalized software named "SRA-Software for Reservoir Analysis" for reservoir analysis. This software linked a number of individual computer programs for carrying out various kind of reservoir analysis such as capacity computation, storage yield analysis. hydropower simulation, reservoir routing, EAC interpolation, inflow estimation using rate of rise method, initial rule curve derivation, and operation of a system of multiple reservoirs for conservation purposes. However, the preparation of data filed for various modules and representation of results was a difficult task. To address these limitations, a WINDOWS based software named "NIH_ReSyPReservoir systems Package" has been developed in the present study. The software has been developed in Visual BASIC platform and provides a user-friendly environment for carrying out various hydrological analyses related to reservoirs. A national programme on isotopic finger printing of source of water in India is in progress where fourteen different organizations are involved. Water samples of rivers, precipitation, ground water, air moisture, Indian ocean and Bay of Bengal are being collected and analysed for their isotopic signatures for the better utilization and management of water resources. Environmental hydrology division has carried out Modelling of Pesticide Transport in Ground Water-a case study of Metropolitan city-Vododara. In addition to this assessment of surface water quality is a regular work for the Central/State Government departments and industries located in Uttarakhand state. Surface water hydrology division has carried out the studies on water availability analysis and design flood estimation for gauged and ungauged catchments, flood forecasting, flood hazard modeling and flood risk assessment, watershed management, hydrological modeling using conceptual and physical based distributed models and soft computing techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic. A climate cell was set at the institute to take up the studies related to impact of climate change on water resources. Three pilot sub-basins in Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra basin were selected for the impact studies. Impact of climate change on the flow characteristics of Beas River of Pandoh Dam site and Bhagirathi River of Tehri Dam site have been studied. This is followed by performance analysis of reservoirs under different climate change scenarios. The Institute has established a meteorological observatory and a gauging site near the snout of the Gangotri Glacier and is monitoring the different types of hydrological
and hydro-meteorological data during the ablation season since year 2000. Rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, sunshine hours and evaporation data have been collected for three years during the ablation period (May-October). Gauge observations are taken round the clock at the gauging site with the help of automatic water level recorder. A simple conceptual hydrological model based on temperature index approach has been developed for simulation and climate change studies.
The Institute is presently focusing studies and R&D on the following thrust areas; hydrology of extremes, impact of land use change on water resources, Ground water modeling and management, sustainable water systems management, surface water modeling, regional hydrology and environmental hydrology. The Institute is involved in a number of nationally important water resources projects including World Bank funded Hydrology Projects.
The Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR), Government of India (Gol) has proposed Hydrology Project Phase II which is a follow-on to the recently concluded Hydrology Project (HP-I). HP-I was an 8-year project with a credit of SDR 90.1 million implemented in collaboration with technical assistance from the Royal Government of Netherlands with a co-financing of about Euro 14.9 million. It was set up to improve Hydrogical information System (HIS) in India to arrive at comprehensive, easily accessible, and user-friendly hydrologic database covering all aspects of hydrologic cycle (meteorology, surface water, groundwater and water quality). The HP-I objectives included improving institutional and organizational arrangements, technical capabilities, and physical facilities for collection, collation, processing and exchange of hydrological and hydrometorological data. The participating state agencies were the Surface and Groundwater Departments of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu; and the Central agencies were the MoWR, Central Water Commission, Central Groundwater Board. National Institute of Hydrology, Central Water and Power Research Station and India Meteorological Department.
NATIONAL WATER DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
The Ministry of Water Resources had formulated a National Perspective Plan(NPP) in August 1980 for Water Resources Development by transferring water from water surplus basins to water deficit basins/regions by interlinking of rivers. The NPP has two main components, i.e., the Himalayan Rivers Development Component and the Peninsular Rivers Development Component. The NPP envisages additional irrigation benefits of 35 million hectare, i.e., 25 million hectare from surplus water and 10 million hectare by increased use of ground water which will be over and above the ultimate irrigation potential of about 140 million hectare from major, medium and minor irrigation projects and 34 million KW of hydropower, apart from the benefits of flood control, navigation, water supply, fisheries, salinity, pollution control, etc. The Himalayan Component of inter-basin water transfer proposals envisages benefits directly to the States of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa and enrich the Peninsular Component from the surplus waters of Brahmaputra. The Peninsular Component envisages benefit to the States of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) was set up as a Society in 1982 to carry out surveys and investigations and to prepare feasibility reports of the links under the NPP. The NWDA carried out water balance studies of 137 basins/ sub-basins and at 71 identified diversion points and topo-sheet studies of 74 identified storages and 37 link alignments under NPP. NWDA has, after carrying out aforesaid detailed studies, identified 30 links, comprising 16 links under Peninsular Components and 14 links under Himalayan Components for preparation of Feasibility Reports for effecting transfer of water. NWDA has completed feasibility reports of 16 (14 under Peninsular and Indian portion and 2 under Himalayan component) water transfer links. Five links under Himalayan Component involve international dimensions; therefore, target for completion of feasibility report of such links cannot be given. One link under peninsular component falls entirely in Karnataka; as such concurrence of Karnataka is required. Feasibility Reports of remaining links are under progress.
In December 2002, MoWR, with the approval of the Prime Minister of India, has set up a Task Force on Interlinking of Rivers (TF-ILR) to suggest modalities for arriving at speedy consensus amongst the States for sharing and transfer of surplus water to deficit areas, providing guidance on norms of appraisal of individual projects in respect of economic viability, socio-economic impacts, environmental impacts and preparation of resettlement plans. The Task Force had submitted two Action Plans outlining the time schedules for the completion of the feasibility studies, detailed project report, estimated cost, implementation schedule, concrete benefits and advantages of the project, etc. and possible approaches for funding, cost recovery and execution of ILR programme.
The National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the UPA Government envisaged that the Government would make a comprehensive assessment of the feasibility of linking the rivers of the country starting with the southern rivers in a fully consultative manner. After comprehensive assessment of feasibility of Interlinking of Rivers in the country, the Government decided that the Task Force on Interlinking of Rivers, which has submitted Action Plans I & II and completed its mandated task may be wound up. Accordingly, the Task Force was wound up in December 2004. A Special Cell working under Ministry of Water Resources, will look after the residual routine work of the Task Force. A group headed by Chairman, Central Water Commission (CWC) and consisting of other officers of CWC and Secretaries of irrigation/Water Resources Department from concerned States has been constituted in june, 2002 to discuss with the States the issue of arriving at a consensus regarding sharing of surpulus waters and preparation of detailed project report by NWDA. The Group has held ten meetings so far, three for Ken-Betwa link, three for Parbati-Chambal link, one for Godavari (Polavaram)-Krishna (Vijayawada) link, two for Par-Tapi-Narmada & Damanganga-Pinjal links together and one on the proposal of Mahanadi- Godavari-Krishna-Pennar-Cauvery-Vaigai-Gundar link system. Last meeting was held on 23-07-2010 for Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna-Pennar-Cauvery-Vaigai- Gundar link system. Further, the Government of India has constituted a Committee of Environmentalists, Social Scientists and other experts on ILR Project in December 2004 to advise Government on Environmental, Social issues, etc., and to 1146 India 2012 involve them in the consultation process. The committee has held eight meetings so far. The implementation of the inter-basin water transfer link schemes can be taken up in a phased manner depending on the priorities of the Government and availability of funds. But before this, certain other steps, viz., negotiations and agreements amongst the States involved in inter-basin transfer, preparation of Detailed Project Reports (DPRs), Techno-economic appraisal of DPRs and investment clearance of the schemes, funding arrangements and fixing of agencies for execution, etc., would be necessary. The links namely (i) Ken-Betwa link; (ii) Parbati-Kalisindh-Chambal link; (iii) Godavari(Polavaram) – Krishna (Vijayawada) link; (iv) Damanganga-Pinjal link; and (v) Par-Tapi-Narmada Link have been identified as priority links for consensus building amongst concerned States for taking up preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR). The status of consensus among States on these links is given as under :- KEN-BETWA LINK A tripartite MoU was signed between the Union Minister of Water Resources, Chief Ministers of Government of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh on 25th August 2005 in the presence of Dr. Manmohan Singh, Hon'ble Prime Minister of India for preparation of DPR of Ken-Betwa link by Central Government. The DPR have been completed by NWDA in December 2008. After discussions with Govt. of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it was decided that the DPR of project will be prepared in two phases. In Phase-I, Daudhan dam, two power houses, link canal and their other components will be taken up. The project suggested by the Government of Madhya Pradesh for Upper Betwa Basin will be taken up in Phase-II after completion of their Survey & Investigation work and examining their techno-economic viability. The DPR Phase-I of the project has been completed in April 2010 and sent to Government of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in May 2010. The work on Phase-II studies of the link has been taken up by NWDA.
Efforts are being made to arrive at consensus on the other priority link, viz., Parbati- Kalisindh-Chambal Link through deliberations with the concerned States of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan for preparation of DPR. NWDA has revised the Hydrology of the link as desired by the Government of Rajasthan. PAR-TAPI-NARMADA LINK AND DAMANGANGA-PINJAL LINK NWDA has taken up the DPRs of two more priority links namely Par-Tapi-Narmada Link And Damangango-Pinjal Link after receiving the concurrence of the concerned States of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The MOU for preparation of DPRs of both these links has been signed by the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Maharashta and Union Minister (WR) in the presence of Hon'ble Prime Minister on 03-05-2010. GODAVARI (POLAVARAM)-KRISHNA (VIJAYWADA) LINK Godavari (Polavaram)-Krishna (Vijayawada) Link is part of the Polavaram project of the Andhra Pradesh. Planning Commission has given investment clearance to the Polavarma project and the Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken up the above project including link component as per their own proposal.
MAHANADI-GODAVARI-KRISHNA-PENNAR-CAUVERY-VAIGAIGUNDAR LINK SYSTEM
The consensus building for eight more links under Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna- Pennar-Cauvery-Vaigai-Gundar Linkage System for taking up their DPRs with concerned states has been initiated. NWDA has received 36 proposals of Inter-State links from 7 States out of which Pre-feasibility Reports (PFRs) of 15 Intra-state links have been completed. The mandate of NWDA has been enhanced to prepare the DPRs of intra-State links. NWDA has taken up the DPR of Burhi Gandak-None- Ganga link. The DPR of Kosi-Mechi link will be taken up soon.
A state subject
Israel, one of the world's most water-starved nations, has a national water law, like South Africa and Australia, that has helped it manage its scant resources. “The country's water resources are public property , controlled by the state and designated for residents' needs and the country's development,“ says Tami Shor, senior deputy director (regulation) of the Israeli Water Authority .
In India, water resource management has been the states' prerogative. Rivers drying up, polluted rivers, depleting groundwater, shrinking lakes, zero access to potable water on the one hand, and unseasonal floods, contaminated groundwater and inter-state river disputes on the other, have made India's water woes a hydra-headed monster. In this, states' divergent laws often clash with neighbours' requirements -a factor driving the long-standing demand for a national water law.
Several water experts, however, insist that an ample bundle of laws exists to govern water resources efficiently with no need for an over-arching central law. The Water Pollution Act 1974, Interstate Water Disputes Act 1960, Riverboard Act 1956, Environment Protection Act 2006, Easement Act 1987 for Groundwater (although insufficient), the Wildlife Protection Act and draft Groundwater Model Act, to name a few, can be employed better to improve water governance. Himanshu Thakkar of the South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers & People, says, “The Centre has enough power under different existing laws to manage and conserve water across the country . Instead of going for a national law, it should focus on governance and go for more and more decentralisation“.
But government argues that the absence of a central regulatory regime has led to over-exploitation and misuse of resources at all levels -domestic, industry and agriculture in the surplus regions. Most states' laws are not comprehensive and few regulate for efficient use of treated water.
“We need a national law. Water must be managed as common property, recognising public rights. Equitable distribution of water is possible only through a central law,“ says for mer Union water resources secretary Shashi Shekhar who, along with water policy expert Mihir Shah, was instrumental in compiling the Centre's draft national policy framework bill in 2016. Shekhar told TOI that India, on the threshold of a major water crisis, cannot afford to manage its resources the way it's been done for years.
The framework lays down guide lines for states to manage and conserve water and talks about how to adopt a water security plan via legislation. “We expect states to adopt it through legislation or as a policy document. But there's no substitute to a national law,“ says Shekhar.